About Journal

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal (RDENTJ): is an English language, a double-blind peer reviewing system  to assure the quality of publication, scholarly publication in the area of dentistry, open access journal.  Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), this journal is published biannually by the College of Dentistry, University of Mosul, Iraq since 2001. We are using iThenticate to prevent plagiarism and to ensure the originality of our submitted manuscripts. Refereed Scientific Journal deals with fields of dental...
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Journal Information

Publisher: University of Mosul

Email:  alrafidain.dent@uomosul.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Assistant Prof. Dr. Rayan Salim Hamed

Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Prevalence of Sagittal Molar Relationship Among Iraqi Adolescents in Erbil City/Iraq

Mokhtar Al-hamidi; Dina Isam Afram Jarjur; Rana Ghaib Husamaddin

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2022.172967

Aims: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of Angle’s molar classification and recording sagittal malocclusion, among (15- 18) years-old-school students; by studying two factors: gender and the socio-economic status, which are represented by the school type as private or public schools. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 593 aged between 15 – 18 years old. Students were included from randomly selected male, female and mixed high schools. Distributed in different areas in Erbil city. Excluding those who previously had orthodontic treatment, orthognathic surgery, missing upper or lower first molar, and students with any contagious diseases. The molar relationship was determined by direct clinical examination according to Angle’s classifications and sub-classifications. Statistical analysis was obtained using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). Pearson Chi-Square test was used to determine the significance among the data’s variables. Results: The findings showed 90.2 % of the subjects had malocclusion, and the prevalence of malocclusion was as the following: Class I 59.1%, Class II 24.7%, Class III 16.2%, respectively. According to gender, Chi-square was significant in molar classification and sub-classification. As for the school type, Chi-square was not significant in molar classification, but it was significant in sub-classification at p-value ≤0.05. Conclusions: Malocclusion is relatively high in Erbil city among adolescents.
 
 
 

The effect of zirconium oxide nanoparticle on the surface roughness of maxillofacial silicone

Israa Hussein; Radhwan H. Hasan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 11-18
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.129297.1078

Aims: The study intended to inspect the consequence of the addition of zirconium oxide (ZrO2) nanoparticle at two concentrations (1% and 1.5% by weight) on the surface roughness of the maxillofacial silicone material (room temperature vulcanized).  Materials and methods: Thirty samples were prepared according to the manufacture instructions and divided into three groups (n=10). A digital surface roughness profilometer tested the surface roughness samples for the control group (A) free from nanoparticle, group (B) 1% ZrO2, group (C) 1.5 % ZrO2. Results: The mean values of the surface roughness measured groups a highly significant difference among groups. Group A (.2137 µm) exhibited a highly significant difference compared to group B (.2698 µm) and group C (.2801 µm). Besides, a highly significant difference between group B and group C. Conclusions: Incorporation of 1% and 1.5% by weight of ZrO2 nanoparticle into maxillofacial silicone material increases surface roughness.

Evaluation of Retention Force of Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and Cast Cobalt-Chromium Circumferential Clasps: A comparative study

Hussain Talal Abed; Aliaa W. Al-Omari

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 19-27
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.129349.1082

Aims: The aim of this in-vitro study was to compare the retention force of Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and Cobalt-Chromium (Co-Cr) clasps by mechanical cycling test simulating ten years of use. Materials and Methods: 72 clasps samples were fabricated on a standardized e-max upper right first premolar, it is divided into 24 Co-Cr clasps, and 48 PEEK clasps which were subdivided into 24 clasps (2.4mm width), and 24 clasps (3.00mm width).Each group was further subdivided (n=8 clasps) into amounts of abutment undercut 0.25mm, 0.50, and 0.75mm undercuts. Mechanical cycling of each clasp was performed for 15000 times on its specific abutment crown. The retention force of each clasp in newton was measured every 1500 cycles by applying a tensile force using a universal tensile machine. Results: The retention force of Co-Cr clasps was higher significantly than the PEEK clasps retention force for the three undercuts. Deeper undercut showed a significantly higher retention force for both materials. All subgroups (except 0.75mm Co-Cr group) exhibit an increase in retention force after first 1500 cycles followed by gradual decrease till the end of 15000 cycles. Conclusions: The retention force of PEEK clasps with both widths along 15000 cycles of insertion/removal were lower than Co-Cr clasps but still sufficient for clinical use at 050, and 0.75mm undercut but not enough at 0.25mm undercut.

