About Journal

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal (RDENTJ): is an English language, a double-blind peer reviewing system  to assure the quality of publication, scholarly publication in the area of dentistry, open access journal.  Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), this journal is published biannually by the College of Dentistry, University of Mosul, Iraq since 2001. Refereed Scientific Journal deals with fields of dental sciences, requires a 100000 ID  fee for publishing an accepted manuscript. The journal is not financially...
Read More ...

Journal Information

Publisher: University of Mosul

Email:  alrafidaindentj@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Nada M. Saeed Al-Sayagh

Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Choice Between Composite and Amalgam Restorations According to Dentists and Patients Perception

Hanan Mahmood; Asaad Mohammed Abd-alqader; Raya jasm Al-Naimi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 1-17
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.126468.1015

Aims : The aim of the current study was to evaluate dentists and patients choices of type of restorative materials applied in fillings and their knowledge about the mercury content in amalgam restorations. Methods: a cross sectional descriptive study based on two types of questionnaire, one for the dentists(119) and the other specific for the patients (500) were distributed to determine the knowledge and awareness, preference of amalgam and composite restorations. Results: showed that the of awareness of the dentists about the amalgam controversy came from different sources, half of the dentists sample stated amalgam restorations were safe, were as 21% stated it unsafe. Placement of the selected restoration(either type) was influenced by different factors, recall appointments of patients complaining from several complaint was mostly from composite. For patients 67.6 % didn’t have any knowledge about harmful effect of mercury release from amalgam with the majority of the patients stating that they preferred composite or a tooth colored restoration. Conclusion: with in the limitations of this study awareness of safety of dental amalgam among the dentists was low, with a large agreement that postoperative complications were mainly due to composite restorations. For the patients the majority did not know anything about issues related to the mercury content of the amalgam and majority of them favored the placement of composite restoration similar to the color of their teeth.

Kinesiology Tape in Comparison with Submucosal Injection of Dexamethasone in Reducing Pain and Swelling After Surgical Removal of Impacted Lower Wisdom Teeth

Issam Abdullah Mohammed; Ziad Hazim Deleme

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 18-24
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164519

The purposes of the suggested research are to assess the effectiveness of different protocols in decreasing oedema and aching post extraction of third wisdom teeth. Materials and Methods: The research involved thirty patients whom had impacted mandibular wisdom teeth of different local anatomical locations. Kinesiology adhesive tape put for one week only for 15 cases and Dexamethasone 8 mg submucosaly injected directly post operatively for other 15 cases. swelling was calculated by a tape scale means from known points and mean taken also pain evaluated by VAS using ribbon gauge degreed from 1 to 10. Calculations had been applied for the first day of surgical intervention, 3rd day and seventh day. Results: There was no significant statistical differences were documented statistically for oedema readings concerning two study methods on the reading day one, three and seven following the operation, and there were highly significant readings related to pain parameters. Conclusions: Usage of Kinesiology adhesive tape clinically was closely with a same advantageousness with Dexamethasone injection submucosaly in dropping the oedema and pain parameter, although clinically dexamethasone was better in both parameters than Kinesiology tape, so it can be used additionally in contraindicated cases of prescribing steroids for alleviating ache, oedema following to wisdom teeth surgery.

Challenge Skills Criteria for Dental Implants Success in Inferior Alveolar Nerve Lateralization and Transposition

Rawaa Y. Al-Rawee; Bashar Abdul-Ghani Tafeeq; Radhwan Hazim Al-Khashab

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 25-35
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164518

Abstract
Objectives: direct the surgeons to solve the problem of insufficient posterior alveolar ridge height for successful dental implants.Materials and Methods: Case series: Four patients underwent inferior alveolar nerve translocation operation with dental implant, One male and 3 females. Intervention and outcome: Cases divided to 2 groups, group A in which surgery done under local anesthesia were the bony windows not involve the mental nerve (the window done distal to mental nerve). Group B underwent surgery under general anesthesia with bony window involve mental nerve. Result: Survival rate of the I.A.N. were 100% with 9 succeed dental implants inserted with the translocation of the nerve. Fixed prosthesis delivered with good satisfaction of these patients. Parasthesia extend between 3 weeks up to 8 weeks with complete recovery after 6 months. Patients followed for 6 years.
Conclusion: IAN Lateralization and Transposition is the most appropriate choice for dental fixture replacement in atrophied posterior mandible rather than other choices as bone augmentation or short implants. Although skill, precise and experience challenges must available in the surgeon for optimal and long term success result. Avoidance of permanent injury to the IAN should be avoided by accurate clinical and radiographical examination. Patient choice for local or general anesthesia has no effect on surgeries itself.

