About Journal

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal (RDENTJ): is an English language, a double-blind peer reviewing system  to assure the quality of publication, scholarly publication in the area of dentistry, open access journal.  Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), this journal is published biannually by the College of Dentistry, University of Mosul, Iraq since 2001. Refereed Scientific Journal deals with fields of dental sciences, requires a 100000 ID  fee for publishing an accepted manuscript. The journal is not financially...
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Journal Information

Publisher: University of Mosul

Email:  alrafidaindentj@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Nada M. Saeed Al-Sayagh

Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Effects of Local Application of Hyaluronic Acid on Postoperative Sequelae after Surgical Removal of Impacted Lower Third Molars

Imad Sadiq Marouf; Atalla Rejab

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 154-164
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.126803.1026

Aims of study: The aims from the current research is to estimate the effectiveness of the application of local hyaluronic acid (HA) gel on pain, facial swelling, and trismus after extraction of impacted mandibular third molars. Materials and Methods: The research included a total of 44 healthy patients between the ages of 18-29 years with asymptomatic impacted lower third molars at time of extraction. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; 0.8% HA was applied to the HA group (n=22) while nothing was applied in the control group (n=22). Patients’ pain levels were assessed at the first, third and seventh postoperative days and the pain scored on a numerical rating scale (NRS). Results: Pain score, facial swelling and trismus were highest on the first postoperative day and decreased gradually in both Control and HA group on the 3rd and 7th postoperative days. There were statistically significant differences in Pain scores between Control and HA groups on the three postoperative days. However, for swelling the difference between the two groups was significant just on the 1st and 3rd postoperative days. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding trismus over the days of review. Conclusions: The results of this study viewed that after surgical removal of impacted teeth HA can produce an analgesic effect and therefore it may have a clinical benefit in reducing postoperative pain and facial swelling.

Effects of Local Application of Platelet Rich Fibrin on Postoperative Sequelae after Surgical Removal of Impacted Lower Third Molars.

Imad Sadiq Marouf; Atalla Fathi Rejab

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 165-176
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.126736.1025

Objectives: The goal of this research was to evaluate the effects of Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) in reducing post-surgical complications as pain, swelling, and trismus after surgical extraction of impacted lower third molars. Methods: A total of 44 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were chosen to take part in this research. Postoperative pain was assessed using a numerical rating scale (NRS). Facial swelling was measured by a modification of tape measure method. To assess trismus, the maximal interincisal mouth opening was measured by using a digital caliper scale (electronic vernier). Results: In the Platelet Rich Fibrin PRF group; the results showed a significant difference of levels of pain experienced (NRS) in the 1st postoperative day in comparison to the control group. In regard to post-operative swelling; a significant decrease in the 3rd postoperative day was observed in comparison to the control group. With regard to trismus; no significant differences between groups regarding interincisal mouth opening was noticed. Conclusions: The application of PRF reduces the severity of the immediate postoperative sequelaes.

In vitro Assessment of Coronal Discoloration from Endodontic Sealers

Makdad Chakmakchi; Chris Rahiotis; Nikolas P Kerezoudis; Afrodite Kakaboura

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 177-182
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.166457

Aims: to evaluate the effect of different endodontic sealers on the coronal discoloration of the tooth part. Materials and methods: Forty intact human upper incisors and canines free of caries, restorations and coronal discoloration were used in the study. Black rectangular pieces of adhesive tape, with a round opening of 3 mm in diameter was cut to match the size of colorimeter window, the tape was applied to the middle third of the buccul surface of the tooth to facilitate a means of enamel surface standardization for analysis and was further secured to the teeth crowns with cyanoacrylate glue. A colorimeter (Microcolor, Data Station, DeLange, Braive instruments, Leige, Belgium) according to the CIE-L*a*b* color system was used to evaluate the color of enamel in the coronal part before and after instrumentation and obturation of the teeth, employing a repeated measures design (n=5) per sample. Results: There was no statistically significant difference among the levels of time of different materials (p = 0.095). Sealapex was presented significant differences against control group. Conclusion: The selection of endodontic sealers should be based mainly on other criteria (setting time, microleakage and toxicity) and no on the potent ional staining.

