About Journal

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal is an English language, peer-reviewed scholarly publication in the area of dentistry.  Refereed Scientific Journal deals with fields of dental sciences ISSN: 1812-1217 E ISSN: 1998-0345 Date of first issue: 2001 No of Issues: 27 issues publishing biannually till 2012 publishing becomes triannually at 2013  
Read More ...

Journal Information

Publisher: University of Mosul

Email:  alrafidaindentj@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Nada M. Saeed Al-Sayagh

Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

The Effect of Chemical Disinfectants on the Setting Time and Dimensional Change of Alginate Impression Material.

Luma M Al-Nema

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2018.160839

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mixing different concentrations of chlorhexidine, iodine ,and sodium hypochlorite solutions on the setting time and dimensional change of alginate impression material. Materials and methods: Total number of samples (40) has been prepared in this study. Ten samples for control group made from pouring alginate impressions of metal model .The other groups made by mixing alginate with 0.05% iodine, 0.5% chlorhexidine and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solutions. Dimensional change was measured with AutoCAD program .The Setting time was also measured for each group. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Duncan multiple range test. Results: no significant difference in the linear dimensional change among the tested groups ,sodium hypochlorite added to alginate as disinfectant showed the highest dimensional changes among the other groups. There was a significant difference among the tested groups in the setting time. It was found that treating the alginate with sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine disinfecting agents accelerated the setting time of the material. Conclusion: The testing disinfecting agents can be used safely regarding dimensional change.

The effects of two bone substitute materials in the treatment of experimentally induced mandibular defects: An experimental study

Atalla F Rejab

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 9-20
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2018.160843

Aims: To compare between the effects of deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) and osteon in the healing of mandibular bone defects in the rabbits. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on ten rabbits at the Animal House, Dentistry college, Mosul University. The rabbits weighted between 1.5 and 2 kg and each rabbit was given anesthesia (10% ketamine (40 mg/kg) and 2% xylazine (5 mg/kg). Surgery was performed aseptically. Mandibles were exposed through a sub-mandibular incisions. Three rectangular full thickness defects (6×5 mm) were created in each side. The first defect in each side was filled with DBB, the second defect was filled with osteon, while the third defect was left untreated to serve as a control. Five rabbits were sacrificed after one week and the other five rabbits were sacrificed after one month. The bony mandibles were immersed in 10% formalin solution and examined histologically by two histopathologists. Results: Microscopically, sections for one week of all groups showed mild degree of inflammation, moderate amount of vascularity, granulation tissue and osteoid tissue formation. Sections of one month showed no difference regarding the degree of inflammation vascularity, but the amount of granulation tissue and osteoid tissue formation in the control group were lesser than the amount seen in both experimental groups. Conclusions: DBB and osteon accelerate bone healing after month regarding the amount of granulation tissue and osteoid tissue formation.

Effect of various surface treatment procedures on shear bond strength of stainless-steel orthodontic brackets to composite resin

Bayan ِA Hassan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 21-30
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2018.160840

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of brackets bonded to composite restorations using four types of surface conditioning procedure. Materials and Methods: Thirty two cylindrical cavities were made at the center of self-cured acrylic resin blocks. All cavities were then filled with composite resin. The specimens were randomly divided into four groups. Group one: Composite surface was acid etched with 37% phosphoric acid. Group two: After using 37% phosphoric acid, bonding agent was applied and cured. Group three: After using 37% phosphoric acid silane coupling agent was applied then bonding agent was applied. Group Four: The composite surface roughened with a diamond bur, and then 37% phosphoric acid was applied. Brackets were bonded onto the composite prepared samples with Transbond XT. Shear Bond Strength was measured by a universal testing machine. KruskalWallis test was utilized for data analysis. Results: There was a significant difference between the four groups. The highest bond strength was that of Group 3. Group 1 had the lowest bond strength. Conclusions: Roughening the composite surface before acid etching was effective to improve the bond strength of orthodontic brackets to composite restorations. Addition of silane before bonding agent application result in highest bond strength.

Calibration Factor for Conventional Linear Cephalometric Measurements

Ruba J Mohammed; Nazar Gh Jameel; Mohammad N Al-Mallah

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 31-41
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2018.160844

Aims: the aim of this study is to determine a calibration factor to eliminate the distortion in the linear cephalometric measurements. Materials and Methods; the study was performed on the 5 dry skulls, the first skull contained 12 radiopaque markers fixed at different plains, and radiographed by digital cephalometric x-ray machine. The X and Y axes of the shadow of each radiopaque marker used to estimate the calibration factor. Eight linear distances measured directly and radiographically on the conventional cephalographs of the 5 skulls to evaluate the detected calibration factor. Results; the results showed no-significant difference (p > 0.05) between the direct and calibrated radiographic measurement on the digital and conventional cephalographs. whereas significant difference was found between the conventional cephalometric linear measurements as compared with direct anatomical linear and the conventional cephalometric linear measurements with those measurements manipulated with the estimated calibration factor (p < 0.05). Conclusions; this study found that the conventional cephalometric linear measurements could be reliable as that of digital cephalometric linear measurements, if it's calibrated by the calibration factor (1.08) which is estimated by the present study.

