About Journal

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal (RDENTJ): is an English language, a double-blind peer reviewing system  to assure the quality of publication, scholarly publication in the area of dentistry, open access journal.  Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), this journal is published biannually by the College of Dentistry, University of Mosul, Iraq since 2001. We are using iThenticate to prevent plagiarism and to ensure the originality of our submitted manuscripts. Refereed Scientific Journal deals with fields of dental...
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Journal Information

Publisher: University of Mosul

Email:  alrafidain.dent@uomosul.edu.iq, alrafidaindentj@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Assistant Prof. Dr. Rayan Salim Hamed

Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles with Hydrogen Peroxide against Endodontic Enterococcus faecalis

Saraa Al-Mallah; Ali M Al-Naimi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 158-164
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2021.128786.1062

Aims: This study aimed to assess the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) effect of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in combination with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by evaluating its effect against endodontic Enterococcus Faecalis ( E. faecalis) in the planktonic model. Materials and Methods: the tested irrigants groups (IONPs, 3% H2O2, 5.25% NaOCl, IONPs+H2O2) were serially diluted in brain heart infusion broth, and 100 μl of standard microbial suspensions of E. faecalis were added. The results were obtained based on turbidity and growth on selective enterococcus agar plates. Results: IONPs+H2O2 showed to be more effective against E. faecalis than IONPs, 3% H2O2 and 5.25% NaOCl as lower dilutions were required to inhibit the growth of the bacteria. NaOCl exhibited an antibacterial effect equivalent to that of H2O2, while IONPs exhibited a stimulatory growth at the high tested concentration. Conclusions: IONPs+H2O2 showing promissory antibacterial properties as an intracanal irrigating solution to control E. faecalis from the infected root canal.

Clinical and Histological Effects of N-acetyl Cysteine Intraperitoneal Injection on Primary Wound Healing in Rabbits.

Zaid muhammad

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 165-176
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.129487.1087

Aims: This study aims to investigate the effect of ten days of intraperitoneal injection of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on full thickness wound healing of the  skin, using a rabbit model. Materials and Methods: Thirty - male rabbits were used to conduct this study. A full – thickness linear incision, (10 mm) was induced on the back of each rabbit and divided into two groups. Group 1: no treatment (control group) and group 2 (NAC-treated group) was injected intraperitoneally ten days before wound induction. Animals were randomly divided into three groups according to sacrificing date (1, 3 and 7) days. The site of intervention was assessed clinically and histopathologically on the 1st, 3rd, and 7th day of the experimental procedure. Results: The clinical observation of tissue type revealed that there were significant differences in type of tissue at 1 and 3 days at p-value ≤ 0.05, and the wound healing was converted to granulation tissue without slough and necrotic tissue formation. There was no significant difference at 7 days compared to the control group. The histopathological finding showed that there were significant differences in angiogenesis and granulation tissue formation between the two groups at 1 and 3 days at p-value ≤ 0.05, while there was no significant difference at 7 days. There was a significant difference of reepithelization at 3 and 7 days at p-value ≤ 0.05., Conclusions: Ten days of intraperitoneally N-acetyl cysteine injection before surgical procedures will significantly enhance the process of primary wound healing of rabbit skin.on secondary wounds.

Speeding Orthodontics: A Review Article

Nada N Al-Hafidh; Afrah Kh Al Hamdany; Lamiaa A Hasan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 177-184
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.128952.1067

The request for orthodontic treatment has grown quickly in the last years. One of the most critical issues in orthodontic treatment is how to decrease the duration of orthodontic treatment since the most common complaint of orthodontic patients is prolong the time of treatment which is a huge burden on patients. Orthodontic tooth movement can be enhanced by different methods and techniques. The current study reviewed and summarized the evidence regarding the success of different methods on speeding orthodontic tooth movement.