Evaluation of the Effect of Casein Phosphopeptide–Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Mousse versus Natural Raw Fresh Milk on Enamel Surface Roughness After a pH Challenge

Safa Ahmed Al-Ani; Raya jasm Al-Naimi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 183-194
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127159.1033

Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of CPP−ACP, raw, fresh buffalo milk and cow milk on surface roughness of artificial initial caries lesions. Materials and Methods: 100 sound maxillary first premolar extracted for the purpose of orthodontic treatment had been collected and randomly divided into four groups, in all groups the teeth subjected to pH cycle procedure then treated with: Group1: n(25) deionized water, group2: n(25) CPP−ACP tooth mousse, group3: n(25) raw cow milk, group4: n(25) raw buffalo milk. Enamel surface was assessed by a profilometer  device at a baseline and after demineralization and after remineralization. Results: In all groups, there was a high statistically significant increase in surface roughness after demineralization. And there was a high statistically significant decrease in surface roughness in all groups except deionized water after remineralization, the highest remineralization effect was found in CPP−ACP tooth mousse group followed by buffalo milk and then cow milk.Conclusions: Within the limits of the current study, it was concluded that CPP−ACP tooth mousse, raw fresh buffalo milk and cow milk were effective remineralizing agents which was reflected by decreasing surface roughness of artificial initial caries lesion, but with different potentials, CPP−ACP tooth mousse was the best followed by fresh raw buffalo milk which showed superior results in reducing surface roughness in comparison with fresh raw cow milk.

Uses and Misuses of Antibiotic in Dental Practice. A review.

Faehaa Azher Al-Mashhadane

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 195-204
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127572.1043

Dental antibiotics are commonly used & abused drugs. In dentistry, antibiotic prescriptions are either therapeutic or prophylactic. They are effective against infections owing to their selective toxicity; that is, they can hurt or eradicate microorganism with no harm on the host cells. Much attention has been focused on eliminating the misuse of antibiotics since though appropriate selection of antimicrobial agent & having good knowledge about the susceptibility of the microorganism to a specific antibiotic, the position of the infection & factors related to patients . Full underst&ing of the dentist responsibility in this global health issue needs to identify the causes of the antibiotics usage in dentistry. This study highlights strategy of antibiotic prescription, recognize aspects attributed to the uses & misuses of them by dental patients, & providing insights into the significance of antibiotic indications in the dental field, & promote dental practitioners to review their prescriptions of antibiotics.

Bone Regenerative Potentiality of Nanostructured Biphasic Hydroxyapatite /Tricalcium Phosphate Prepared from Eggshell as a Bone Graft in Vivo

Karrar A. Zaker; Ziad Hazim Deleme; Ammer A. Taqa

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 205-220
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127182.1034

Aims: to evaluate the biological response to nano sized biphasic hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate synthesized from eggshell. Materials and methods: Egg shell burned in furnace at 1000 C° for 1 hour. The part of resultant powder was treated chemically with phosphoric acid to form HA, other part of heated egg shell treated with nitric oxide and di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate to form TCP then the two products mixed mechanically at ratio 80%/20% (HA/TCP). The mixture turned to nanoparticles via mechanical attrition and sieving membrane and sent for TEM, the resultant material characterization checked by FTIR spectroscopy. Two defects of 2 mm prepared in the femoral bone of 20 rabbits one filled with prepared material (group A) and the other left empty as negative control (group B). Results: greater bone formation was founded in group A where statistically significant. Conclusions: biphasic hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate nano particles synthesized from eggshell is effective in bone regeneration and could be used as bone substitute derived from source of no economic value. 

Densitometric and Histomorphometric Analysis for Testing New Bone Substitutes (BLUE BONE®), a Comparative Study on Rabbits' Femoral Defect

Karrar A. Zaker; Ziad Hazim Deleme; Amer A Taqa

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 221-232
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127184.1035

Aims:  to evaluate the osteogenic regeneration ability of new nanometric biphasic hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate (80/20) BLUE BONE. Materials and methods: twenty domestic rabbits were used in the present study with two defects were created in the rabbit's femur, one filled with BLUE BONE material and the other defect were left empty as negative control. Densitometric and histomorphometric analysis measured at 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days. Results: showed positive osteogenic properties of the BLUE BONE due to the osteoconduction properties. Conclusions: this study supports that BCP may have better application prospects for bone repair.

Histological Assessment for Healing of Intraoral Surgical Wounds Produced by Diode Laser 940 nm Versus Surgical Scalpel Blade (An in Vivo study)

Mohammed Sabah; Abdulhameed N. Aldabagh; Abdulsattar Salim Mahmood

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 233-243
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127185.1037