Detection of Hepatitis B Antigen in The Dental Instruments Used in Public Dental Clinics in Duhok Province, kurdistan Region/ Iraq

Ali Y Saeed; Saeed A Barwari

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 42-47
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2018.160841

Aims: Hepatitis B virus infection is a global health hazard. The virus can be transmitted by both parenteral and non- parenteral methods such as direct contact with mucus membrane. Dental instruments can be the source of infection, therefore this study was conducted to detect HBs Ag in dental instruments used in the different public dental centers and clinics in Duhok governorate. Sampling process was from December 2016 to January 2017. Materials and Methods: A total of 549 samples were collected from five different districts as follow: 238 samples from center of Duhok, 121 samples from Zakho, 87 samples from Amedi, 68 samples from Sumail and 35 samples from Aqre. Four different commonly used dental instruments were chose namely: Scaler tips, curette, sickle and chisele. The samples divided into sterilized and used using capital A letter for sterilized and small a letter for used samples. Results: No HBs Ag was detected in all tested samples both sterilized and non- sterilized samples by ELISA technique. The results of the present study indicated to the proper hygienic precautions implemented in public dental centers and clinics as well as to the effectiveness of anti-HBV vaccine that almost all dentists had been received prior working. Conclusions: Further studies are required to cover private dental instruments as well as dentists and assistant technicians using both ELISA and RT-PCR techniques.

Perception of Pain by a Sample of Patients Undergoing Orthodontic Treatment in Sulaimani City

Idriss Q Abdul; Tara A Rasheed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 48-58
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2018.160845

Aims: Orthodontic treatment is known as a painful procedure among patients. They feel varying degrees of pain during orthodontic treatment from the stage of initial examination till the end of the treatment. The aims of this study are to explore pain experience among patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with the fixed appliances by comparing two different arch wires sizes. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 60 patients (26 males, 34 females) with a mean age of 17.6 years and 20.5 years consequently. Insertion of either 0.014 or 0.016-inch wire was by random selection of patients. Patients were asked to fill out a series of questionnaires for five consecutive days after the insertion of orthodontic initial arch wire, and after the arch wire activation for 4 hours, 6 hours, 24 hours, and till 5 days. The intensity (weak, mild, moderate, severe, and intensive) of the pain symptoms in connection with ten items (Biting on a hard/soft food, sensitive to hot or cold food/drink, mastication of food, fitting anterior and fitting posterior teeth together, cheeks, lips, and tongue pain) have been evaluated. Results: No significant differences were found between age groups, and between the two arch wire groups. Pain perception was more significant in females than in males and the pain perceived at the anterior teeth was greater than posterior teeth. Pain percentage level increased gradually till reaching the peak within 24 hours after the insertion of arch wire and retained the same level in the 2nd day, then decreased till the 5th day. Perceptions of pain by fitting anterior teeth were exactly the same within the period of the first few hours in both arch wire groups, and decreased over the following hours. Conclusion: No age discrimination was found for perception of pain in the two different arch wire groups, with no significant correlation for the time with initial pain that perceived after the insertion of two different initial arch wire sizes then the intensity of pain reduced over the time. Pain was perceived as being greater at the anterior than the posterior teeth and females experienced more pain than males.

Assessment of Peri Implant Osteal Changes by Radiographic Evaluation Using Standard Orthopantomograph and Periapical View a Retrospective Study

Huda A Salim; Alyaa I Naser; Ziad H Delemi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 59-66
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2018.160842

Aims: The aims of the study are to evaluate the radiographical views, OPG and periapical views on the changes in peri- implant bony tissue around dental implant at time of placement and another reading after 16 weeks before functional prosthetic loading and regard it as a prognostic parameter. Material and methods: Nineteen cases with 24 implant were enrolled for standardization. Radiographical measurement undertaken by a periapical and OPG radiographs after implant placement, then after16 weeks later, again a second periapical and OPG radiographs were taken for measurements using Dimaxis 3.2.1. Software program to estimate marginal bone height of both sides of implant and its changes during times of evaluation. Results: 19 medically fit patients, male and female with age 22-65 years, twenty four implants with average bone loss 0.59 mm mesialy and 0.60 mm distally at T0 as standered base line in compared to 0.98mm mesialy and 1.11mm distally at T1as average bone loss. There was a significant bone resorption in both sides in relation of implant size and in comparison to time of placement and after 16 weeks according to statistical analysis. Conclusion: OPG and periapical views are a good parameter for evaluation of successful implant and monitoring of the prognosis and stability and durability, as these radiographs more available in most dental centers and clinics with less cost.