An Overview on the Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Orthodontic

Ali R Al-Khatib; lamiaa A. Hasan; Nada N Al-Hafidh

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 185-192
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.129173.1074

In the 21st era, technological progressions challenged the dental professional to perform extremely risky and multifaceted procedures more reliably and harmless way using the finite element method (FEM) that can sim-ulate and analyze the dental structures. As orthodontic revolve about the forces so FEM is one of the most accurate tools for the researchers in this ground. This review highlights the use of the finite element method in orthodontics and craniofacial research. This stores the different researches performed by using the finite ele-ment model to study the growth of the cranial structure, biomechanical reaction to orthopedic forces, ortho-dontic tooth movement, orthognathic surgeries application, and orthodontic implants

The Effect of Zirconium Oxide Nanoparticle on the Tear Strength of Maxillofacial Silicone

Israa Ezzulddin Hussein; Radhwan Himmadi Hasan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 193-201
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.128715.1060

Aims: The study aimed to investigate the outcome of different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2% by weight ) of zirconium oxide (ZrO2) nanoparticle on tear strength of room temperature vulcanized maxillofacial silicone material.  Materials and methods: A total of (50) samples were prepared following the manufacture instruction and divided into five groups (n=10). The group A (control group) without nanoparticle, group B (0.5% ZrO2), group C (1% ZrO2), group D (1.5% ZrO2), group E (2% ZrO2). The tear strength samples were measured by a universal testing machine. Result: there was a highly significant difference between the groups' mean values. The control group (21.91 N/mm) showed  non-significant difference with both  0.5% ZrO2 group (22.46 N/mm) and 2% ZrO2 (23.22 N/mm), but a highly significant difference with groups 1% ZrO2 (25.37 N/mm) and 1.5% ZrO2 (27.44 N/mm). Whereas the 0.5% ZrO2 group showed a highly significant difference with both groups (1% and 1.5% ZrO2),but no significant difference with 2% ZrO2 group. 1% ZrO2 group showed a  significant difference with 1.5% ZrO2 group and a highly significant difference with 2% ZrO2 group. But group 1.5 % ZrO2 has a highly significant difference with group 2% ZrO2. Conclusion: Incorporation of ZrO2 nanoparticle at 1% and 1.5%  by weight enhanced the tear strength of the VST 50F RTV maxillofacial silicone material.

The Effect of Diode Laser Irradiation on Surface Roughness of Bleached Enamel: An in Vitro Study

Alaa H. Ali; Abduladheem Raouf

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 202-214
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.169253

Aims: To evaluate the influence of post bleaching diode laser irradiation on the surface roughness of bleached enamel. Materials and methods: Forty bovine teeth were prepared and then randomly divided into two equal groups (n=20) according to the in–office bleaching technique as follows: CB: Conventional in–office bleaching technique LB: Laser–assisted in–office bleaching technique. Each group was then subdivided into two subgroups (n=10) according to laser irradiation setting as follows: C2: Conventionally bleached followed by 2-Watt laser irradiation, C4: Conventionally bleached followed by 4-Watt laser irradiation, L2: Laser–assisted bleached followed by 2Watt laser irradiation and L4: Laser–assisted bleached followed by 4Watt laser irradiation. Surface roughness was assessed three times for all the specimens: before bleaching, 24 hours after bleaching and finally 24 hours after post bleaching diode laser irradiation by utilizing profilometer. Paired samples t–test and independent samples t– test was utilized for statistical analysis at p≤0.05. Results: Both bleached groups exhibited a significant increase in the surface roughness of enamel with no statistically significant difference between them. Post bleaching diode laser irradiation at 4Watt resulted in a significant increase in surface roughness of enamel, while 2Watt diode laser irradiation resulted in non–significant increase in surface roughness of enamel. Conclusions: In–office bleaching techniques had a negative impact on enamel in terms of surface roughness. Post bleaching diode laser irradiation at 2Watt power parameter is more preferred than 4Watt power parameter.

Treatment of Horizontally Impacted Lower Cuspid with Two Roots Anatomical anomaly (Case Report)

Hakam H. Alfakhry; Saba H Al Al Zubaidi; Anas M AL mukhtar

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 215-227
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.169268

Background:  As the knowledge of the important of treatment the impacted canine since in many studies was considered as the key for ideal occlusion and to avoid the deleterious effect of lost, every effort must be done in order to retract and bring the impacted canine in to it is normal position. lower cuspid usually of a single rooted, but some time in about 15% of cases may have two canals in addition to that in a very rare cases approximately 1.7% associated with two roots. Our case showed these anomalies in addition to that the canine was horizontally impacted in the lower arch which is consider as challenge for many orthodontic since the angular of impaction was more than 25%. therefore, our case is a rare. Materials and Method: The treatment focus on the orthodontically extrusion and up righting of the impacted canine by using fix orthodontic appliance with the aid of traditional anchorage device (TDA). Result: this rare case was successfully managed with fix orthodontic treatment. Conclusion: Orthodontic extrusion of horizontally impacted incomplete transposition mandibular canine should be considered for similar cases.