Aims: The objectives of this study were to compare the wounds healing between two different surgical procedures and to evaluate the efficiency of the diode laser on wound healing after intra-oral incision. Materials and Methods: Experimental study were done on 16 New Zealand rabbits. Two types of wound incision were made in buccal mucosa of each group, each incision was made by using stainless steel scalpel blade NO.15 and other was made by Epic X diode laser. Two rabbits sacrificed of each group at 1st ,3rd ,7th and 14th days after procedures. Results: The histological findings of this study revealed that there was a significant difference for inflammatory cell infiltration in  1st ,3rd , 7th days in two groups, while there was no significant difference at 14th  days period. Granulation tissue formation appeared higher in diode group , while scalpel showed less amount of granulation tissue formation . In re-epithelialization of present study at 1st day all section showed nil scores, re-epithelization of oral mucosa appeared significant difference after three days ,and significant difference also at 7th day between diode and scalpel , no significance differences at 14 days in two groups. Conclusions: Diode laser has many advantages for use particularly in oral surgery , due to a better hemostatic ability, but more tissue damage occurs and more inflammatory cell infiltration in site of incision if compared with group that used of surgical scalpel blade.

Healing Assessment of Oral Mucosal Wounds Using Erbium, Chromium: Yttrium-Scandium-Gallium-Garnet Laser Versus Scalpel Blades

Mohammed Sabah; Abdulhameed N. Aldabagh; Abdulsattar Salim Mahmood

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 244-256
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127183.1036

Aims : The study aims to compare wound healing histologically and serologically by using two different surgical procedures and to evaluate the efficiency of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser on wound healing after surgical procedures. Materials and Methods : Sixteen New Zealand rabbits were used as experimental animals. The animals were divided into two groups: group I and group II, each group consisted of 8 rabbits. In group I; stainless steel scalpel blade NO.15 was used for making the incision, in group II Er, Cr: YSGG laser was used for making the incision. Two rabbits were sacrificed from each group at the 1st ,3rd ,7th and 14th days after procedures. At the day of sacrifice blood was collected from each rabbit for serum and serological analysis to determine serum level of TNF-α. Results : 1:Histological findings of this study revealed that there was a significant difference in inflammatory cells infiltration at 1st day between the two groups, while there was no significant difference at 3rd  , 7th and 14th day periods. Granulation tissue formation appeared higher in erbium group, while scalpel blade incision showed less amount of granulation tissue formation. In re-epithelialization at 1st day all section shows nil score in both groups, at 3rd day re-epithelization appeared significant difference, and no significance difference at 7th and 14th days between erbium and scalpel blade.
2: Serological findings of this study shows that TNF-α level in serum have no significant differences between two groups at different time periods. Conclusions : Εr,Сr:ҮЅGG laser has numerous benefits for use particularly in oral surgery , due to low inflammatory reaction and less ulceration and smallest damage of the oral mucosal tissue, while  more inflammatory cell infiltration occurs in comparison with group that used surgical scalpel blade.

The Antibacterial Effect of Magnetized Water on Oral Microorganisms

Enas Yassen Shihab; Bakar Seddiq Mahmood; Ghada Younis abdulrahman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 257-264
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.166473

Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of magnetized water as an oral irrigant. Materials and Methods: Samples of magnetized water were prepared using a locally made device at different magnetic strengths; 500, 850, 1500 and 1900 Gauss; four groups of health y individuals  with certain criteria (25 for each group) rinse d their mouth with 10 ml of the magnetized water and two saliva samples; before and after irrigation were collected, transferred to the laboratory for colony counting. Results: significant differences were found between the CFU/ml of oral bacteria from baseline saliva samples and after irrigating with magnetized water with different magnet strengths at p ≤ 0.005. Conclusion : As the good  antibacterial, fresh, cheap , and available; the regular use of magnetized  water was suggested as the irrigant  solution for good oral hygiene.

Molecular Detection of Candida Qlabrata Isolated from Denture Stomatitis Patients

Hayffaa Abdul Ghani Abdulla; Eman Abdul Aziz Mustafa

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 265-272
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.166474

Aims: This study aimed to detect and identify Candida glabrata isolated from denture stomatitis patients by using  polymerase chain reaction( PCR). Materials and Methodes :Total of forty three of oral swabs samples were obtained from patients suffering from denture stomatitis attending prosthodontic department\College of Dentistry /Mosul university/ Dental teaching Hospital. Clinically ,62 isolates of Candida spp.  were identified to species level by standard culture methods using Sabouraud Dextrose agar(SDA) , HiCrome™ Candida Differential Agar   followed by microscopic examination, and germ tube test.  DNA  extraction of Candida glabrata from broth cultures was carried out  ,then molecular identification with PCR using  specific primers targeting phospholipase B gene (PLB) were done to confirm C. glabrata  diagnosis. Results: Among 62 isolates of Candida species , the predominant type was the Candida albicans which accounted for 29(46.8%) followed by Candida glabrata  21(33.9%), Candida tropicalis 11(17.7%), finally Candida krusei accounted for only 1 (1.6%) . HiCrome™ Candida Differential Agar  do not easily recognize  Candida spp. Sometimes C. glabrata  was falsely  identified  as C. parapsilosis  on HiCrome™ Candida Differential Agar. The result showed that the PCR products for the specific primer gave bands on agarose gel at the position 404 bp .Conclusion : Candida glabrata is emerging as the second most spreading among the isolates.    Detection of PLB gene using PCR provides a definitive target that could be used for the identification and detection of Candida glabrata. from clinical samples .      
 