Prosthetic Treatment for Hemimaxillectomy Patient: (A Clinical Case)

Nashwah Subhi; Mohammed A Abdulla; Nadira A Hatim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 67-72
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2019.161241

Aims: prosthetic rehabilitation of a maxillary defect after hemi-maxillectomy with a palatal obturator made from nickel chromium framework. Materials and methods: A silicon impression was made and poured with a dental stone to develop a definitive cast. The site, position and shape of maxillary defect determine the path of insertion. Design the metal framework of the obturator to Class II R.P.D according to Kennedy's classification. Casting the framework in base-metal alloy made from nickel chromium framework, centric jaw relation was recorded. A finished prosthesis (an obturator of closed hollow-bulb type) was inserted. Conclusions: Obturator prosthesis enhancing function and speech, reduce the rate of fluids and food passing to the nose. Extend the border of an acrylic of the prosthesis at defect site lead to enhance both the retention and stability of the obturator.

Role of Encouraging Words in Reducing Anxiety and Pain During Tooth Extraction

Abdurrahman A Al-Samman; Omar S Al-Nuaime; Zaman Sulaiman; Omar J Mohamedtaib

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 73-82
DOI: 10.33899/rden.1999.161242

Aims: The present study tests the effect of preoperative encouraging words provided by dental clinician on the levels of anxiety and pain experienced by patients after tooth extraction. Materials and methods: Patients were randomly assigned to the intervention and the control group. Intervention subjects had pre-operative ten minutes appointment with operating oral surgeon. This appointment identify the sources of anxiety, and participants given individualized encouragement according to their needs. Control subjects received reassurance immediately before surgery. All patients completed several questionnaires covering measures of anxiety and pain. Results: Discussion with patients along with encouragement highly affects patients’ levels of anxiety and pain after tooth extraction. Conclusions: Dental clinicians should consider the practice of encouraging patients shortly before tooth extraction.

Evaluating the Effect of (W) Angle and ANB Angle in the Assessment of Anterioposterior Jaw Relationship and their correlation to gonial angle

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 83-96
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2018.160846

Aims: to evaluate the accuracy of W angle, ANB angle and gonial angle in assessing anterio-posterior jaw dysplasia and the correlation between them in class I , II, III patients. Materials and Methods: one hundred twenty patients (18-30) years of male and female from the center of Mosul City that met the criteria of the sample with class I, II, and III, the sample was divided into 3 groups The: 40% was male (48 cases) and 60 % was female (72 cases). Three groups 40 cases were distributed for each one of class I, II, III. Cephalometric analysis and measurement of angles were done .Results: the mean value of gonial angle for class I was 126.24±0.77° , class II cases was 123.42±0.86° and the class III cases was 127.53±0.98°;the mean value of W angle for class I was 53.953±0.309° , for class II was 48.78±1.29° and for class III was 60.96±3.00; 3; the mean value of ANB angle for class I was 2.71±0.155° , class II was 5.82±0.431°and for the class III was -3.182±0.241.The comparison between all variables in all classes showed highly significant differences at p<0.05 Pearson correlation coefficient test between parameters in class I, revealed weak positive non-significant correlation between W angle value and ANB angle value while showed weak negative non-significant correlation between gonial angle value with ANB and W angles value in class II when comparing the values of, W angle with the values of gonial angle. ANB angles revealed a weak positive non- significant correlation. On the other side, there is a weak negative non-significant correlation when comparing ANB angle value with gonial angle value; in class III when comparing the values of, W angle with gonial and ANB angles rervealed a weak negative non- significant correlation on the other side, there is a weak positive non-significant correlation when comparing ANB angle value with gonial angle value. Conclusions: none of the parameters can be considered as the most appropriate and reliable one for determining the anteroposterior dysplasia and must be considered other lines and angles in all 3 plane of space to reach accurate diagnosis and treatment planning.