Estimation of Fatigue Deformation for Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and Cast Cobalt-Chromium Circumferential Clasps: A comparative study

Hussain Talal Abed; Aliaa W. Al-Omari

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 28-35
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.129387.1083

Aims: This in-vitro study aimed to compare the fatigue deformation of Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and Cobalt-Chromium (Co-Cr) clasps by mechanical cycling test simulating ten years of use. Materials and Methods: 72 clasps samples were fabricated on a standardized e-max upper right first premolar; it is divided into 24 Co-Cr clasps, and 48 PEEK clasps which were subdivided into two halves (2.4, and 3.00) mm width respectively. Each group was further subdivided (n=8 clasps) according to the amounts of abutment undercut (0.25, 0.50, and 0.75) mm respectively. Each clasp was digitally pictured by a microscope before cycling, and then mechanically cycled by a specifically designed insertion-removal apparatus for 15000 times on its specific abutment crown, and at the end of 15000 cycles, each clasp was digitally re-pictured, and the distance between the clasp tips in millimeter of the pre and post cycling pictures were measured with specific analyzing computer program. Results: The fatigue deformation of Co-Cr clasps was higher significantly than the PEEK clasps for the three undercuts. Deeper undercuts showed a significantly higher fatigue deformation for Co-Cr clasps but not significant for PEEK clasps. Conclusion: The fatigue deformation of PEEK clasps with both widths after 15000 cycles of insertion/removal was lower than Co-Cr clasps fatigue deformation.

Effects of Oral Administration of Sodium Fluoride on Oxidative Stress Markers and Salivary Glands (biochemical and histopathological study)

Amina Nafei Bader; Faehaa azher Al-Mashhadane

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 36-45
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2022.129725.1091

Aims: to investigate serum biochemical changes (malondialdehyde levels and T-AOC) and the histopathological changes of salivary glands. Materials and Methods: Twelve healthy mature male rabbits were included in the study.Group one (6 animals): the rabbits were maintained on a standard diet and water without any treatment for 30 days.  Group two (6 animals): the rabbits were given) NaF at the dose of 20 mg/kg/day (dissolved in 400 ml of distilled water for 30 days. At the end of one month of treatment, the animals were sacrificed and (5ml) of blood samples were taken from all animals via jugular vein during the animal sacrificing. Serum were separated from all samples and stored at -20 ˚C till time of analysis by colorimetric Assay kit for both total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) by (Elabscience, Cat. No. E-BC-K136-S, TBA method) and malondialdehyde (MDA) by (Elabscience, Cat.No.E-BC-K025-S, TBA method).Tissue samples from parotid and sub-mandibular salivary glands were isolated and examined under a light microscope for histopathological changes. Results: Significant differences were founded between the values of serum biochemical markers between control and treatment groups. T-AOC in control group was higher than in treatment group, while MDA level in treatment group was higher than control group. Sections of the parotid and submandibular glands taken from the control group appeared to have the normal histological structure compared to the treated group, which showed an acute inflammatory cell infiltration, Hyperemia with thickening of blood vessels wall. Conclusions: NaF at dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 30 days can lead to a decrease in T-AOC with considerable inflammatory changes in tissues of salivary glands of rabbits.

Pre-Orthodontic Myofunctional Trainers Appliance System: A Review

Afrah Khazal; Nada N Alhafidh; Lamiaa Abd Ulrhman Hassan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 46-55
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2022.129848.1096

Abstract: Malocclusion bearings a great weight internationally. Persistent oral habits produce alteration in the activity of orofacial muscles. Early diagnosis and treatment of the orofacial myofunctional disorders render countless welfares by minimizing related malocclusion and reducing the possibility of relapse after orthodontic treatment. Pre orthodontic trainers are innovative types of prefabricated removable functional appliances claimed to train the orofacial musculature; thus correcting malocclusion. This review aimed to search the literature for studies and case reports on the effectiveness of pre-orthodontic trainers on early correction of developing malocclusion and highlight particularly on its structural characteristics and its mechanism of action. Current literature provides sufficient evidence that these appliances are effective in treating Class II malocclusions especially those due to mandibular retrusion. Case reports on Class I malocclusion have reported relief of anterior crowding, alignment of incisors, and correction of deep bite with pre-orthodontic trainers. Promising results with pre-orthodontic trainers are realized in improved nasal breathing, improved swallowing pattern, and removal of habits like tongue thrusting and mouth breathing.