Evaluation of Different Zirconia Surface Treatments on their Microhardness

Mohammed Riyadh; Maan M. Nayif

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 273-282
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.166475

Aims: To investigate the effect of mechanical and chemical surface treatments including (AL2O3 —110µm) and citric acid solution (30%) on the microhardness of zirconia ceramic. Materials and Methods: Twenty four cubic shaped specimens were prepared from partial sintering zirconia ) IPS e.max ZirCAD MT(.Specimens were randomly assigned into three main groups (GI, GII, and GIII) according to the surface treatment methods (n=8).  Group I: zirconia surface left without surface treatment (control), Group II: In this group all specimens were subjected to sandblasting with 110 µm Aluminum oxide particles (Al2O3), while Group III: The surface was treated with citric acid solution 30% for 10 minutes. Force of Vickers microhardness was applied on the intaglio surface of the zirconia specimen at 0.5 kg for 30 seconds. Data were analyzed with one way ANOVA at 5% level of significance.  Results: Sandblasting with AL2O3 110µm significantly increased the Vickers microhardness value of the zirconia surface. Chemical treatment with 30% citric acid did not exhibit any significant changes in comparison to the control group.  Conclusions: Within the limitation of this in vitro study, the mechanical surface treatment of the zirconia surface with AL2O3 improves the surface microhardness.

The Effect of Silver Diamine Fluoride and Fluoride Varnish on Microhardness of Primary Teeth Enamel (An In Vitro Study)

Sura Anwer Abdil-nafaa; Aisha Akram Qasim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 283-295
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127447.1039

Aims: This study aims to compare and evaluate the effect of two remineralizing agents:  fluoride varnish and silver diamine fluoride  solution on the surface microhardness of enamel of primary teeth. Materials and methods: A total of (150) primary anterior teeth were used in the study. Enamel blocks were prepared and divided into three groups: Fluoride varnish n(50), silver diamine fluoride n(50) and the control  group of deionized water n(50), then introduced into PH cycle. Microhardness of enamel blocks was measured using Vickers microhardness tester machine (OTTO Wolpert−WERKE GMBH) before and after the PH cycle. Results: There were highly statistically significant differences among study groups after  PH cycle and there were a decreasing in surface microhardness  in  all groups due to the demineralization, but  the least reduction in surface microhardness  belonged to silver diamine group followed by fluoride varnish group. Conclusions: Silver diamine fluoride was significantly better than fluoride varnish in preserving enamel's hardness and resistant to demineralization.

The Effect of Silver Diamine Fluoride and Fluoride Varnish on Roughness of Primary Teeth Enamel (An In Vitro Study)

Sura Anwer Abdil-nafaa; Aisha Akram Qasim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 296-307
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127479.1040

Aims: The study aimed to evaluate and compare the effect of fluoride varnish and silver diamine fluoride solution on surface roughness of enamel of primary teeth in vitro study. Materials and methods: A total of (150) primary anterior teeth were used. Enamel blocks were prepared and divided into three groups: Fluoride varnish group n(50), silver diamine fluoride groupn(50), and the control  group of deionized water n(50). PH cycle completed at one day and repeated for 10 days. Specimens were kept in demineralizing solution for 3 hours and remineralizing solution for 20 hours. All specimens were washed in deionized water between solutions and placed in artificial saliva for 30 minutes at the end of the demineralization and remineralization process.  Surface roughness was measured before and after PH cycle. Results: There was no significant difference between groups before PH cycle while at the end of PH cycle, groups showed highly significant difference at p ≤ 0.01. Also, silver diamine fluoride had the lowest mean value for surface roughness followed by varnish group while the maximum increase in surface roughness belonged to the control group of deionized water. Conclusions: Silver diamine fluoride solution was a significantly  better than fluoride varnish in preserving surface characteristics of the enamel of primary dentition.