Assessment of Dental Implant Stability Using Two Platelet-Rich Fibrin Proto-cols (A Comparative Clinical Study)

Rahma Atheed Kamal; Rayan S Hamed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 228-239
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2021.128684.1059

Aims: The current study aimed to compare implant stability of dental implants covered with one of two - platelet rich fibrin preparation protocols namely Standard-Platelet Rich Fibrin and Advanced-Platelet Rich Fibrin) using radiofrequency assessment. Materials and methods: A total of ten male patients with an age range of 28-51 years participated in this split-mouth clinical study.  The patients were divided into two groups based on the platelet rich fibrin (PRF) protocol to be used with dental implant insertion into positive control (S-PRF) and study group (A-PRF). Each patient represented the two groups in which he received 2 dental implants; ten implants for each group (a total of 20 dental implants) of standard length and diameter in the posterior mandibular extraction sites of ipsilateral or contralateral side. In the positive control group, the standard PRF protocol was to be used to prepare the PRF clot. In the study group, the advanced PRF protocol was to be used to prepare the PRF clot. Both PRF membranes were to be instilled inside the osteotomy bed during dental fixture installation. Following the installation of dental implants; radiofrequency assessment using Osstell Mentor Device immediately after insertion, four, eight; twelve weeks post-operative as secondary outcomes were conducted. Results: When comparing ISQ means of dental implants between both group protocols, the Friedman test values of ISQ means showed no statistically significant difference between them at the immediate day of surgery, four weeks, eight weeks and twelve weeks post-surgery yet showed increased levels of ISQ at end of the trial.  Conclusions: Both S-PRF and A-PRF, similarly enhanced and maintained dental implant stability hence maintain osseointegration (synergistic effect) throughout the period of study and as disclosed by ISQ values. The use of PRF in its current forms seems to be an accepted minimally invasive approach with good clinical results.

Heat Generation by Diode Laser (1064-nm) on Dental Implants. (An in vitro study)

Abdulhameed N Aldabagh

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 240-250
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.129869.1099

Aims:  The aim of this study was to assess temperature changes of dental implant body when using different wattage of diode laser (Fox laser 1064-nm) and set a proposed power setting that has no detrimental effect on adjacent bone. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five Titanium implants with healing screws were used in this study. Thermocouple technology was used to measure the temperature level generated in the dental implant body when being exposed to laser. The implants were fixed in an acrylic mandible model and then placed in a controlled water bath at 37 °C. Time to reach a temperature degree of 47 °C were recorded after each wattage as well as the dropping time of temperature to reach a degree of 37° C was recorded. Results: The decrease in time needed to reach 47 °C was directly related to an increase in wattage and as such the time is inversely related to wattage. All the recording time measures dropped to 37 °C with no significant differences. Conclusion: It can be concluded that using diode laser in at 6 wattages with pulsed wave settings produced high temperature with minimum time compared when using 2 wattage settings which needed more time to produce the same heat

Effect of Different Mouthwashes on Gingival Health of Dental Students

Reaam A Fadhil; Saher S. Gasgoos

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 251-259
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.129122.1071

Aims: To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of different mouthwashes in decreasing the gingival inflammation. Materials and Methods: The participants were (88) dental students, aged between 18 to 25 years (44 males and 44 females). The students with mild to moderate gingivitis were randomly divided into four groups, 22 Participants for each one. In Group A, participants were advised kin gingival mouthwash, Group B participants used Wisdom daily gum health mouthwashes, Group C participants are given LACALUT aktiv mouthwashes, and KIN B5Gums mouthwash was given to Group D. The students were advised to use 10 ml of given mouthwash for 30 seconds, twice a day, not immediately after tooth brushing (at least 5minutes after tooth brushing), for 14 days. The parameter was recorded for gingival index (GI) at 0 and 14 days. Results: The reduction in the gingival inflammation is highly significant on day 14 (T1) compared to baseline values (T 0). There are highly significant differences among the four types of mouthwashes used for the reduction of gingival inflammation. These results prove that the four mouthwashes used have variable efficiency on gingival inflammation depending on their major active chemical components. Mouthwash C is the most effective one in reducing gingival inflammation. Mouthwash A, mouthwash B and mouthwash D have no significant differences between them. Conclusions: In this study, all the mouthwashes were used showed clinical efficacy in reducing gingival inflammation. The mouthwash LACALUT aktiv is the most effective one.