Microleakage of Flowable Composite as Class I Restorative Materials

Makdad Chakmakchi; Fanar Aljadwaa; Shaymaa Hassan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 56-65
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2022.129872.1098

Aims: Evaluate the ability of different a bulk-fill flowable composite sealing around class I cavities compared to conventional composite. Materials and Method: Forty upper premolar teeth prepared with an ideal class I, then distributed according to types of composite resin into four groups (n=10): group I= filling with SDR, group II= filling with Sarmco flowable composite resin, group III= filling with Tg flowable composite resin, finally group IV= filling with Valux plus composite resin (as a control) polymerized by LED light cure unit, varnished and placed in 2% methylene blue then sectioned bucco-palatally. The Micro-leakage was determined by stereomicroscope. Results: There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in mean micro-leakage values between SDR (group I) and Saremco (group II) while there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in micro-leakage values between SDR (group I) and Tg (group III) and Valux plus (group IV). Conclusion: SDR can be applied in 4 mm as a lone layer without negative effect on micro-leakage.

Polarized Light Microscopical Features of Erosion and Remineralization Process by Two Different Mouthwashes

Alaa Adnan Alwattar; Raya jasm Al-Naimi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 66-75
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.129135.1072

الأهداف: تهدف هذه الدراسة الى تقدیر ومقارنة تأثیر غسول الفم المستخلص من قشور الکاکاو مع تأثیر غسول الفم الفلوراید على السمات المجهریة لسطح المینا بعد تعریض الأسنان لنوعین من مشاریب الطاقة. المواد وطرائق العمل: تم جمع عشرین ضاحک أول من الفک العلوی قلعت لغرض التقویم وقسمت عشوائیاً إلى أربع مجامیع، غمرت الأسنان فی المجموعتین الاولیتین فی مشروب الطاقة (التایکر) لمدة 14 یوماً ثم تم غمر احدى المجامیع فی مستخلص قشور الکاکاو والمجموعة الاخرى فی غسول الفم الفلوراید لمدة 7 أیام. اما باقی الاسنان فی المجموعتین الاخریتین تم غمرها فی مشروب الطاقة (الریدبوول) لمدة 14 یوم ثم تم غمر احدى المجامیع فی مستخلص قشور الکاکاو والمجموعة الثانیة فی غسول الفم الفلوراید لمدة 7 أیام. ثم تم تقییم سطح المینا بواسطة المجهر الضوئی المستقطب عند خط الأساس ، بعد التآکل وبعد إعادة التمعدن بمواد المعالجة المختلفة. النتائج: أکدت الصور المجهریة أن التعرض المطول لعینة الأسنان لمشروب الطاقة یمکن أن یتسبب فی تشقق سطح الأسنان وتآکله ، وبینت ان مشروب الطاقة (التایکر) نوعا ما لدیه تأثیر أکثر تدمیراً على مینا الاسنان من مشروب الطاقة (الریدبوول). إلى جانب ذلک ، أظهرت کلتا الغرغرتین إعادة تمعدن للمناطق المتضررة کما بینت الصور المجهریة ان غسول الفم المستخلص من قشور الکاکاو أظهر نوعا ما مناطق إعادة تمعدن أکثر من مجموعات الفلوراید التی تظهر فی صور المجهر الضوئی المستقطب على شکل مناطق غامقة اکثر من باقی مناطق المینا. الاستنتاجات:  فی حدود الدراسة الحالیة ، کان لمستخلص قشور حبوب الکاکاو وغسول الفم الفلورید قدرة فعالة على إعادة التمعدن بعد مشروبات الطاقة التی لها تأثیر مدمر على مینا الأسنان. کما  وأظهر غسول الفم المستخلص من قشور الکاکاو نوعا ما قدرة عالیة على إعادة التمعدن مقارنة بغسول الفم الفلوراید.
 

A Comparative Evaluation of Remineralization after an Erosive Challenge by Two Different Mouthwashes on Surface Roughness

Alaa Adnan Alwattar; Raya jasm Al-Naimi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 76-88
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.129123.1073

Aims: The aims of this study were to evaluate the in vitro effect of a cocoa bean husk extract (CBHE) mouthwash in comparison with that of a fluoridated mouthwash on surface roughness of the enamel surface after subjecting the teeth to two types of energy drink challenge. Materials and Methods: Eighty (80) sound maxillary first premolar were collected and randomly divided into four groups, the teeth in the first and second groups were immersed in a tiger energy drink for 14 days and then one group in a CBHE and another in a fluoride mouth rinses for 7 days. While the remaining teeth in the third and fourth groups were immersed in a red bull energy drink for 14 days and then one group in a CBHE and another in a fluoride mouth rinses for 7 days. Enamel surface was assessed by a profilometer device at a baseline, after erosive challenge and after remineralization with the different treatment materials. Results: In all groups, there was a high statistically significant increase in surface roughness after erosive challenge. Meanwhile, there was a high statistically significant decrease in surface roughness in all groups after remineralization, with no significant differences between energy drinks or remineralization materials. Conclusion: Within the limits of the current study, cocoa bean husk extract and fluoride mouth rinses had an effective remineralizing ability after erosive energy drinks which have a destructive effect on tooth enamel. CBHE mouth wash showed a similar remineralization effect to fluoride groups.