Surgical Exposure and Orthodontic Treatment of Impacted Maxillary Central Incisors. A Case Report

Khudair A Al-Jumaili; Enas T Al-Jwary; Hind T Jarjees

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 259-265
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2013.84804

Aims: This report describes a case of eleven years old female with impacted maxillary central incisors and presence of two supernumerary teeth .The surgical exposure and orthodontic traction of bilaterally impacted central incisors after removal of impacted supernumerary teeth is presented in this report. Materials and Methods: Clinical, radiographic follow-up and treatment was conducted at the department of orthodontic and maxillofacial surgery in the college of dentistry ,mosul university .The surgical removal of supernumerary teeth done then surgical exposure and orthodontic traction done. Results: The impacted maxillary central in-cisors were successfully positioned and presented an acceptable gingival contour after treat-ment. Conclusion: Maxillary permanent central incisors were successfully positioned in the maxillary arch by surgical exposure and orthodontic traction, which showed good stability.

Trends of Oral Diseases and Treatment Needs in 13-15 Year Old Students in Mosul City Center

Tahani A Al–Sandook; Rayia J Al–Naimi; Karam H Jazrawi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 241-250
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2013.84797

Aims: To determine the trends of the two major dental diseases (dental caries and periodontal disease) in a group of 13-15 year old intermediate school and their treatment needs. Materials and Methods: A total of 516 intermediate school students were examined. Dental caries and treatment needs were as-sessed according to the WHO 1997 guidelines. The assessment of the gingival health and treatment needs of the students was performed using the CPITN index as recommended by the WHO 1987. Six index teeth were examined and the presence of gingival bleeding and calculus was recorded. Results: Dental caries in the sample has increased with a mean of 5.17. Dental caries increased with age with a statistically significant age difference. Females tended to have a higher DMFT of 5.5 compared to males 4.79 with significant difference, only 6.6% of the sample was caries free. The majority of the samples needed one surface fillings with a mean of 3.6/child. Other dental treatments were needed to a lesser extent. Regarding the periodontal status, the disease was present in 97.5% of the sample, there was no significant age difference regarding periodontal health. Females tended to have a healthier gin-giva compared to males with significant difference. Regarding periodontal treatment needs, 97.5% of the sample required dental health education, while 65.9 % required professional scaling and polishing. Conclusions: To improve children’s oral health, community school-based oral health educational pro-grams should be established starting from primary and extending to intermediate schools, stressing on sugar restriction and oral hygiene measures, fluorides and fissure sealants can effectively be used too.

Antibacterial Effect of Dentin Bonding Agents: (An in vitro Study)

Mahmoud Y Taha; Nadia M Al-Shakir; Nawal A Al-Sabawi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 228-234
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2013.84778

Aims: To evaluate and compare the antibacterial effect of three types of dentin bonding agents. Also, to evaluate the antibacterial effect after different time intervals (24, 48, and 72) hs. Materials and Methods: Materials tested in this study were G bond, Single bond (SB), and Excite bond. Tested mi-croorganisms were Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). The antibacterial activity were investigated by agar diffusion test performed with adhesives cured on the surface of dentin discs. Also, the antibacterial effect were investigated by evaluation of growth inhibi-tion after 24, 48, and 72 hrs microplate direct contact test using spectrophotometer. The data were ana-lyzed statistically using one way ANOVA and Tukeyʼs test. Results: G bond had antibacterial effect by the two tests and against the two examined bacteria significantly higher than SB and Excite, also SB significantly had antibacterial effect better than Excite bond. The result also revealed that antibac-terial effect of SB and Excite Bond significantly decreased by the time while G bond was not signifi-cantly decrease. Conclusions: Under the limitation of the present study, it is concluded that G bond is able to delay bacterial growth during restorative treatment of dental caries

Effect of Relining Curing Methods on Some Properties of Acrylic Resin Denture Base (Part II)

Nadira A Hatim; Aliaa W AL-Omari

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 211-220
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2013.84775

Aims: To investigate the effect of relining by using two curing methods (water bath, or microwave) on some properties ( surface hardness, color property, residual monomer, and porosity) of relined acrylic resin denture base. Materials and methods: The study was done by preparing 320 samples, divided into two parts, the first part involved studying surface hardness, color property, residual monomer, and porosity of samples representing a denture base cured by water bath curing method, and the samples of second part cured by microwave curing method, then the effect of relining by the two curing methods (water bath, and microwave) were evaluated. Samples with dimensions of 30×15×3 ± 0.03mm for the indentation hardness test, 45×10×2.5mm for the color property test, 20×20×3mm for residual monomer test were prepared in this study. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: surface hardness of denture base cured by microwave was significantly higher (at P=0.05) than denture base cured by water bath, all the relined samples has sig-nificant higher absorbance, and showed that the elusion of monomer was higher at the 1st day. Conclu-sions: Surface hardness, color property and residual monomer of the acrylic resin denture base were affected by relining. Microwave curing method gave better mechanical, and physical properties of the relined acrylic resin denture base, the amount of residual monomer was less in the microwave curing method. Both curing methods gave samples free from porosities.