Histological Effects of Cytarabine on Liver and Buccal Mucosa in Mice

Ghasaq Ahmad dawood; Ghada Abd Alrhman Taqa; Manar Alnema

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 36-45
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164521

Aims : This study aimed to investigate the histopathological effect of cytarabine drug on liver and buccal mucosa in mice. Materials and Methods: Sixteen male albino mice were randomly assigned to two experimental groups and housed as eight animals /cage as a group.Control Group: was given daily I.P distilled water   for 5 days. Cytarabine Group: was given daily Cytarabine at dose (100mg/kg/ I.P) for 5 days. At the end of experiment, all animals were sacrificed and liver in addition to the  buccal mucosa were excised and placed in 10%  buffered formalin solution for histological preparation and evaluation. Results: histopathological study of cytarabine treatment group showed multiple changes in liver like defused vacuolar swelling with abnormal hepatic cords patterns, congested sinusoids and multiple foci of apoptotic cells while in buccal mucosa sections revealed a severely shrinkaged and atrophied appearance of mucus-salivary glands, vacuolation of the stratified squamous epithelium and interstitial edema. Conclusions: this study concluded the direct cytotoxicity of cytarabine to liver and buccal mucosa. So caution should be taken when administrating the drug to patient with liver or salivary glands dysfunction. 

Histological Effects of Adding Gold to the Eggshell nHA and Seashell nHA on Rabbits Wound Healing

Banan Alhussary; Ghada Abd Alrhman Taqa; Amer A. Taqa

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 46-54
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164522

Aims:To evaluate the histological effect of the gold alone and gold with nanohydroxyapitite(nHA ) of  (eggshell and seashell) on healing in the rabbit’s mandibular bone .  Materials and Methods: twelve male rabbit were assigned to form four experimental groups and three animals in each groups, small groove was done in the rabbits mandibular bone: Group 1: control groups (groove was not filled by anything), Group 2: gold alone (groove was filled by gold), Group 3: eggshell nHA with 5% from gold (groove was filled with eggshell nHA with gold 5% ) and Group 4: seashell nHA with gold 5% from (groove was filled with seashell nHA with 5% from gold).Results: Histological study of adding the gold showed increasing in bone healing like space filling and newly formed bone trabeculi and highly number of lacuna  compare with control groups while when adding the gold with nHA (eggshell and seashell) showed more enhancing in bone healing compare  with control and gold alone.  Conclusion: this study concluded that the addition of gold on nHA (eggshell and seashell) was  successfully increasing in bone healing compare with control group.

Effect of Herbal Mouthwash on Salivary pH in Orthodontic Patients

Israa R. Rafed Alkasso; Ghada Abd Alrhman Taqa; Sarmad S. Al qassar

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 55-62
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164525

Aims: The aims of present study were to analyze herbal mouthwash effects on salivary buffering capacity of orthodontic patients after acidogenic challenge by taking a carbonated beverage (coca cola® soft drink), in comparison with baseline pH and determine the duration of action of this mouthwash at which it will persist to protect teeth enamel and oral mucosa  from acidic pH. Materials and Methods: Ten patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances were included in this study. baseline pH for each patient was detected. Each patient was instructed to take one cup of carbonated beverage (coca cola), the mouth pH was re measured directly after coca cola drinking. The patients were asked to gargle with herbal mouthwash for 5-10 seconds, the saliva pH was re detected for each patient after 0, 5,10,15 minute. Results:  A significant reduction in  salivary pH was found after coca cola drinking (5.47 ± 0.689) was found in comparison with baseline pH (6.65 ± 0.303), salivary pH at 0, 5, 10 and 15 mins from herbal Mouthwash (6.79 ± 0.110),  (6.7 ± 0.115) , (6.58 ± 0.139)  and (6.53 ± 0.188) respectively at  (P value<0.05), while there were no differences among rest pH measurements. Conclusion: application of herbal mouthwash elevated saliva pH directly higher than baseline pH and was effective in enhancing saliva buffering capacity. However, there were no significant differences in pH after taking herbal mouthwash at different times.

Chlorohexidine vs Herbal mouthwash effects on Salivary pH in Orthodontic patients

Israa R. Alkasso; Ghada Abd Alrhman Taqa; Sarmad S. Al qassar

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 63-72
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164523

Aims: This is a comparative study for two different mouthwashes (Herbal mouthwash vs Chlorohexidine mouthwash) on salivary pH in Orthodontic patients after acidogenic challenge by taking a carbonated beverage, compare it with baseline pH and determined the duration of action of mouthwash at which it will persist to protect teeth and oral mucosa from acidic pH. Materials and Methods: Twenty orthodontic patients were involved, 10 patients in each group, after taking one cup of carbonated beverage, they were gargling with one mouthwash for 5-10 seconds, then saliva pH was measuring in 0,5,10,15 minutes after gargling. Results: significant difference in pH after Pepsi drinking (5.47 ± 0.689) in compare with Baseline pH(6.65 ± 0.303), pH after Herbal Mouthwash at 0 time(6.79 ± 0.110),  pH after 5mins(6.7 ± 0.115) from Herbal Mouthwash, pH after 10mins from Herbal Mouthwash (6.58 ± 0.139) and pH after 15mins from herbal mouthwash (6.53 ± 0.188), pH after zero min from gargling with  Chlorohexidine Mouthwash )6.73 ± 0.231(, pH after 5mins from Chlorohexidine Mouthwash (6.59 ± 0.159), pH after 10mins from Chlorohexidine mouthwash   (6.51 ± 0.166)and significant difference in pH after 15mins from Chlorohexidine mouthwash(6.37 ± 0.194) in compare with baseline pH  at  (P<0.05), while there were no significant differences between baseline salivary pH and the other pH measurement. Conclusion: Application both mouthwashes were elevated saliva pH directly higher than baseline pH and both are effective in enhancing saliva buffering capacity.

Anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D3 on chronic gingivitis

Asmaa Y Thanoon; Faehaa Azher Al-Mashhadane

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 73-82
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164541

Aims: To investigate the effects of vitamin D3 on chronic   gingivitis and to evaluate its effect on Tumor necrosis factor-α and Interleukin-6 in their saliva. Material and Method: Forty patients were classified into two groups: - group 1: (20) chronic gingivitis patients, did not receive any medication (control group), group 2: (20) chronic gingivitis patients (treatment group), received Vitamin D3 1000IU capsule/ day. Scaling and polishing have been carried out for each volunteer to reach the base line for gingival index, oral hygiene index and calculus index. Then these indices were measured for all patients on the next day, after 3 weeks and after 6 weeks in both groups. Five milliliters of unstimulated saliva were collected for measurement of human salivary Tumor necrosis factor-α and Interleukin-6 by ELISA Kits.  Results: significant differences were observed between treatment and control groups throughout study days with significant reduction in oral health indices in 21st and 42nd days of treatment group. Comparisons between the salivary parameters showed significant decreases in Tumor necrosis factor-α and Interleukin-6 levels throughout 1st, 21st and 42nd day in treatment group, while in control group no significant differences were observed for IL-6 but significant increase in levels of TNF α was detected.  Conclusion: Vitamin D3 has beneficial effect during treatment of chronic gingivitis.

Antioxidant Effect of Folic Acid and its Relation to Salivary Proteins and Oral Health

Rawia Fehr Al-Basrawi; Faehaa azher Al-Mashhadane

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 83-94
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164540

Aims: To assay the effect of systemic treatment with folic acid on salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total protein (TP) in relation to oral health indices of patients with chronic gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Forty patients were classified into two groups :- Group 1: (n:20) chronic gingivitis patients, did not receive any medication (control group), Group 2: (n:20) chronic gingivitis patients (treatment group), received 1 mg\day oral tablet of folic acid for 42 days. At the beginning of study, scaling and polishing have been carried out for each volunteer to reach the base line for gingival index and oral hygiene index. In the next day, these indices were measured for all participants , then measured after 21 days then after 42 days from treatment.  At all visits, five milliliters of unstimulated saliva were collected for measurement of salivary TAC and salivary TPby spectrophotometer. Results: the results revealed that there is a significant difference in salivary TAC of treatment group after 6 weeks, no significant difference in salivary TP during study period, no significant difference in gingival index and oral hygiene index between treatment and control group. Conclusions: sub-acute using of systemic folic acid in chronic gingivitis patients improves salivary TAC and decrease salivary TP slightly .
Results: the results revealed that there is significant difference in s. TAC of treatment group after 6 weeks, no significant difference in salivary TP during study period, no significant difference in gingival index and oral hygiene index of treatment group Conclusions: sub-acute using of systemic folic acid in chronic gingivitis patients improves salivary TAC and decrease salivary TP slightly .

CAD-CAM Technology: A literature review

Mohammed A Abdulla; Hala Ali; Raghad S Jamel

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 95-113
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164542

Aims: this article focus some of an important aspects related to a CAD/ CAM technology including: applications, designing, construction by the use of computerized controlling machines that developed very fastly in the last two decays. Conclusions: CAD/CAM technology is attained finished different dental restorations through designing and milling processes of a two dimensional or three dimensional models using different ready blocks by numerical controlled machines.

Antioxidant effect of vitamin D-3 and its relation to salivary protein and oral health

Asmaa Y Thanoon; Faehaa azher Al-Mashhadane

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 114-124
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.126781.1024

Aims: To investigate the antioxidant effects of vitamin D3 on oral health and to evaluate its effect on total salivary proteins in saliva. Materials and Methods: Forty patients were classified into two groups: Group 1: (20) chronic gingivitis patients, did not receive vitamin D3 (control group), Group 2: (20) chronic gingivitis patients (treatment group), received Vitamin D3 1000IU capsule. Scaling and polishing have been carried out for each volunteer to reach the base line for plaque index, gingival index, oral hygiene index and calculus index. In the next day, these indices were measured for all participants, then measured after 3 weeks then after 6 weeks from treatment.  At the same visits, five milliliters of unstimulated saliva were collected for measurement of total salivary proteins and total antioxidant capacity. Results: there were significant reduction in oral health indices in 21st and 42nd days of the study which mean good response to treatment and improvement in gingival health. Conclusion: Vitamin D3 can be a good adjuvant in periodontal therapyKey words: vitamin D3 , antioxidant, salivary protein, oral health.