Efficacy of Local Haemostatic Agent Following Minor Surgery (An Experimental and Clinical Study)

Alyaa I Naser; Huda A Salim; Rayan S hamed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2019.126152.1005

Aims : This study aims to estimate the efficacy of Ostene as bone hemostatic agent clinically and experimentally and their effect on the ease of operation in clinical dental practice. Materials and Methods: For experimental part: Fifteen males rabbits were divided into three groups according to the time interval for hemostasis measurement, five rabbits in each group. Each group subdivides into other three groups according to study material "ostene, gelfoam, control". On femoral bone, three holes were made. After bleeding started, study material was placed inside holes, then a uniform piece of cotton was applied with gentle pressure, then hemostasis measured using the gravimetric method. For the clinical part: after complete extraction, a piece of study material was implanted inside the tooth socket and covered with uniform cotton for hemostasis, then hemostasis measured using the gravimetric method. Results and Discussion: For experimental part: study result revealed that the comparison between two local hemostatic agents (ostene and gelfoam) groups for hemostatic effect show Ostene has superiority effect over gelfoam in control bleeding at all interval times. Friedman test revealed a significant difference between study materials P =0.00 (P ≤ 0.05). For the clinical part: clinical measurement, ostene showed significant over gelfoam at 1min, 30 min While there were no significances between ostene and gelfoam at 5min,10min. Regarding visual analog scales for assessing bleeding and ease of operation, ostene, when comparing it with gelfoam, appeared better than gelfoam. Conclusion: Hemostatic effect of ostene is superior to gelfoam experimentally and after tooth extraction.

The Effect of Saturated Salt Solution on Disinfection of C.albicans for the Maxillary Acrylic Complete Denture (An in vivo study)

Nadira A Hatim; Rana AL- Sumaidae

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 1-6

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the natural denture cleanser saturated salt solution on disinfection of C. albicans for the maxillary complete denture (An in vivo study). Mate-rials and Methods: An in vivo study testing anti fungal efficiency of the natural denture cleanser satu-rated salt solution on disinfection of C. albicans for 60 patient wearing maxillary complete denture by using light microscope with camera and connected to computer. The swab was taken from the fitting surface of the denture of about 2.5 cm following the median line starting from incisive papilla. This study compared the effect of disinfection between before and after immersion in distilled water (Con-trol), saturated salt solution (Iraq), and protefix(Germany). Results: The results demonstrated that there were significant differences between salt solution and distilled water, that there were no signifi-cant differences between salt solution and protefix at p=0.05. Conclusions: saturated salt solution was very efficient for disinfection of C. albicans for acrylic denture base material.

The Effect of Surface Treatment on the Transverse and Tensile Bonding Strength of Relined Acrylic Resin Denture Base (Part I)

Nadira A Hatim; Aliaa W AL-Omari

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 202-210
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2013.84691

Aims: To investigate the effect of the thickness of relining material, curing method (water bath or mi-crowave), and the surface treatment by methyl methacrylate on transverse and tensile strength of re-lined acrylic resin denture base. Materials and methods: A pilot study was done by preparing 65 sam-ples to evaluate the effect of the thickness of relining material in relation to denture base on the trans-verse strength of acrylic resin denture base, and to study the effect of surface treatment by methyl methacrylate on the transverse strength of acrylic resin denture base. The main study was done by pre-paring 320 samples and divided into two parts to study the mechanical properties of samples represent-ing a denture base cured by water bath and other group cured by microwave curing technique, and then the effect of relining by the two curing methods and the effect of surface treatment were evaluated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: of this study showed that the different thickness of relining material in relation to denture base had no significant difference on the transverse strength of the relined denture base. The transverse strength and tensile bonding strength of the relined samples were significantly improved (P=0.05) by monomer surface treatment for 180 seconds. Conclusions: Transverse and tensile strength of the acryl-ic resin denture base were affected by relining. Microwave curing method gave better mechanical properties of the relined acrylic resin denture base.

Evaluation of the Surface Roughness for Three Different Types of Composite Resin Materials Using (Sof–Lex) Finishing and Polishing Systems: A Comparative Study

Sabah A Ismail; Rajaa T Suliman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 221-227
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2013.84776

Aim: To evaluate the surface roughness of three different types of light activated composite resin using (Sof-Lex) – polishing system, a profilometer study. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 resin com-posite disks were prepared from three different types of composite resin include 3 – groups. Group I: 10 specimens were prepared from light activated nano hybride (Tetric n – Ceram, Ivoclar – Vivadent – Liechtenstein). Group II: 10 specimens were prepared from light activated microhybride composite resin (Arabesk – Voco, Germany). Group III: 10 specimens were prepared from light activated poly-glas composite resin (Solitaire – 2, Heraeus, Kulzer, Germany). The resin blocks finished and polished using (Sof – Lex) polishing system. The specimens were analyzed for surface roughness using “Pro-filometer”. Results: Tetric n – Ceram composite resin showed the lowest roughness average (0.112 μm) followed by Arabesk composite (0.150 μm), Solitaire – 2 composite resin showed the highest roughness average (0.341 μm). Conclusions: Tetric n– Ceram (nano-hybride) was the best polished composite resin, showed the least roughness average.