The Effect of Adding Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles to The Cold Cured Acrylic Resin on Candida albicans Adhesion

Nooralhuda W Altaee; Ahmed Asim Al -Ali

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 89-100
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.129391.1084

Aims: This study aims to assess the impact of the addition of MgO nanoparticles(NPs) with size of 50nm at different concentrations,which are 1.25%,2.5% and 5%  on adherence of Candida albicans to cold- cured acrylic resin. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four specimens with the dimensions of (10mm ×10mm×2mm)length, width, and thickness respectively were made and divided into four groups, 6 specimens for each group; controlled (without the addition of  MgO NPs) ,group of 1.25% MgO NPs ,group of 2.5% MgO NPs and group of 5% MgO NPs; were subjected to adherence test. The statistical analysis was done by using SPSS program including descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and the Duncan΄s test at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Results showed that, the maximum reduction in Candida albicans adherence obtained at a concentration of 5% followed by 2.5% then 1.25% ; while the control group showed that the highest number of Candida albicans colonies  adhered to cold-cured acrylic. Conclusions: The MgO NPs influenced the adherence of Candida albicans to cold-cured acrylic resin, there is a significant reduction in the number of Candida albicans attached to cold-cured acrylic modified with MgO nanoparticles at different concentrations;and this reduction  increases with increasing the concentration of MgO nanoparticles.

The Effects of Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles Addition on Flexural Strength of Cold-cured Acrylic Resin material

Nooralhuda W Altaee; Ahmed Asim Al -Ali

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 101-112
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2022.129392.1085

Aims: This study investigates the effects of the addition of magnesium oxide Nanoparticles(MgO NPs)  with size (50 nm) on the flexural strength of cold˗cured acrylic resin. Materials and methods: Forty acrylic specimens were made, which divided into four groups (10 specimens for each group) which were control group (pure acrylic without addition), group of acrylic specimens containing 1.25% MgO NPs,  group of acrylic specimens containing 2.5%MgO NPs, and a group of acrylic specimens containing 5%MgO NPs, the flexural test was performed using the universal testing machine, FTIR test performed using (BRUKER LASER CLASS 1). The statistical analysis was done by using  SPSS program including descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and the Duncan΄s test at p ≤ 0.05. Results: The Maximum mean of flexural strength belong to the group with 1.25% of MgO NPs,the minimum mean of flexural strength belongs to a group with 5% MgO NPs.  Conclusion: The addition of  MgO NPs affected the flexural strength of the cold-cured acrylic resin, it improved the flexural strength at low concentration but decreased it at higher concentratios.

Assessment of Apically Extruded Debris after Using Different Endodontic Instrumentation systems.

Saif Nadhim Hassoon

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 113-123
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.129677.1089

Aims: Assess the quantity of apical extruded debris after instrumentation with ProTaper universal files, K3 files, and Wave One reciprocating file. Materials and Methods: Thirty lower premolars were used in this study. Teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups each one contained 10 samples as follow: Group1- Teeth were prepared with ProTaper universal files. Group2- Teeth were prepared with K3 files. Group3- Teeth were prepared with Wave One file. Debris that was apically extruded during canals preparation was collected in the centrifuge tubes, which previously were weighed. Centrifuge tubes were put for 5 days in the incubator with temperature of 70 °C to allow evaporation of moisture. After that centrifuge tubes that contained debris were weighed, and quantity of extruded debris was determined via subtraction the initial weight of centrifuge tube from the final weight of same tube, then collected data was analyzed statistically. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that, ProTaper group showed highest amount of apical extruded debris followed by Wave One group and, K3 group showed least amount of apical extruded debris. The difference between ProTaper group and Wave One group was not significant, but both of them had significant difference with K3 group. Conclusions: Within the limits of the current study, preparation of root canals with K3 files is better than other groups in terms of less extrusion of apical debris.