Rapid Detection of Candida species Isolated from Denture Stomatitis Patients using Phenotypic methods and Chromogenic agar media

Hayffaa Abdulla; Eman Abdul Aziz Mustafa

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 125-133
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.126821.1029

Aims: The purpose of this study was Isolation and phenotypic identification of different candida species isolated from denture stomatitis patients. Materials and Methods : Over all 62 isolates of Candida species yielded from 43 patients attending prosthodontic department\College of Dentistry\Mosul university\Dental teaching Hospital. Clinically, the samples processed by traditional methods including culture characteristics, gram staining reaction , germ tube, chlamydospore formation, culture on CHROM agar Candida  , Sabouraud Dextrose agar, urea's test and Carbohydrates fermentation  test. Results: All isolates were accurately diagnosed to the species level by various traditional methods , among the total of 62 Candida species , the predominant type was the Candida albicans which accounted for (46.8%) followed by Candida glabrata (33.9%), Candida tropicalis (17.7%), finally the species Candida krusei accounted for (1.6%). Conclusions: Candida albicans is highly spreading among patients wearing dentures particularly those suffering from denture stomatitis in which  CHROM agar Candida medium is best method for rapid identification  and documentation of different Candida species . 

The Effects of Combining Drill Diameters Bypass, and Implant Bed under Preparation Protocols on Primary Stability of Dental Implant in Low-Density Bones (Experimental Study)

Zaid Bashir; Mohammad Sulaiman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 134-142
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.126765.1023

Aims: The aim of the current study is to compare the impact of using different drilling protocols on the dental implants primary stability inserted in the low-density bones. Materials and Methods: Out of twenty-two, ten oxen ribs were used in this in-vitro study. Using computed tomography (CT) scan, the most proximal three centimeters (cm) of the rib was confirmed to be a low-density bone comparable to human edentulous jaw bones. Forty dental implants were inserted, each rib received four dental implants using four different techniques that are arranged into four study groups:Group (I): includes a number of ten dental implants where the drilling burs and implants have the same size. Fit-size technique (F.G).Group (II): includes a number of ten dental implants where the diameter of the drilling burs is less than the implant diameter. Under-sized technique (U.G) Group (III): includes a number of ten dental implants where the simplified drilling protocol (Drill bypass) (D.G) was used for insertion.Group (IV): includes a number of ten dental implants where combined drilling protocols (C.G) (Undersized U.G+ Drill bypass D.G) were used for insertion. Results: Results revealed a statistically significant difference in the mean of insertion torque values (IT) between combined group (C.G) (65.000 N.cm) and fit-sized group (F.G) (45.0000 N.cm).Concerning Periotest M, a statistically significant difference was found in the mean of (PTV) between combined group (C.G) (-6.4500) and fit-sized group. A statistically highly significant correlation was found between insertion torque values (ITs) and Periotest M values (PTVs). Conclusion: Dental implant insertion in low-density bones using simplified drilling protocol (Drill bypass) (D.G) is better to be combined with undersized implant bed preparation (U.G) to enhance implant primary stability and with less time.Keywords: Kinesiology adhesive tape, Swelling, Pain, Dexamethasone, lower third molar teeth removal.

Role of Multi-Disciplinary Team Clinic in the Management of Orthognathic Patients A Seven Years Review of Orthognathic Surgery

Bashar Tawfeeq; Rawaa Y. Al-Rawee; Younis Saeed; Dina Al-Khashab; Mahmood Ahmed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 143-153
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165621

Aims: to evaluate the need for and benefits of Multi-Disciplinary Team (MDT) clinic in treating orthognathic patients. Materials and Methods: a total number of 272 patients were examined in 2 centers in Mosul. The sample divided into 2 groups, first group diagnosed from Feb 2004 till March 2009 without MDT clinic, while second group diagnosed from April 2009 till July 2011 in MDT clinic, and evaluated for their needs and wants to correct functional and esthetic problems, a criteria were applied to all of them to manage the real need for the surgical work. Results: from total patients seeking treatment, first group were 116 patients, 54 patients (46.5%) operated, while the second group were 156 patients, 33 patients (21.1%) operated. Conclusions: need for surgical correction of facial and gnathic deformities is a three handed subject: patient's real complaint, team work decision and medical staff education.

Surgical Exposure and Orthodontic Treatment of Impacted Maxillary Central Incisors. A Case Report

Khudair A Al-Jumaili; Enas T Al-Jwary; Hind T Jarjees

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 259-265
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2013.84804

Aims: This report describes a case of eleven years old female with impacted maxillary central incisors and presence of two supernumerary teeth .The surgical exposure and orthodontic traction of bilaterally impacted central incisors after removal of impacted supernumerary teeth is presented in this report. Materials and Methods: Clinical, radiographic follow-up and treatment was conducted at the department of orthodontic and maxillofacial surgery in the college of dentistry ,mosul university .The surgical removal of supernumerary teeth done then surgical exposure and orthodontic traction done. Results: The impacted maxillary central in-cisors were successfully positioned and presented an acceptable gingival contour after treat-ment. Conclusion: Maxillary permanent central incisors were successfully positioned in the maxillary arch by surgical exposure and orthodontic traction, which showed good stability.