Efficacy of Three Denture Cleansers on Candida-Related Denture Stomatitis

Lamia T Rejab; Oday A Al-Abbod

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 235-240
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2013.84795

Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of three dentures cleanser on Candida related denture stomatitis through assessing their ability to reduce the number of colony forming unit (CFU) of Candida on palate of the patient for different times. Materials and methods: Group of 12 patients who have denture stomatitis were divided into four groups according to the type of denture cleaners (Protefix, sodium hypochlorite solution 0.02%, saturated sodium chloride salt solution and control wa-ter). The microbiological examination was done to determine the efficacy of the cleansers that used by assessing the number of (CFU) at different times (day before treatment and after 14, 28days of treat-ment). The data were statistically analyzed, (ANOVA) followed by Duncan's multiple Range test to assess the significant difference between the groups at P≤0.05. Results: The results showed that there was a significant effect of three cleansers on reducing number of (CFU) of Candida species in the treatment of denture stomatitis after 14 and 28 days of treatment, but it was not significant for control water group. Sodium hypochlorite showed the highest efficacy. Conclusions: Result showed that there was no significant difference in the efficacy between the three cleansers indicating that all cleansers are effective in the treatment of denture stomatitis .

Finite Element Analysis of Stress Distribution During Retraction of Mandibular Incisors

Nada M Al-Sayagh; Mohammad N Mahmood; Rasha Y Al-Darzi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 251-258
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2013.84798

Aims: The present study aimed to determine stress and strain distribution on the four lower incisors under the effect of (400g) calculated retracted orthodontic force. Materials and methods: Using finite element analysis method, frictionless retraction technique was successfully used with the aid of continuous (delta loop) on NiTi, Stainless steel wires without gable bends and stainless steel looped wire using 40°. gable bends(20° alpha, 20° beta gable) respectively. Results: High compressive stress concentration in labiolingual direction are observed near the point of force application and along the line of action of orthodontic wire at the crown of both lateral and central incisors. Conclusions: The stress distribution is not the same for the all retracted segment and there was independent movement of lateral incisors from the central incisors except for the retraction using NiTi wires which exhibits uniform movements for both lateral and central incisors.

The Effect of Three Coating Materials on the Candidal Growth, on the Surface and Color of A heat–Cure Acrylic Resin Denture Base

Monia MN Kandil; Nadia T Jaffer; Enas Yaseen Shehab

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 279-288
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9112

Aims: To evaluate the effect of three coating materials: Acrylic resin coating "monopoly", olive oil andgrape seeds oil on the Candida albicans growth, and on color of a heat – cured acrylic resin denture base.Materials and methods: Three coating materials underwent pores method to find out their antifungaleffect. The effect of coating materials on the acrylic denture base surface was determined via Sensitivity testin which twenty discs of acrylic resin 6mm diameter and 2mm thickness were prepared and divided intofour groups: control (uncoated), monopoly, olive, and grape oil coated groups. These discs were added toSabouraud Dextrose agar surface and incubated for 24 hours at 37 oC and the diameter of growth inhibitionzones were measured. Then the Turbidity test was taken place, in which 60 acrylic specimens (1cm x 1cm x2mm) were prepared and immersed in 60 test tubes that were divided into four groups, each group (15specimens) was subdivided into three groups of incubation: 7, 20, and 30 days incubation period, each testtube contained 4 ml Brain Heart Infusion Broth, 0.1 ml of 24 hours Candida albicans, and its correspondingacrylic specimen, turbidity (yeast growth) was measured by a spectrophotometer at 530 nm wave length.For color change measurement test, 20 acrylic resin specimens (45 x 10 x 2.5 mm) were prepared anddistributed into four studied groups. The absorbed light was measured by spectrophotometer and termedoptical density at 345 nm. Results: All coating materials were fungicidal in pores method. Statisticalanalysis of sensitivity test showed that Candida albicans was susceptible at highest extent to monopolycoated denture base followed by the oils coated groups. In turbidity test, monopoly specimens showedantifungal activity in all periods of incubation, but the effect decreased gradually, olive and grape oil coatedspecimens exhibited their highest antifungal activity after 30 days incubation. Color change measurementsshowed that monopoly coated group had the highest optical density, while the olive and grape groupsshowed a decrease in the optical density when compared to uncoated group. Conclusions: Use of coatingmaterials on the acrylic denture base surface was beneficial, especially monopoly in terms of antifungalactivity against Candida albicans followed by natural oils (olive and grape oils). However, coatingmaterials showed a significant change in the color of acrylic denture base.