Comparative Assessment of Root Canal Sealer’s Apical Sealing Ability

Nur Alalaf; ِِEmad F Alkhalidi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 124-135
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2022.129250.1077

Aims: To compare the apical sealing ability of TotalFill BC, AH Plus Jet, and GuttaFlow Bioseal sealers. Materials and Methods:  Thirty single rooted mandibular premolars were decoronated and standardized at 15mm. The specimens were chemo- mechanically prepared, and randomized into three experimental groups (n =10) according to the root canal sealer tested: TotalFill BC, AH Plus Jet and, GuttaFlow Bioseal. The specimens were filled using single cone technique. The specimens were decalcified, dehydrated, and cleared. The specimens were analyzed by stereomicroscope, and digital images were captured using stereomicroscope attached camera. The apical dye leakage depth was measured and evaluated using four grade scoring system at 10X magnification. The apical micro leakage data among experimental groups were statistically analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and Fisher’s exact test at 5% significance. Results: Statistically, there was no significant difference in apical micro leakage among the experimental root canal sealers. (P> .05) Conclusions: In this study, no experimented root canal sealer had perfect sealing ability. The experimental root canal sealers were similar in their sealing ability at apical area of root canal.

Evaluating the Effect of Diode Laser Irradiation on Microhardness of Bleached Enamel: An in Vitro Study

Alaa H. Ali; Abduladheem Raouf sulaiman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.129175.1076

Aims: To investigate the effect of in-office dental bleaching techniques on the microhardness of enamel and the influence of post bleaching diode laser irradiation on the surface microhardness of bleached enamel. Materials and methods: Forty bovine teeth were prepared and then randomly allocated into two equal groups (n=20) according to bleaching technique as follows: CB: Conventional in-office bleaching technique and LB: Laser–assisted in-office bleaching technique. Each group was subdivided into two subgroups (n=10) according to laser irradiation setting as follows: C2: Conventionally bleached followed by diode laser irradiation at 2 Watt laser, C4: Conventionally bleached followed by diode laser irradiation at 4 Watt laser, L2: laser –assisted bleached followed by diode laser irradiation at 2 Watt laser and L4: Laser–assisted bleached followed by diode laser irradiation at 4 Watt laser. Vickers microhardness was assessed three times for all the specimens: before bleaching, 24 hours after bleaching and finally 24 hours after post bleaching diode laser irradiation. Paired samples t- test and independent samples t- test were utilized for statistical analysis. Results: Both bleached groups exhibited a significant decrease in micro harness after bleaching with no statically significant deference between them. Post bleaching diode laser irradiation at 2Watt and 4Watt resulted in significant increase in microhardness with no significant difference was evident between them.  Conclusions: Diode laser irradiation on bleached enamel had a positive influence on surface microhardness of enamel and it may represent a promising post bleaching treatment modality.

An Evaluation of Cytotoxicity of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles with Hydrogen Peroxide Endodontic Irrigant

Saraa Al-Mallah; Ali Al-Naimi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2021.129103.1069

Aims: The aim of this research was to determine the cytotoxic effect of different concentrations of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in combination with hydrogen peroxide ( H2O2) in vitro as a potential endodontic irrigating solution. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity of IONPs at concentrations (8, 4, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.25 mg/ml) with 3% H2O2 were evaluated on cultured Human Dermal Fibroblast  (HDFn) cell line. Cytotoxicity was assessed after 10 minutes of exposure using the Mosmann’s Tetrazolium Toxicity (MTT) assay. Results: Tukey’s test indicated that no significant difference in cell viability was found at lower concentrations (0.2, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml). While at a concentration of 4 and 8 mg/ml, the cell viability was not significantly different from each other whereas, significantly different from previous concentrations. Conclusion: From the gained data, it can be deduced that IONPs+H2O2 had almost no cytotoxic effect on HDFn cell viability at concentrations 0.2, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml, while a moderate decrease of survival has been observed at concentrations 4 and 8  mg/ml.