Effect of Different Mouthwashes and Text Messages on Plaque Accumulation for Dental Students

Reaam A Fadhil; Saher S. Gasgoos

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 260-269
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2021.129084.1070

Aims: Study and compare the effectiveness of different mouthwashes on dental plaque and assess the efficiency of text messages on the response of participants. Materials and Methods: The study was approved by Research Ethics Committee board (University of Mosul, College of Dentistry, REC reference No. POP/R.10/1/21). The Participants were (88) dental students, aged between 18 to 25 years (44 males and 44 females). Students with mild to moderate gingivitis were randomly divided into four groups, 22Participants for each. In Group A, participants were advised kin gingival mouthwash, Group B participants used Wisdom daily gum health mouthwash, Group C participants were given LACALUT aktiv, and KIN B5Gums was given to Group D. The subjects were advised to use 10ml of mouthwash for 30seconds, twice a day, not immediately after tooth brushing (at least5 minutes after tooth brushing), for 14days. Half of the students in all groups (44students) were motivated on regular intervals by personal text messages, to use mouthwash on regular basis. The parameter was recorded for Plaque index (TQHPI) at day 0 and14.  Results: The reduction in dental plaque is highly significant on day 14(T1) compared to baseline values (T0). There are highly significant differences among the four types of mouthwashes used on the reduction of dental plaque. Mouthwash in Group C and D were significantly more effective than Group A and B. Mouthwash in Group A was significantly more effective than mouthwash in Group B. Group C mouthwash did not differ significantly from Group D nor Group A mouthwash in plaque build-up reduction. Conclusions: The four mouthwashes used has good efficacy in reducing dental plaque and there were differences in efficiency between them. KIN B5Gums and LACALUT aktiv mouthwashes were the most effective. Wisdom daily gum mouthwash was the least effective.

Effect of Thymol Incorporation on Antibacterial Activity of the Locally Prepared Zinc Oxide-Guaiacol Root Canal Sealer: An in Vitro Study

Fatin S Mohammed; Sawsan Al-jubori

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 270-280
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2021.128787.1061

Aims: This study aimes to prepare a new formula by thymol crystals incorporation into locally prepared zinc oxide-guaiacol root canal sealer and evaluating the antibacterial activity and comparing the results with zinc oxide eugenol-based root canal sealer. Materials and Methods: The addition of thymol crystals at three different concentrations (2%, 5%, and 10%) to improve the antibacterial activity of zinc oxide-guaiacol endodontic sealer was done: 40 Petri plates of Enterococcus agar media were used, each plate with five wells. Petri plates divided into four groups incubation intervals (1, 2, 3, and 7 days) for each type, using agar diffusion test (ADT) with 0.5 McFarland turbidity standards and statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics, a one-way ANOVA test, and Duncanʼs Multiple Range Test. Results: The thymol incorporated zinc oxide-guaiacol sealer groups at studied concentrations (2%, 5%, and 10% ) produced bacterial growth inhibition zones persisted at all incubation time intervals at (1, 2, 3, and 7 days) and high significantly at p≤0.01 than that of zinc oxide eugenol based sealer. There is a significant reduction at p≤0.01 in antibacterial efficacy in all incorporation groups at 7 days incubation period, 5% thymol incorporation group with significant largest bacterial growth inhibition zones for all incubation periods. Conclusions: This study concluded that the prepared zinc oxide - guaiacol sealer formulas with three studied thymol crystals concentrations having better antibacterial efficacy than that of zinc oxide eugenol root canal sealer, 5% thymol incorporation formula is the best in antibacterial activity than others.