The effects of two bone substitute materials in the treatment of experimentally induced mandibular defects: An experimental study

Atalla F Rejab

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 9-20
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2018.160843

Aims: To compare between the effects of deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) and osteon in the healing of mandibular bone defects in the rabbits. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on ten rabbits at the Animal House, Dentistry college, Mosul University. The rabbits weighted between 1.5 and 2 kg and each rabbit was given anesthesia (10% ketamine (40 mg/kg) and 2% xylazine (5 mg/kg). Surgery was performed aseptically. Mandibles were exposed through a sub-mandibular incisions. Three rectangular full thickness defects (6×5 mm) were created in each side. The first defect in each side was filled with DBB, the second defect was filled with osteon, while the third defect was left untreated to serve as a control. Five rabbits were sacrificed after one week and the other five rabbits were sacrificed after one month. The bony mandibles were immersed in 10% formalin solution and examined histologically by two histopathologists. Results: Microscopically, sections for one week of all groups showed mild degree of inflammation, moderate amount of vascularity, granulation tissue and osteoid tissue formation. Sections of one month showed no difference regarding the degree of inflammation vascularity, but the amount of granulation tissue and osteoid tissue formation in the control group were lesser than the amount seen in both experimental groups. Conclusions: DBB and osteon accelerate bone healing after month regarding the amount of granulation tissue and osteoid tissue formation.

Reinforced Microwave - Cured Acrylic Resin Denture Base Material with Glass Fibers

Mohammed A Abdulla; Radhwan H. Hasan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 314-321

AIMS: To evaluation the Effect of adding glass fibers on the transverse strength and the levels of the residual monomer of specially formulated acrylic resin to be cured by microwave and heat cured acryl-ic resin denture base materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The materials were used in this study heat cured acrylic resin and microwave cured acrylic resin which is formulated to be cured by microwave energy( Acronacrylic resin). Thirty two samples were prepared for transverse strength test and divided into the following groups Control group (I) heat cured alone, group (II) microwave cured alone, the group (III) heat cured+fibers, group (IV) microwave cured+fibers the transverse strength was evaluated by using an Instron testing machine . Thirty two samples were prepared for residual mono-mer test and divided into four groups water bath and microwave cured with and without glass fibers, the residual monomer was evaluated by using ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer for seven days. RESULTS: Transverse strength test: Statistical Analysis of Variance(ANOVA) shows that there is significant differences at (p>0.0001)among the four groups and Duncan's multiple range test showed that microwave cured + fibers significantly higher transverse strength followed by heat cured +fibers, microwave alone, while heat alone shows significantly lowest transverse strength. Residual monomer test: Analysis of variance(ANOVA) for the four groups from the first day of immersion in water until 7th day shows that there are significant differences between the four groups in the all six days except the 7th day shows that there are no significant differences among the four groups for the level of the residual monomer. CONCLUSIONS: Microwave cured acrylic resin with glass fibers have signifi-cantly higher transverse strength than that of acrylic resin cured by water bath, also microwave cured acrylic resin have significantly lower residual monomer content from the 1st day of immersion when compared to that of water bath which show the same level of residual monomer at the 7th day of im-mersion

Modification of Gypsum Products (Part III): Practical Application of Modified Gypsum Products

Mohammed A Abdullah; Isam K Al-Khayat; Nadira A Hatim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 17-24

Aims: To determine the suitability of new modified Iraqi plaster and modified Plaster of Paris as a cast in microwave curing of acrylic denture base material, and microwave and open air drying methods on the surface roughness and dimensional accuracy of the cast. Materials and methods: Two types of gypsum products were used in this study {(Iraqi plaster, Plaster of Paris) with the combined additives (Gum Arabic 0.5%, calcium oxide 0.75%, and ferric oxide 0.2%), and Type III stone Plaster/Stone 3:1} that incorporated within the two gypsum products. The effects of drying method and combined additives on the surface roughness and dimensional accuracy of the experimental gypsum products, and acrylic denture base pro-duced from the modified gypsum casts have been evaluated. Mean, standard deviation, variance (ANOVA), and Duncan's multiple range tests were used to analyze the measurements. Results: ANOVA test showed that there was a significant difference in the surface roughness and dimensional accuracy between Iraqi plaster and plaster of Paris with or without additives dried in open air and microwave techniques. Conclu-sion: There was slight dimensional change in the gypsum cast with additives of clinical importance to compensate the polymer shrinkage of the acrylic denture base after cooling. There was no significant dif-ference in the average roughness of acrylic resin cured by microwave oven as a curing method. Keywords: acrylic, roughness, dimensional accuracy.