Comparison of Lip Analyses in Skeletal Class I Normal Occlusion and Class II Division 1 Malocclusion

Niam R Al–Saleem

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 192-201
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2013.84690

Aims: To 1. Assess the horizontal lip position and lip thickness in both Class I and Class II Division 1 subjects; 2. To investigate the effect of gender on the horizontal lip position and lip thickness; 3. To identify the effect of skeletal differences on lip position and thickness. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 60 cephalometric radiographs of 30 dental and skeletal Class I subjects (15 males, 15 females) and 30 dental and skeletal Class II Division 1 subjects (15 males, 15 females). The hori-zontal lip position and thickness was analyzed using 11 linear and 4 angular measurements. Using SPSS software package (version 11.5), descriptive statistics and independent sample t–test were meas-ured to compare between the two Classes and two genders. The differences were considered significant at p < 0.05. Results: In Class I no significant differences were noticed in most of the variables except in upper lip (Ls) to Steiner line and lower lip (Li) to Holdaway line where females showed more retruded position and larger nasolabial angle (NLA) when compared to males. In Class II Division 1 subjects, the upper and lower lips were significantly protrusive in males when compared with females in relation to Sushner line (S2). Class II Division 1 males showed more protruded upper and lower lips in relation to S2 line, significantly smaller Z angle and higher H angle when compared with Class I males. Comparison between Class I and Class II Division 1 females showed a significantly higher val-ue of upper lip in relation to Steiner line (S1), and significantly smaller upper and lower lips in relation to E line, smaller Z angle and larger H angle. Conclusions: Some of the variables were not affected neither by gender nor by skeletal base while other showed statistically significant differences following gender or skeletal Class or both. However, the effect of skeletal base difference was more obvious as higher number of significant differences were seen between the two Classes

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Citrus Juices: An In Vitro Study

Nahla O Tawfik; Siba M Al-Haliem; Waidulla N Al-Ani

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 376-382
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.9030

Aims: This work aimed at determining the antibacterial activity of three Citrus Juice on Staphylococ-cus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: The antibacteri-al activities of juices of three types of Citrus (C.) fruit, C. limon (lemon), C. aurantium (bitter orange) and C. paradisi (grapefruit), against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria using four concen-trations of these juices by agar diffusion method with measurement of diameter of the zone of inhibi-tion around the extracts. Results: The results confirmed the presence of anti bacterial activity of the Citrus juice. The highest inhibition zone (18 mm) was observed with a 10% concentration of C. para-dises juice on Staphylococcus aureus, but Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resis-tant. C. limon and C. aurantium juice at 10% and 5% concentration gave positive results with bacteri-cidal effects on the three tested bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The zones of inhibition of C. limon were 10, 12 and 13mm for 5% and 15, 21 and 20 mm for 10% respectively. For C. aurantium, they were 18, 19 and 20 mm for 5% concentration and 16, 19 and 19 mm for 10% concentration respectively. Those effects were better than those produced by stan-dard antibiotic disc used for comparison. Conclusions: The use of different concentrations of Citrus juice extracts had an effective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Causes of Primary and Permanent Teeth Extraction in Children Aged 3–12 Years in Mosul City

Aghareed Gh. Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 238-245
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2008.9065

Aims: To establish the different reasons of primary and permanent teeth extraction and the most frequent tooth type extracted among children attending the pedodontic and preventive dentistry clinic at
Collage of Dentistry ,Mosul University. Materials and Methods: Out of the 375 pediatric patients aged 3–12 years–old attending pedodontic and preventive dentistry clinic, 130 child patients were selected
for this study. The teeth were examined carefully, the tooth that needed to be extracted was recorded to determine the cause of extraction for each tooth according to the criteria gathered and modified from the following researchers, Cahen et al; Kay and Blinkhorn and Cawson. Results: Statistical results showed highly significant difference at p < 0.001 between primary and permanent teeth and the
cause of tooth extraction, as extraction due to caries was the main reason for primary tooth extraction while extraction for orthodontic treatment was the major cause for permanent tooth extraction. The first
premolar recorded 43.6% this result showed highly significant difference at p < 0.001 compared with other permanent teeth to be extracted, while the first primary molar registered the higher value as an extracted primary tooth type (35.6%) with high significant difference at p < 0.001. Conclusion: Although
caries and it is sequelae were the most common causes of premature loss of a primary tooth, an increasing need for tooth extraction for orthodontic treatment in this population of children was observed.