Trends of Oral Diseases and Treatment Needs in 13-15 Year Old Students in Mosul City Center

Tahani A Al–Sandook; Rayia J Al–Naimi; Karam H Jazrawi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 241-250
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2013.84797

Aims: To determine the trends of the two major dental diseases (dental caries and periodontal disease) in a group of 13-15 year old intermediate school and their treatment needs. Materials and Methods: A total of 516 intermediate school students were examined. Dental caries and treatment needs were as-sessed according to the WHO 1997 guidelines. The assessment of the gingival health and treatment needs of the students was performed using the CPITN index as recommended by the WHO 1987. Six index teeth were examined and the presence of gingival bleeding and calculus was recorded. Results: Dental caries in the sample has increased with a mean of 5.17. Dental caries increased with age with a statistically significant age difference. Females tended to have a higher DMFT of 5.5 compared to males 4.79 with significant difference, only 6.6% of the sample was caries free. The majority of the samples needed one surface fillings with a mean of 3.6/child. Other dental treatments were needed to a lesser extent. Regarding the periodontal status, the disease was present in 97.5% of the sample, there was no significant age difference regarding periodontal health. Females tended to have a healthier gin-giva compared to males with significant difference. Regarding periodontal treatment needs, 97.5% of the sample required dental health education, while 65.9 % required professional scaling and polishing. Conclusions: To improve children’s oral health, community school-based oral health educational pro-grams should be established starting from primary and extending to intermediate schools, stressing on sugar restriction and oral hygiene measures, fluorides and fissure sealants can effectively be used too.

Antibacterial Effect of Dentin Bonding Agents: (An in vitro Study)

Mahmoud Y Taha; Nadia M Al-Shakir; Nawal A Al-Sabawi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 228-234
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2013.84778

Aims: To evaluate and compare the antibacterial effect of three types of dentin bonding agents. Also, to evaluate the antibacterial effect after different time intervals (24, 48, and 72) hs. Materials and Methods: Materials tested in this study were G bond, Single bond (SB), and Excite bond. Tested mi-croorganisms were Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). The antibacterial activity were investigated by agar diffusion test performed with adhesives cured on the surface of dentin discs. Also, the antibacterial effect were investigated by evaluation of growth inhibi-tion after 24, 48, and 72 hrs microplate direct contact test using spectrophotometer. The data were ana-lyzed statistically using one way ANOVA and Tukeyʼs test. Results: G bond had antibacterial effect by the two tests and against the two examined bacteria significantly higher than SB and Excite, also SB significantly had antibacterial effect better than Excite bond. The result also revealed that antibac-terial effect of SB and Excite Bond significantly decreased by the time while G bond was not signifi-cantly decrease. Conclusions: Under the limitation of the present study, it is concluded that G bond is able to delay bacterial growth during restorative treatment of dental caries

Effect of Relining Curing Methods on Some Properties of Acrylic Resin Denture Base (Part II)

Nadira A Hatim; Aliaa W AL-Omari

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 211-220
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2013.84775

Aims: To investigate the effect of relining by using two curing methods (water bath, or microwave) on some properties ( surface hardness, color property, residual monomer, and porosity) of relined acrylic resin denture base. Materials and methods: The study was done by preparing 320 samples, divided into two parts, the first part involved studying surface hardness, color property, residual monomer, and porosity of samples representing a denture base cured by water bath curing method, and the samples of second part cured by microwave curing method, then the effect of relining by the two curing methods (water bath, and microwave) were evaluated. Samples with dimensions of 30×15×3 ± 0.03mm for the indentation hardness test, 45×10×2.5mm for the color property test, 20×20×3mm for residual monomer test were prepared in this study. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: surface hardness of denture base cured by microwave was significantly higher (at P=0.05) than denture base cured by water bath, all the relined samples has sig-nificant higher absorbance, and showed that the elusion of monomer was higher at the 1st day. Conclu-sions: Surface hardness, color property and residual monomer of the acrylic resin denture base were affected by relining. Microwave curing method gave better mechanical, and physical properties of the relined acrylic resin denture base, the amount of residual monomer was less in the microwave curing method. Both curing methods gave samples free from porosities.

Comparison of Lip Analyses in Skeletal Class I Normal Occlusion and Class II Division 1 Malocclusion

Niam R Al–Saleem

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 192-201
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2013.84690

Aims: To 1. Assess the horizontal lip position and lip thickness in both Class I and Class II Division 1 subjects; 2. To investigate the effect of gender on the horizontal lip position and lip thickness; 3. To identify the effect of skeletal differences on lip position and thickness. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 60 cephalometric radiographs of 30 dental and skeletal Class I subjects (15 males, 15 females) and 30 dental and skeletal Class II Division 1 subjects (15 males, 15 females). The hori-zontal lip position and thickness was analyzed using 11 linear and 4 angular measurements. Using SPSS software package (version 11.5), descriptive statistics and independent sample t–test were meas-ured to compare between the two Classes and two genders. The differences were considered significant at p < 0.05. Results: In Class I no significant differences were noticed in most of the variables except in upper lip (Ls) to Steiner line and lower lip (Li) to Holdaway line where females showed more retruded position and larger nasolabial angle (NLA) when compared to males. In Class II Division 1 subjects, the upper and lower lips were significantly protrusive in males when compared with females in relation to Sushner line (S2). Class II Division 1 males showed more protruded upper and lower lips in relation to S2 line, significantly smaller Z angle and higher H angle when compared with Class I males. Comparison between Class I and Class II Division 1 females showed a significantly higher val-ue of upper lip in relation to Steiner line (S1), and significantly smaller upper and lower lips in relation to E line, smaller Z angle and larger H angle. Conclusions: Some of the variables were not affected neither by gender nor by skeletal base while other showed statistically significant differences following gender or skeletal Class or both. However, the effect of skeletal base difference was more obvious as higher number of significant differences were seen between the two Classes