Visible Light Cure Fiber Frame Work Reinforcement of Acrylic Resin Denture Base Material. A Comparative Study.

Aliaa W AL-Omari

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 173-181
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.160898

Aims: Heat cured acrylic resin is the material of choice for construction of complete dentures due to its desirable properties, although it has some disadvantages as its susceptibility to fracture. Several methods and materials are used to reinforce acrylic resin denture base. One of these methods is reinforcement by using fibers. In this study, visible light cure fiber frame work is used as reinforcement material and compared with reinforcement with glass fiber. Materials and methods: in this study, 128 samples were prepared for evaluation of transverse strength, impact strength, surface hardness, and residual monomer tests. The samples were divided into four groups 8 sample for each group; control group without reinforcement, reinforcement by using visible light cure fiber frame work, random glass fiber reinforcement, and mesh glass fiber reinforcement. Results: the results of this study showed that visible light cure fiber frame work system significantly increase the transverse strength and impact strength of the heat cured acrylic resin, and it didn’t affect the surface hardness and amount of residual monomer of heat cured acrylic resin. Conclusions: visible light cure fiber frame work system increase acrylic resin denture base resistance to fracture.

The Effect of Three Coating Materials on the Candidal Growth, on the Surface and Color of A heat–Cure Acrylic Resin Denture Base

Monia MN Kandil; Nadia T Jaffer; Enas Yaseen Shehab

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 279-288
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9112

Aims: To evaluate the effect of three coating materials: Acrylic resin coating "monopoly", olive oil andgrape seeds oil on the Candida albicans growth, and on color of a heat – cured acrylic resin denture base.Materials and methods: Three coating materials underwent pores method to find out their antifungaleffect. The effect of coating materials on the acrylic denture base surface was determined via Sensitivity testin which twenty discs of acrylic resin 6mm diameter and 2mm thickness were prepared and divided intofour groups: control (uncoated), monopoly, olive, and grape oil coated groups. These discs were added toSabouraud Dextrose agar surface and incubated for 24 hours at 37 oC and the diameter of growth inhibitionzones were measured. Then the Turbidity test was taken place, in which 60 acrylic specimens (1cm x 1cm x2mm) were prepared and immersed in 60 test tubes that were divided into four groups, each group (15specimens) was subdivided into three groups of incubation: 7, 20, and 30 days incubation period, each testtube contained 4 ml Brain Heart Infusion Broth, 0.1 ml of 24 hours Candida albicans, and its correspondingacrylic specimen, turbidity (yeast growth) was measured by a spectrophotometer at 530 nm wave length.For color change measurement test, 20 acrylic resin specimens (45 x 10 x 2.5 mm) were prepared anddistributed into four studied groups. The absorbed light was measured by spectrophotometer and termedoptical density at 345 nm. Results: All coating materials were fungicidal in pores method. Statisticalanalysis of sensitivity test showed that Candida albicans was susceptible at highest extent to monopolycoated denture base followed by the oils coated groups. In turbidity test, monopoly specimens showedantifungal activity in all periods of incubation, but the effect decreased gradually, olive and grape oil coatedspecimens exhibited their highest antifungal activity after 30 days incubation. Color change measurementsshowed that monopoly coated group had the highest optical density, while the olive and grape groupsshowed a decrease in the optical density when compared to uncoated group. Conclusions: Use of coatingmaterials on the acrylic denture base surface was beneficial, especially monopoly in terms of antifungalactivity against Candida albicans followed by natural oils (olive and grape oils). However, coatingmaterials showed a significant change in the color of acrylic denture base.

The effects of two bone substitute materials in the treatment of experimentally induced mandibular defects: An experimental study

Atalla F Rejab

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 9-20
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2018.160843

Aims: To compare between the effects of deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) and osteon in the healing of mandibular bone defects in the rabbits. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on ten rabbits at the Animal House, Dentistry college, Mosul University. The rabbits weighted between 1.5 and 2 kg and each rabbit was given anesthesia (10% ketamine (40 mg/kg) and 2% xylazine (5 mg/kg). Surgery was performed aseptically. Mandibles were exposed through a sub-mandibular incisions. Three rectangular full thickness defects (6×5 mm) were created in each side. The first defect in each side was filled with DBB, the second defect was filled with osteon, while the third defect was left untreated to serve as a control. Five rabbits were sacrificed after one week and the other five rabbits were sacrificed after one month. The bony mandibles were immersed in 10% formalin solution and examined histologically by two histopathologists. Results: Microscopically, sections for one week of all groups showed mild degree of inflammation, moderate amount of vascularity, granulation tissue and osteoid tissue formation. Sections of one month showed no difference regarding the degree of inflammation vascularity, but the amount of granulation tissue and osteoid tissue formation in the control group were lesser than the amount seen in both experimental groups. Conclusions: DBB and osteon accelerate bone healing after month regarding the amount of granulation tissue and osteoid tissue formation.