The Effect of Honey on the Healing of Oral Ulcers(Clinical Study).

Shatha S Mohamed; Asmaa S Al-Douri

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 157-160
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2008.9066

Aim: to assess the effect of honey on healing of recurrent aphthous ulcers. Materials and Methods:
fifty patients with minor oral ulcers (2–5 mm) were attended to consultant clinic in the College of Dentistry demanding a treatment for their painful ulcers were treated by either kenalog in orabase or the
application of honey dressing. Results: The ulcerations have almost completely disappeared after 3 days treatment by honey dressing. Conclusions: Honey has an obvious influence on the rate of healing
process of the oral ulcers.

The Effect of Nigella Sativa Oil (Black Seed) on the Healing of Chemically In-duced Oral Ulcer in Rabbit (Experimen-tal Study)

Asmaa S AL-Douri; Sahar Gh A Al-kazaz

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 151-157
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.45402

Aims: To find out the effect of topical Nigella Sativa oil on healing of chemically induced oral ulcer. Materials and Methods: Twelve rabbits were used and divided into control and treated groups, the ulcers were induced by injection of 0.3 ml 1%formalin in rabbit cheek mucosa and were treated by daily application of black cumin (N.S) twice on the ulcer site for 3days then the animals were sacri-ficed 5days later. Results: Nigella Sativa (N.S) showed marked anti inflammatory activity on a chemi-cally induced oral ulcer in experimental animals ,histological examination of biopsies from ulcers after three days of treatment revealed difference in the rate of epithelization and healing process of ulcers between the two groups, N.S treatment showed significant enhancement of healing of the ulcers. Con-clusions: Nigella Sativa oil has an obvious effect on the rate of healing process of oral ulcer.

Criteria for selection of Implant cases

Nadira A Hatim; Rawa Younis Al-Rawee; Bashar Abdul Ghani Tawfeeq

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 161-170
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40136

Aims: To evaluate upper and lower limits of the parameters used such as (age, sex, or selection of
patient), and to detect the grade of understanding and acceptance of Iraqi publics for the implant
surgery (education level). Materials and Methods: From a total of 300 patients seeking implant
therapy in Al–Salam Hospital Implantology Center, only 45 patients were chosen to undergo implant
surgery with age group 17– >60 years during the period from February 2002 to February 2005. A case
sheet was specially prepared for this study containing information needed to determine the suitable
criteria of implantation. Frialit–2 implant system was used with its different lengths and widths (color–
coded). Maxillary and mandibular impressions, registration of maxillo–mandibular jaw relation records
were done for each patient to record all findings. Data were collected and statically analyzed. Results:
The higher age group patients were 17–30 years with percentage 5.33%, while non–operated patients
51–60 years showed high percentage of 29.66%. Criteria of the forty five patients (22 females and 23
males) participated in this study were statistically analyzed concerning the economical level. The
operated patients showed 57.77% level I (high), 40% level II (moderate) and 2.22% level III (low).
While for education level showed 53.3% level I, 42.2% level II and 4.4% level III. Conclusion: Low
percentage of educational level of patients need an explanation about surgical and prosthetic parts of
dental implant to elevate the education level of patients. In addition to educational level, economical
level of patient plays an important role in the criteria for selection of patients.

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Citrus Juices: An In Vitro Study

Nahla O Tawfik; Siba M Al-Haliem; Waidulla N Al-Ani

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 376-382
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.9030

Aims: This work aimed at determining the antibacterial activity of three Citrus Juice on Staphylococ-cus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: The antibacteri-al activities of juices of three types of Citrus (C.) fruit, C. limon (lemon), C. aurantium (bitter orange) and C. paradisi (grapefruit), against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria using four concen-trations of these juices by agar diffusion method with measurement of diameter of the zone of inhibi-tion around the extracts. Results: The results confirmed the presence of anti bacterial activity of the Citrus juice. The highest inhibition zone (18 mm) was observed with a 10% concentration of C. para-dises juice on Staphylococcus aureus, but Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resis-tant. C. limon and C. aurantium juice at 10% and 5% concentration gave positive results with bacteri-cidal effects on the three tested bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The zones of inhibition of C. limon were 10, 12 and 13mm for 5% and 15, 21 and 20 mm for 10% respectively. For C. aurantium, they were 18, 19 and 20 mm for 5% concentration and 16, 19 and 19 mm for 10% concentration respectively. Those effects were better than those produced by stan-dard antibiotic disc used for comparison. Conclusions: The use of different concentrations of Citrus juice extracts had an effective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Causes of Primary and Permanent Teeth Extraction in Children Aged 3–12 Years in Mosul City