Bolton’s Ratios for Patients with Different Angle’s Malocclusions Seeking Orthodontic Treatment in Kurdistan Region

Mokhtar M.S Al-Hamidi; Mariam Noaman Jasim; Wurood Jasim Dhayef

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 281-291
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2021.128919.1066

Aims: The study aimed to evaluate the overall and anterior Bolton’s ratio between females and males of the Kurdistan population, and then compare it to Bolton’s original ratio. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of 160 orthodontic models (80 males, 80 females) that randomly selected from the Kurdistan Iraq population for patients seeking orthodontic treatment, ranging in age from 16 to 34 years. After evaluating the width of each tooth separately using digital caliper, anterior and total ratios were calculated by a formula presented by Bolton. Results: The study’s overall Bolton’s ratio was significantly higher for both females and males at 92.54 and 91.73, respectively, when compared to that of Bolton’s original value of 91.3; the anterior Bolton’s ratio was also significantly higher at 79.97 for males & 79.22 for females, when compared to that of Bolton’s original value of 77.2. The high significant difference was observed between the current study and Bolton’s ratios, with p-value of 0.01, whereas no significant gender differences in any malocclusion group have been found. Conclusions: No gender effect on Bolton’s ratios among all Angle’s classification types.

The Synergistic Effect of Aqueous Extracts of Iraqi Propolis and CPP-ACPF Paste on Enamel Microhardness after Demineralization Challenge.

Mayada Kashmoola; Aisha A. Qasim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 292-306
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2021.128876.1064

Aims: This study endeavors to estimate the synergistic effect of aqueous extracts of propolis on microhardness power of fluoridated CPP-ACP (MI plus) paste after demineralization challenge. Materials and methods: A total of (75) posterior wisdom teeth were used in the study. Enamel blocks were prepared and divided into five groups randomly, the teeth in all groups were subjected to demineralization cycle and then treated with: Sinjar's aqueous extract of propolis (AEP) -MI paste plus cream n. (15), Sulaymaniah's AEP-MI paste plus cream n. (15), Duhok's AEP-MI paste plus cream group n. (15), control positive group of MI paste plus alone n. (15), and control negative group of artificial saliva alone n. (15). Microhardness of enamel blocks was measured using Vickers microhardness tester machine at base line, after demineralization cycle and finally after treatment protocol. Results: Statistically, there were highly significant differences among study groups after demineralization cycle and there was a decrease in surface microhardness in all groups after demineralization, but the least reduction in surface microhardness belonged to mixture of Sulaymaniah's aqueous extract of propolis with MI paste plus followed by MI paste plus alone group after treatment protocol.  Conclusions: Mixture of Sulaymaniah's aqueous extract of propolis with MI paste plus was significantly better than MI past plus alone in preserving enamel's hardness and resisting the demineralization challenge.

The Early Microleakage of a Fflowable Composite in Class V Restorations

Ammar Kh Al-nori

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 156-161
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9120

Aims: To evaluate microleakage in Class V restorations, which were restored with flowable compositescompared to hybrid composite and to evaluate the difference of microleakage between occlusaland gingival margins. Materials and methods: Forty five non–carious upper premolar teeth were randomlydistributed into 3 groups of 15 teeth each. Class V preparations were made in the buccal surfacesof each tooth and restored by the use of two flowable composites (Tetric and Megafill) and thethird group with hybrid composite (Tetric Ceram). The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. The specimens were then thermocycled manually for 100 times between 5 + 2 °C and55 + 2 °C. All restored teeth were immersed in 0.2% methylene blue dye for 24 hours and sectionedbuccolingually with a finishing diamond wheel. Dye penetration was scored by use of a stereoscopicmicroscope under magnification of ×20. Results: The flowable composites had a significant effect onreducing the microleakage at gingival margin (p= 0.01). The type of material had no significant effectat occlusal margin (p= 0.454). The occlusal margin had significantly lower microleakage than gingivalmargin (p= 0.001). Conclusions: The flowable composites can reduce the microleakage at gingivalmargins, but non of the restorative materials completely sealed the tooth restoration interface.

Modification of Gypsum Products (Part II): The Effect of Drying Methods on The Compressive Strength and Surface Hardness of Modified Gypsum Products

Nadira A. Hatim; Isam K. Al-Khayat; Mohammed A Abdulla

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 162-167
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9107

Aims: Studying the effect of microwave drying on the physical and mechanical properties of modifiedIraqi plaster and modified Plaster of Paris in comparison with open air drying method. Materials andmethods: Two types of gypsum products were used in this study (Iraqi plaster, Plaster of Paris) withthe combined additives (gum arabic 0.5%, calcium oxide 0.75%, and ferric oxide 0.2%) that incorporatedwithin the two gypsum products. Physical and mechanical properties of the experimental gypsumproducts have been evaluated by measuring the compressive strength, surface hardness, and surfaceroughness. Mean, standard deviation, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Duncan's multiple rangestatistical test were used to analyze the data. Results: ANOVA analysis showed that there was a significantdifference in the compressive strength, surface hardness, and surface roughness between Iraqiplaster (I.P) and Plaster of Paris (P.O.P) with or without additives. Conclusions: At two hours timeinterval microwave oven drying, Iraqi plaster and Plaster of Paris samples were stronger than air driedsamples; and microwave oven at 10 minutes for 800 Watt not only increased the strength of gypsumproducts samples, but also save time.