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Citrus Juices: An In Vitro Study

Nahla O Tawfik; Siba M Al-Haliem; Waidulla N Al-Ani

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 376-382
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.9030

Aims: This work aimed at determining the antibacterial activity of three Citrus Juice on Staphylococ-cus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: The antibacteri-al activities of juices of three types of Citrus (C.) fruit, C. limon (lemon), C. aurantium (bitter orange) and C. paradisi (grapefruit), against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria using four concen-trations of these juices by agar diffusion method with measurement of diameter of the zone of inhibi-tion around the extracts. Results: The results confirmed the presence of anti bacterial activity of the Citrus juice. The highest inhibition zone (18 mm) was observed with a 10% concentration of C. para-dises juice on Staphylococcus aureus, but Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resis-tant. C. limon and C. aurantium juice at 10% and 5% concentration gave positive results with bacteri-cidal effects on the three tested bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The zones of inhibition of C. limon were 10, 12 and 13mm for 5% and 15, 21 and 20 mm for 10% respectively. For C. aurantium, they were 18, 19 and 20 mm for 5% concentration and 16, 19 and 19 mm for 10% concentration respectively. Those effects were better than those produced by stan-dard antibiotic disc used for comparison. Conclusions: The use of different concentrations of Citrus juice extracts had an effective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Causes of Primary and Permanent Teeth Extraction in Children Aged 3–12 Years in Mosul City

Aghareed Gh. Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 238-245
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2008.9065

Aims: To establish the different reasons of primary and permanent teeth extraction and the most frequent tooth type extracted among children attending the pedodontic and preventive dentistry clinic at
Collage of Dentistry ,Mosul University. Materials and Methods: Out of the 375 pediatric patients aged 3–12 years–old attending pedodontic and preventive dentistry clinic, 130 child patients were selected
for this study. The teeth were examined carefully, the tooth that needed to be extracted was recorded to determine the cause of extraction for each tooth according to the criteria gathered and modified from the following researchers, Cahen et al; Kay and Blinkhorn and Cawson. Results: Statistical results showed highly significant difference at p < 0.001 between primary and permanent teeth and the
cause of tooth extraction, as extraction due to caries was the main reason for primary tooth extraction while extraction for orthodontic treatment was the major cause for permanent tooth extraction. The first
premolar recorded 43.6% this result showed highly significant difference at p < 0.001 compared with other permanent teeth to be extracted, while the first primary molar registered the higher value as an extracted primary tooth type (35.6%) with high significant difference at p < 0.001. Conclusion: Although
caries and it is sequelae were the most common causes of premature loss of a primary tooth, an increasing need for tooth extraction for orthodontic treatment in this population of children was observed.

Criteria for selection of Implant cases

Nadira A Hatim; Rawa Younis Al-Rawee; Bashar Abdul Ghani Tawfeeq

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 161-170
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40136

Aims: To evaluate upper and lower limits of the parameters used such as (age, sex, or selection of
patient), and to detect the grade of understanding and acceptance of Iraqi publics for the implant
surgery (education level). Materials and Methods: From a total of 300 patients seeking implant
therapy in Al–Salam Hospital Implantology Center, only 45 patients were chosen to undergo implant
surgery with age group 17– >60 years during the period from February 2002 to February 2005. A case
sheet was specially prepared for this study containing information needed to determine the suitable
criteria of implantation. Frialit–2 implant system was used with its different lengths and widths (color–
coded). Maxillary and mandibular impressions, registration of maxillo–mandibular jaw relation records
were done for each patient to record all findings. Data were collected and statically analyzed. Results:
The higher age group patients were 17–30 years with percentage 5.33%, while non–operated patients
51–60 years showed high percentage of 29.66%. Criteria of the forty five patients (22 females and 23
males) participated in this study were statistically analyzed concerning the economical level. The
operated patients showed 57.77% level I (high), 40% level II (moderate) and 2.22% level III (low).
While for education level showed 53.3% level I, 42.2% level II and 4.4% level III. Conclusion: Low
percentage of educational level of patients need an explanation about surgical and prosthetic parts of
dental implant to elevate the education level of patients. In addition to educational level, economical
level of patient plays an important role in the criteria for selection of patients.