Aghareed Gh. Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 238-245
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2008.9065

Aims: To establish the different reasons of primary and permanent teeth extraction and the most frequent tooth type extracted among children attending the pedodontic and preventive dentistry clinic at
Collage of Dentistry ,Mosul University. Materials and Methods: Out of the 375 pediatric patients aged 3–12 years–old attending pedodontic and preventive dentistry clinic, 130 child patients were selected
for this study. The teeth were examined carefully, the tooth that needed to be extracted was recorded to determine the cause of extraction for each tooth according to the criteria gathered and modified from the following researchers, Cahen et al; Kay and Blinkhorn and Cawson. Results: Statistical results showed highly significant difference at p < 0.001 between primary and permanent teeth and the
cause of tooth extraction, as extraction due to caries was the main reason for primary tooth extraction while extraction for orthodontic treatment was the major cause for permanent tooth extraction. The first
premolar recorded 43.6% this result showed highly significant difference at p < 0.001 compared with other permanent teeth to be extracted, while the first primary molar registered the higher value as an extracted primary tooth type (35.6%) with high significant difference at p < 0.001. Conclusion: Although
caries and it is sequelae were the most common causes of premature loss of a primary tooth, an increasing need for tooth extraction for orthodontic treatment in this population of children was observed.

The Effect of Honey on the Healing of Oral Ulcers(Clinical Study).

Shatha S Mohamed; Asmaa S Al-Douri

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 157-160
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2008.9066

Aim: to assess the effect of honey on healing of recurrent aphthous ulcers. Materials and Methods:
fifty patients with minor oral ulcers (2–5 mm) were attended to consultant clinic in the College of Dentistry demanding a treatment for their painful ulcers were treated by either kenalog in orabase or the
application of honey dressing. Results: The ulcerations have almost completely disappeared after 3 days treatment by honey dressing. Conclusions: Honey has an obvious influence on the rate of healing
process of the oral ulcers.

The Effect of Nigella Sativa Oil (Black Seed) on the Healing of Chemically In-duced Oral Ulcer in Rabbit (Experimen-tal Study)

Asmaa S AL-Douri; Sahar Gh A Al-kazaz

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 151-157
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.45402

Aims: To find out the effect of topical Nigella Sativa oil on healing of chemically induced oral ulcer. Materials and Methods: Twelve rabbits were used and divided into control and treated groups, the ulcers were induced by injection of 0.3 ml 1%formalin in rabbit cheek mucosa and were treated by daily application of black cumin (N.S) twice on the ulcer site for 3days then the animals were sacri-ficed 5days later. Results: Nigella Sativa (N.S) showed marked anti inflammatory activity on a chemi-cally induced oral ulcer in experimental animals ,histological examination of biopsies from ulcers after three days of treatment revealed difference in the rate of epithelization and healing process of ulcers between the two groups, N.S treatment showed significant enhancement of healing of the ulcers. Con-clusions: Nigella Sativa oil has an obvious effect on the rate of healing process of oral ulcer.

Criteria for selection of Implant cases

Nadira A Hatim; Rawa Younis Al-Rawee; Bashar Abdul Ghani Tawfeeq

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 161-170
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40136

Aims: To evaluate upper and lower limits of the parameters used such as (age, sex, or selection of
patient), and to detect the grade of understanding and acceptance of Iraqi publics for the implant
surgery (education level). Materials and Methods: From a total of 300 patients seeking implant
therapy in Al–Salam Hospital Implantology Center, only 45 patients were chosen to undergo implant
surgery with age group 17– >60 years during the period from February 2002 to February 2005. A case
sheet was specially prepared for this study containing information needed to determine the suitable
criteria of implantation. Frialit–2 implant system was used with its different lengths and widths (color–
coded). Maxillary and mandibular impressions, registration of maxillo–mandibular jaw relation records
were done for each patient to record all findings. Data were collected and statically analyzed. Results:
The higher age group patients were 17–30 years with percentage 5.33%, while non–operated patients
51–60 years showed high percentage of 29.66%. Criteria of the forty five patients (22 females and 23
males) participated in this study were statistically analyzed concerning the economical level. The
operated patients showed 57.77% level I (high), 40% level II (moderate) and 2.22% level III (low).
While for education level showed 53.3% level I, 42.2% level II and 4.4% level III. Conclusion: Low
percentage of educational level of patients need an explanation about surgical and prosthetic parts of
dental implant to elevate the education level of patients. In addition to educational level, economical
level of patient plays an important role in the criteria for selection of patients.

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