The Effect of Denture Base Surface Treatments on Microlekage of Soft Lining Materials

Munther N. Kazanji; Nadia T. Jaffer

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 168-174
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9109

Aims: To evaluate the effect of two acrylic resin denture base surface trearments on microleakageof 4 soft denture lining materials (Tru–soft, Bony plus, UfiGel–P and Molloplast–B after 2 periods ofstorage and thermalcycling. Materials and methods: One hundred eighty specimens for microleakagewere prepared in a disc shape 30 mm diameter and 4 mm thickness (2 mm for acrylic resin part and 2mm for soft lining material part). Soft lining materials were bonded to three different groups ofacrylic resin surface pretreatments (untreated, sandblasted and monomer treated denture base). Thesespecimens underwent two aging procedures: Storage with two periods (one week and one month), and500 cycles of thermalcycling inside 2% methylene blue dye. Results: Statistical analysis showed thattreating the acrylic resin denture base by sandblasting increased microleakage of silicone–based linings(UfiGel–P and Molloplast–B)and decreased microleakage of acrylic–based linings (Tru–soft and Bonyplus) in comparison to untreated denture base, while treating the denture base with MMA monomerpositively decreased microleakage for all tested soft lining materials in relation to untreated andsandblasted denture base at one week storage, one month storage and at thermalcycling. Conclusions:For all types of denture base surface treatments, microleakage was inevitable, however, wetting theacrylic resin denture base with MMA monomer was more effective in reducing microkeakage thansandblasted and untreated denture bases.

Preparation of Metal Mold For Production Of Microwave Flask

Nadira A Hatim; Radhwan H Hasan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 175-182
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9122

Aims: To design and prepare a metal mold used for production of Fiber Reinforced plastic flask (FRP)suitable for curing of acrylic resin by microwave irradiation, and investigate the effect of the following variableson the shear bond strength (SBS) of acrylic teeth to acrylic denture base material: A-curing techniques(water bath and microwave). B-surface treatment with monomer. C-cross – linking of the tooth resinby using the new microwave flask. Materials and methods: The FRP flask is not available in our countryso as a special design of metal mold was prepared for this study. Inner dimensions were determined accordingto standard Ash metal flask. A microwave flask was fabricated from unsaturated polyester resin reinforcedwith glass fibers, nuts and screws was fabricated from Teflon material which are available in ourcountry. One hundred sixty samples of five different brands of acrylic teeth were divided into four groups{untreated and treated (with monomer )groups each of these were cured by water bath or microwave techniques}.The bond strength between acrylic tooth and denture base resin was measured in shear mode byusing unconfined compression machine, the SBS in MPa was calculated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA)and Duncan’s multiple range test were used for statistical analysis. Results: There was a significant differencesin bond strength of acrylic denture base to different tooth materials by using FRP flask in relation toAsh metal flask at (P < 0.001). Conclusions: SBS of acrylic teeth improved by monomer surface treatmentfor 180 seconds to microwave cured resin by new prepared flask (FRP) was significantly higher than that ofwater – bath cured resin, and cross – linked acrylic teeth showed lowest SBS compared to other type ofacrylic teeth.

A Clinical Assessment on the Efficacy of the Anterior and Middle Superior Alveolar Nerve Block Technique During Extraction of Maxillary Teeth

Faiz A Ayoob Al Sultan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 183-188
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9111

Aims: A clinical evaluation on a recently introduced technique of anesthesia for maxillary teeth namelythe Anterior and Middle Superior alveolar nerve block compared with the conventional infiltrationtechnique for extraction of upper anterior and premolar teeth. Materials and methods: In the first partof the study, testing of pulpal anesthesia were performed after administering this technique for teethfrom upper central incisor to upper second premolar. The sample chosen for the second part of thestudy included 60 subjects of different ages and genders. The patients were divided randomly into twogroups: control group to whom the conventional supraperiosteal injection technique was administeredand the trial group to whom the anterior and middle superior alveolar nerve block technique was administered.In both groups, extraction was carried out. Results: The result of this study indicated thesuccess of achieving pulpal anesthesia after AMSA injection for teeth from the upper canine to the uppersecond premolar with no significant difference noticed between AMSA and control group in regardingto pain score levels after extraction of these teeth. Conclusions: This new technique could beused as a good alternative and or supplementary to the infiltration technique for anesthetizing maxillaryanterior and premolar teeth using a conventional dental syringe.