Modification of Gypsum Products (Part III): Practical Application of Modified Gypsum Products

Nadira A Hatim; Isam K Al-Khayat; Mohammed A Abdulla

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 17-24
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.8969

Aims: To determine the suitability of new modified Iraqi plaster and modified Plaster of Paris as a cast in microwave curing of acrylic denture base material, and microwave and open air drying methods on the surface roughness and dimensional accuracy of the cast. Materials and methods: Two types of gypsum products were used in this study {(Iraqi plaster, Plaster of Paris) with the combined additives (Gum Arabic 0.5%, calcium oxide 0.75%, and ferric oxide 0.2%), and Type III stone Plaster/Stone 3:1} that incorporated within the two gypsum products. The effects of drying method and combined additives on the surface roughness and dimensional accuracy of the experimental gypsum products, and acrylic denture base pro-duced from the modified gypsum casts have been evaluated. Mean, standard deviation, variance (ANOVA), and Duncan's multiple range tests were used to analyze the measurements. Results: ANOVA test showed that there was a significant difference in the surface roughness and dimensional accuracy between Iraqi plaster and plaster of Paris with or without additives dried in open air and microwave techniques. Conclu-sion: There was slight dimensional change in the gypsum cast with additives of clinical importance to compensate the polymer shrinkage of the acrylic denture base after cooling. There was no significant dif-ference in the average roughness of acrylic resin cured by microwave oven as a curing method. Keywords: acrylic, roughness, dimensional accuracy.

Reinforced Microwave - Cured Acrylic Resin Denture Base Material with Glass Fibers

Radhwan H. Hasan; Mohammed A Abdulla

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 314-321
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.45447

AIMS: To evaluation the Effect of adding glass fibers on the transverse strength and the levels of the residual monomer of specially formulated acrylic resin to be cured by microwave and heat cured acryl-ic resin denture base materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The materials were used in this study heat cured acrylic resin and microwave cured acrylic resin which is formulated to be cured by microwave energy( Acronacrylic resin). Thirty two samples were prepared for transverse strength test and divided into the following groups Control group (I) heat cured alone, group (II) microwave cured alone, the group (III) heat cured+fibers, group (IV) microwave cured+fibers the transverse strength was evaluated by using an Instron testing machine . Thirty two samples were prepared for residual mono-mer test and divided into four groups water bath and microwave cured with and without glass fibers, the residual monomer was evaluated by using ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer for seven days. RESULTS: Transverse strength test: Statistical Analysis of Variance(ANOVA) shows that there is significant differences at (p>0.0001)among the four groups and Duncan's multiple range test showed that microwave cured + fibers significantly higher transverse strength followed by heat cured +fibers, microwave alone, while heat alone shows significantly lowest transverse strength. Residual monomer test: Analysis of variance(ANOVA) for the four groups from the first day of immersion in water until 7th day shows that there are significant differences between the four groups in the all six days except the 7th day shows that there are no significant differences among the four groups for the level of the residual monomer. CONCLUSIONS: Microwave cured acrylic resin with glass fibers have signifi-cantly higher transverse strength than that of acrylic resin cured by water bath, also microwave cured acrylic resin have significantly lower residual monomer content from the 1st day of immersion when compared to that of water bath which show the same level of residual monomer at the 7th day of im-mersion

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Citrus Juices: An In Vitro Study

Nahla O Tawfik; Siba M Al-Haliem; Waidulla N Al-Ani

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 376-382
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.9030

Aims: This work aimed at determining the antibacterial activity of three Citrus Juice on Staphylococ-cus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: The antibacteri-al activities of juices of three types of Citrus (C.) fruit, C. limon (lemon), C. aurantium (bitter orange) and C. paradisi (grapefruit), against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria using four concen-trations of these juices by agar diffusion method with measurement of diameter of the zone of inhibi-tion around the extracts. Results: The results confirmed the presence of anti bacterial activity of the Citrus juice. The highest inhibition zone (18 mm) was observed with a 10% concentration of C. para-dises juice on Staphylococcus aureus, but Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resis-tant. C. limon and C. aurantium juice at 10% and 5% concentration gave positive results with bacteri-cidal effects on the three tested bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The zones of inhibition of C. limon were 10, 12 and 13mm for 5% and 15, 21 and 20 mm for 10% respectively. For C. aurantium, they were 18, 19 and 20 mm for 5% concentration and 16, 19 and 19 mm for 10% concentration respectively. Those effects were better than those produced by stan-dard antibiotic disc used for comparison. Conclusions: The use of different concentrations of Citrus juice extracts had an effective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Causes of Primary and Permanent Teeth Extraction in Children Aged 3–12 Years in Mosul City

Aghareed Gh. Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 238-245
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2008.9065

Aims: To establish the different reasons of primary and permanent teeth extraction and the most frequent tooth type extracted among children attending the pedodontic and preventive dentistry clinic at
Collage of Dentistry ,Mosul University. Materials and Methods: Out of the 375 pediatric patients aged 3–12 years–old attending pedodontic and preventive dentistry clinic, 130 child patients were selected
for this study. The teeth were examined carefully, the tooth that needed to be extracted was recorded to determine the cause of extraction for each tooth according to the criteria gathered and modified from the following researchers, Cahen et al; Kay and Blinkhorn and Cawson. Results: Statistical results showed highly significant difference at p < 0.001 between primary and permanent teeth and the
cause of tooth extraction, as extraction due to caries was the main reason for primary tooth extraction while extraction for orthodontic treatment was the major cause for permanent tooth extraction. The first
premolar recorded 43.6% this result showed highly significant difference at p < 0.001 compared with other permanent teeth to be extracted, while the first primary molar registered the higher value as an extracted primary tooth type (35.6%) with high significant difference at p < 0.001. Conclusion: Although
caries and it is sequelae were the most common causes of premature loss of a primary tooth, an increasing need for tooth extraction for orthodontic treatment in this population of children was observed.