Reinforced Microwave - Cured Acrylic Resin Denture Base Material with Glass Fibers

Mohammed A Abdulla; Radhwan H. Hasan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 314-321

AIMS: To evaluation the Effect of adding glass fibers on the transverse strength and the levels of the residual monomer of specially formulated acrylic resin to be cured by microwave and heat cured acryl-ic resin denture base materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The materials were used in this study heat cured acrylic resin and microwave cured acrylic resin which is formulated to be cured by microwave energy( Acronacrylic resin). Thirty two samples were prepared for transverse strength test and divided into the following groups Control group (I) heat cured alone, group (II) microwave cured alone, the group (III) heat cured+fibers, group (IV) microwave cured+fibers the transverse strength was evaluated by using an Instron testing machine . Thirty two samples were prepared for residual mono-mer test and divided into four groups water bath and microwave cured with and without glass fibers, the residual monomer was evaluated by using ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer for seven days. RESULTS: Transverse strength test: Statistical Analysis of Variance(ANOVA) shows that there is significant differences at (p>0.0001)among the four groups and Duncan's multiple range test showed that microwave cured + fibers significantly higher transverse strength followed by heat cured +fibers, microwave alone, while heat alone shows significantly lowest transverse strength. Residual monomer test: Analysis of variance(ANOVA) for the four groups from the first day of immersion in water until 7th day shows that there are significant differences between the four groups in the all six days except the 7th day shows that there are no significant differences among the four groups for the level of the residual monomer. CONCLUSIONS: Microwave cured acrylic resin with glass fibers have signifi-cantly higher transverse strength than that of acrylic resin cured by water bath, also microwave cured acrylic resin have significantly lower residual monomer content from the 1st day of immersion when compared to that of water bath which show the same level of residual monomer at the 7th day of im-mersion

Modification of Gypsum Products (Part III): Practical Application of Modified Gypsum Products

Mohammed A Abdullah; Isam K Al-Khayat; Nadira A Hatim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 17-24

Aims: To determine the suitability of new modified Iraqi plaster and modified Plaster of Paris as a cast in microwave curing of acrylic denture base material, and microwave and open air drying methods on the surface roughness and dimensional accuracy of the cast. Materials and methods: Two types of gypsum products were used in this study {(Iraqi plaster, Plaster of Paris) with the combined additives (Gum Arabic 0.5%, calcium oxide 0.75%, and ferric oxide 0.2%), and Type III stone Plaster/Stone 3:1} that incorporated within the two gypsum products. The effects of drying method and combined additives on the surface roughness and dimensional accuracy of the experimental gypsum products, and acrylic denture base pro-duced from the modified gypsum casts have been evaluated. Mean, standard deviation, variance (ANOVA), and Duncan's multiple range tests were used to analyze the measurements. Results: ANOVA test showed that there was a significant difference in the surface roughness and dimensional accuracy between Iraqi plaster and plaster of Paris with or without additives dried in open air and microwave techniques. Conclu-sion: There was slight dimensional change in the gypsum cast with additives of clinical importance to compensate the polymer shrinkage of the acrylic denture base after cooling. There was no significant dif-ference in the average roughness of acrylic resin cured by microwave oven as a curing method. Keywords: acrylic, roughness, dimensional accuracy.

Visible Light Cure Fiber Frame Work Reinforcement of Acrylic Resin Denture Base Material. A Comparative Study.

Aliaa W AL-Omari

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 173-181
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.160898

Aims: Heat cured acrylic resin is the material of choice for construction of complete dentures due to its desirable properties, although it has some disadvantages as its susceptibility to fracture. Several methods and materials are used to reinforce acrylic resin denture base. One of these methods is reinforcement by using fibers. In this study, visible light cure fiber frame work is used as reinforcement material and compared with reinforcement with glass fiber. Materials and methods: in this study, 128 samples were prepared for evaluation of transverse strength, impact strength, surface hardness, and residual monomer tests. The samples were divided into four groups 8 sample for each group; control group without reinforcement, reinforcement by using visible light cure fiber frame work, random glass fiber reinforcement, and mesh glass fiber reinforcement. Results: the results of this study showed that visible light cure fiber frame work system significantly increase the transverse strength and impact strength of the heat cured acrylic resin, and it didn’t affect the surface hardness and amount of residual monomer of heat cured acrylic resin. Conclusions: visible light cure fiber frame work system increase acrylic resin denture base resistance to fracture.

Keyword Cloud