Palatal Dimensions and Its Correlation with the Circumference of Upper Anterior Teeth

Zeina M Ahmad

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 259-267
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9124

Aims: To put a bases for the prediction of the circumference of artificial anterior teeth depending on thepalatal dimensions Materials and methods: The study sample consists of 30 female and 32 male withclass I occlusion aged 19– 24 years .The dimensions of the palatal vault and the circumferences of upperanterior teeth were recorded with digital venire caliper and analyzed with SPSS program (version 11). Results:significant correlation was found between the dimension of the palatal vault and the circumference ofupper anterior teeth. Conclusions: the angle of circumferences of upper anterior teeth of narrow short anddeep palate will be more tapered than those one in the wide, long and shallow palate.

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Citrus Juices: An In Vitro Study

Nahla O Tawfik; Siba M Al-Haliem; Waidulla N Al-Ani

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 376-382
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.9030

Aims: This work aimed at determining the antibacterial activity of three Citrus Juice on Staphylococ-cus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: The antibacteri-al activities of juices of three types of Citrus (C.) fruit, C. limon (lemon), C. aurantium (bitter orange) and C. paradisi (grapefruit), against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria using four concen-trations of these juices by agar diffusion method with measurement of diameter of the zone of inhibi-tion around the extracts. Results: The results confirmed the presence of anti bacterial activity of the Citrus juice. The highest inhibition zone (18 mm) was observed with a 10% concentration of C. para-dises juice on Staphylococcus aureus, but Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resis-tant. C. limon and C. aurantium juice at 10% and 5% concentration gave positive results with bacteri-cidal effects on the three tested bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The zones of inhibition of C. limon were 10, 12 and 13mm for 5% and 15, 21 and 20 mm for 10% respectively. For C. aurantium, they were 18, 19 and 20 mm for 5% concentration and 16, 19 and 19 mm for 10% concentration respectively. Those effects were better than those produced by stan-dard antibiotic disc used for comparison. Conclusions: The use of different concentrations of Citrus juice extracts had an effective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

CAD-CAM Technology: A literature review

Mohammed A Abdulla; Hala Ali; Raghad S Jamel

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 95-113
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164542

Aims: this article focus some of an important aspects related to a CAD/ CAM technology including: applications, designing, construction by the use of computerized controlling machines that developed very fastly in the last two decays. Conclusions: CAD/CAM technology is attained finished different dental restorations through designing and milling processes of a two dimensional or three dimensional models using different ready blocks by numerical controlled machines.

The Effect of Honey on the Healing of Oral Ulcers(Clinical Study).

Shatha S Mohamed; Asmaa S Al-Douri

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 157-160
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2008.9066

Aim: to assess the effect of honey on healing of recurrent aphthous ulcers. Materials and Methods:
fifty patients with minor oral ulcers (2–5 mm) were attended to consultant clinic in the College of Dentistry demanding a treatment for their painful ulcers were treated by either kenalog in orabase or the
application of honey dressing. Results: The ulcerations have almost completely disappeared after 3 days treatment by honey dressing. Conclusions: Honey has an obvious influence on the rate of healing
process of the oral ulcers.

Comparison Between Laceback and Tie-back in Sliding Mechanics (An in vitro study)

Khawla M Awni

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 148-152
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42658

ABSTRACTAims: The current study aims to investigate the rate of space closure, tipping and rotation of canine during its retraction by laceback and tieback using standard ceramic brackets along 2 types of arch-wires using typodont simulation system (Ormco). Materials and Methods: The standardization crite-ria were all typodont teeth situated in well aligned position, covered and immobilized by the acrylic bite except canine, laceback and tieback were used to slide the canine. Results: The present study showed that when slide the canine on 0.017x 0.025 inch archwire gave rise to significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation as compared when sliding it on 0.020 inch archwire, also sliding the canine using laceback as a method of retraction gave rise to a significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation as compared with tieback. Conclusions: It was concluded that canine retraction using laceback retraction method along 0.017x0.025 inch archwire gave rise to a significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation.