Criteria for selection of Implant cases

Nadira A Hatim; Rawa Younis Al-Rawee; Bashar Abdul Ghani Tawfeeq

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2006, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 161-170
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40136

Aims: To evaluate upper and lower limits of the parameters used such as (age, sex, or selection of
patient), and to detect the grade of understanding and acceptance of Iraqi publics for the implant
surgery (education level). Materials and Methods: From a total of 300 patients seeking implant
therapy in Al–Salam Hospital Implantology Center, only 45 patients were chosen to undergo implant
surgery with age group 17– >60 years during the period from February 2002 to February 2005. A case
sheet was specially prepared for this study containing information needed to determine the suitable
criteria of implantation. Frialit–2 implant system was used with its different lengths and widths (color–
coded). Maxillary and mandibular impressions, registration of maxillo–mandibular jaw relation records
were done for each patient to record all findings. Data were collected and statically analyzed. Results:
The higher age group patients were 17–30 years with percentage 5.33%, while non–operated patients
51–60 years showed high percentage of 29.66%. Criteria of the forty five patients (22 females and 23
males) participated in this study were statistically analyzed concerning the economical level. The
operated patients showed 57.77% level I (high), 40% level II (moderate) and 2.22% level III (low).
While for education level showed 53.3% level I, 42.2% level II and 4.4% level III. Conclusion: Low
percentage of educational level of patients need an explanation about surgical and prosthetic parts of
dental implant to elevate the education level of patients. In addition to educational level, economical
level of patient plays an important role in the criteria for selection of patients.

Modification of Gypsum Products (Part III): Practical Application of Modified Gypsum Products

Nadira A Hatim; Isam K Al-Khayat; Mohammed A Abdulla

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 17-24
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.8969

Aims: To determine the suitability of new modified Iraqi plaster and modified Plaster of Paris as a cast in microwave curing of acrylic denture base material, and microwave and open air drying methods on the surface roughness and dimensional accuracy of the cast. Materials and methods: Two types of gypsum products were used in this study {(Iraqi plaster, Plaster of Paris) with the combined additives (Gum Arabic 0.5%, calcium oxide 0.75%, and ferric oxide 0.2%), and Type III stone Plaster/Stone 3:1} that incorporated within the two gypsum products. The effects of drying method and combined additives on the surface roughness and dimensional accuracy of the experimental gypsum products, and acrylic denture base pro-duced from the modified gypsum casts have been evaluated. Mean, standard deviation, variance (ANOVA), and Duncan's multiple range tests were used to analyze the measurements. Results: ANOVA test showed that there was a significant difference in the surface roughness and dimensional accuracy between Iraqi plaster and plaster of Paris with or without additives dried in open air and microwave techniques. Conclu-sion: There was slight dimensional change in the gypsum cast with additives of clinical importance to compensate the polymer shrinkage of the acrylic denture base after cooling. There was no significant dif-ference in the average roughness of acrylic resin cured by microwave oven as a curing method. Keywords: acrylic, roughness, dimensional accuracy.

Reinforced Microwave - Cured Acrylic Resin Denture Base Material with Glass Fibers

Radhwan H. Hasan; Mohammed A Abdulla

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 314-321
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.45447

AIMS: To evaluation the Effect of adding glass fibers on the transverse strength and the levels of the residual monomer of specially formulated acrylic resin to be cured by microwave and heat cured acryl-ic resin denture base materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The materials were used in this study heat cured acrylic resin and microwave cured acrylic resin which is formulated to be cured by microwave energy( Acronacrylic resin). Thirty two samples were prepared for transverse strength test and divided into the following groups Control group (I) heat cured alone, group (II) microwave cured alone, the group (III) heat cured+fibers, group (IV) microwave cured+fibers the transverse strength was evaluated by using an Instron testing machine . Thirty two samples were prepared for residual mono-mer test and divided into four groups water bath and microwave cured with and without glass fibers, the residual monomer was evaluated by using ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer for seven days. RESULTS: Transverse strength test: Statistical Analysis of Variance(ANOVA) shows that there is significant differences at (p>0.0001)among the four groups and Duncan's multiple range test showed that microwave cured + fibers significantly higher transverse strength followed by heat cured +fibers, microwave alone, while heat alone shows significantly lowest transverse strength. Residual monomer test: Analysis of variance(ANOVA) for the four groups from the first day of immersion in water until 7th day shows that there are significant differences between the four groups in the all six days except the 7th day shows that there are no significant differences among the four groups for the level of the residual monomer. CONCLUSIONS: Microwave cured acrylic resin with glass fibers have signifi-cantly higher transverse strength than that of acrylic resin cured by water bath, also microwave cured acrylic resin have significantly lower residual monomer content from the 1st day of immersion when compared to that of water bath which show the same level of residual monomer at the 7th day of im-mersion

Keyword Cloud