Palatal Dimensions and Its Correlation with the Circumference of Upper Anterior Teeth

Zeina M Ahmad

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 259-267
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9124

Aims: To put a bases for the prediction of the circumference of artificial anterior teeth depending on thepalatal dimensions Materials and methods: The study sample consists of 30 female and 32 male withclass I occlusion aged 19– 24 years .The dimensions of the palatal vault and the circumferences of upperanterior teeth were recorded with digital venire caliper and analyzed with SPSS program (version 11). Results:significant correlation was found between the dimension of the palatal vault and the circumference ofupper anterior teeth. Conclusions: the angle of circumferences of upper anterior teeth of narrow short anddeep palate will be more tapered than those one in the wide, long and shallow palate.

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Citrus Juices: An In Vitro Study

Nahla O Tawfik; Siba M Al-Haliem; Waidulla N Al-Ani

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 376-382
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.9030

Aims: This work aimed at determining the antibacterial activity of three Citrus Juice on Staphylococ-cus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: The antibacteri-al activities of juices of three types of Citrus (C.) fruit, C. limon (lemon), C. aurantium (bitter orange) and C. paradisi (grapefruit), against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria using four concen-trations of these juices by agar diffusion method with measurement of diameter of the zone of inhibi-tion around the extracts. Results: The results confirmed the presence of anti bacterial activity of the Citrus juice. The highest inhibition zone (18 mm) was observed with a 10% concentration of C. para-dises juice on Staphylococcus aureus, but Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resis-tant. C. limon and C. aurantium juice at 10% and 5% concentration gave positive results with bacteri-cidal effects on the three tested bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The zones of inhibition of C. limon were 10, 12 and 13mm for 5% and 15, 21 and 20 mm for 10% respectively. For C. aurantium, they were 18, 19 and 20 mm for 5% concentration and 16, 19 and 19 mm for 10% concentration respectively. Those effects were better than those produced by stan-dard antibiotic disc used for comparison. Conclusions: The use of different concentrations of Citrus juice extracts had an effective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

CAD-CAM Technology: A literature review

Mohammed A Abdulla; Hala Ali; Raghad S Jamel

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 95-113
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164542

Aims: this article focus some of an important aspects related to a CAD/ CAM technology including: applications, designing, construction by the use of computerized controlling machines that developed very fastly in the last two decays. Conclusions: CAD/CAM technology is attained finished different dental restorations through designing and milling processes of a two dimensional or three dimensional models using different ready blocks by numerical controlled machines.

The Effect of Honey on the Healing of Oral Ulcers(Clinical Study).

Shatha S Mohamed; Asmaa S Al-Douri

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 157-160
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2008.9066

Aim: to assess the effect of honey on healing of recurrent aphthous ulcers. Materials and Methods:
fifty patients with minor oral ulcers (2–5 mm) were attended to consultant clinic in the College of Dentistry demanding a treatment for their painful ulcers were treated by either kenalog in orabase or the
application of honey dressing. Results: The ulcerations have almost completely disappeared after 3 days treatment by honey dressing. Conclusions: Honey has an obvious influence on the rate of healing
process of the oral ulcers.

Comparison Between Laceback and Tie-back in Sliding Mechanics (An in vitro study)

Khawla M Awni

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 148-152
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42658

ABSTRACTAims: The current study aims to investigate the rate of space closure, tipping and rotation of canine during its retraction by laceback and tieback using standard ceramic brackets along 2 types of arch-wires using typodont simulation system (Ormco). Materials and Methods: The standardization crite-ria were all typodont teeth situated in well aligned position, covered and immobilized by the acrylic bite except canine, laceback and tieback were used to slide the canine. Results: The present study showed that when slide the canine on 0.017x 0.025 inch archwire gave rise to significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation as compared when sliding it on 0.020 inch archwire, also sliding the canine using laceback as a method of retraction gave rise to a significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation as compared with tieback. Conclusions: It was concluded that canine retraction using laceback retraction method along 0.017x0.025 inch archwire gave rise to a significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation.

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