Effect of Different Storage Temperatures on Degree of Polymerization of Bulk Fill Composite Resin-An In Vitro Study

Dalia Ahmed; Manal Sultan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2022.129363.1081

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of  different storage temperatures (23°C, 5°C,  -18°C, and 40°C) on degree of conversion of bulk-fill composite. Materials and Methods:  The tetric evoceram bulk- fill composite resin was divided into four treatment groups according to storage temperatures: A= 23°C (control), B= 5°C, C= -18°C and D= 40°C. After the material removal from storage, the forty disc shape composite specimens were prepared with 8mm diameter and 4mm thickness. All specimens cured with LEDition light cure unit. After photoactivation, the specimens store in artificial saliva for 24, at 37°c for complete polymerization.  The degree of conversion of the top and bottom surfaces of all specimens of composite resin was determined using FTIR-ATR. Data were analyzed using one- way ANOVA followed by Duncan multiple analysis rang test to identify the significant between groups. Results: There was a significant difference of different storage temperatures on degree of conversion of bulk-fill composite resin (p<0.05).  As the temperature of resin composite increase, the top and bottom degree of polymerization of all specimens increase. Conclusions: The degree of polymerization of bulk -fill composite increase as increase of pre cure temperatures.

Analysis of the Role of CPP-ACPF Paste in Combination with Aqueous Extracts of Propolis to Improve Enamel Roughness after Demineralization Challenge

Mayada Mohammed Kashmoola; Aisha A. Qasim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2021.128883.1065

 
 Aims: This study aims to evaluate the combined efficacy of aqueous extracts of propolis and Fluoridated Casein Phosphopeptide–Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP.ACPF) paste or Minimal Intervention (MI) paste plus on improving enamel surface roughness after demineralization challenge. Materials and methods: A total of (75) posterior wisdom teeth were used in the study. Enamel blocks were prepared and divided into five groups randomly, the teeth in all groups were subjected to demineralization cycle and then treated with: Sinjar's aqueous extract of propolis (AEP)-MI paste plus cream n. (15), Sulaymaniah's AEP-MI paste plus cream n. (15), Duhok's AEP-MI paste plus cream group n. (15), control positive group of MI paste plus alone n. (15), and control negative group of artificial saliva alone n. (15). The Roughness of enamel blocks was measured using a profilometer machine at baseline, after demineralization cycle and finally after the treatment protocol Results: There were statistically high significant differences among study groups after the demineralization cycle and there was an increase in surface roughness in all groups after demineralization, but the least elevation in surface roughness belonged to a mixture of Sulaymaniah's aqueous extract of propolis with MI past plus followed by Duhok's aqueous extract of propolis with MI past plus group after treatment protocol. Statistically, there were high significant reductions in surface roughness in all groups after the remineralization except in an artificial saliva group. Conclusions: Combination CPP-ACPF Paste with Aqueous Extracts of Propolis reducing enamel's roughness and increasing resistance to demineralization.

Effect of Different Nanoparticles Incorporation in Acrylic Based Soft Liner on Candida albicans Adhesion

Mohammed Sadoon; Ammar Kh Al-Noori

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.129342.1080

Aims: evaluate the effect of the addition of MgO, ZrO2, ZnO nanoparticles in different concentration to acrylic based soft liner on candida Albicans adhesion. Materials and methods: acrylic-based soft liner samples were prepared (10 X10 X 2mm dimension) by addition MgO, ZrO2, ZnO nanoparticles in 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 % by weight concentration to the monomer resin, the samples were immersed in Candida Albicans suspension for 1 hour then washed and dried, the microorganism were fixed and stained by crystal violet and examined by light microscope( at 400 x) to enumerate the stained candida Albicans in two occasions for thirty fields of view. Result: soft liner with 1,2,4 % by weight demonstrated that a decreased the surface adhesion of candida Albicans when compared with control group while specimens with lower concentration (0.25, 0.5% by weight) show no significant difference from control. Conclusion: addition of nanoparticles in 1,2,4 % concentration of weight to acrylic based soft liner impaired the adhesion properties of Candida Albicans, and reduce fungal induced denture stomatitis.

Practice of Restorative Dentistry in Iraq Causes of Replacement of Composite Restorations Northern Iraq

Bushra Rashid Noaman; Lezan Dawood Fattah

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.129849.1097

Aim: investigate the reasons for replacement of composite restorations northern Iraq. Method: Seventy general dental practitioners (GDP) were recruited by personal contact, and asked to provide data on consecutive composite restorations they replaced for adult patients (ranged from 14 year-old to 60 years) over an eight-month period. In addition, a cross-sectional survey was carried out over eight months at the undergraduate student clinics of a University Dental Hospital (DS). The data was analysed using SPSS software with significance set at p≤0.05. Results: Of the performed 1,338 restoration replacements. The types of restorative materials were 395 (30%) were amalgam, 929 (69%) were composite and 14 (1%) were glass ionomers (GIC). Secondary caries was the most diagnosed failure reason for the replacement of composite restorations (32%), which were more in class II cavities (47%). Conclusion: The study exposed different features of the restorative practice in the north of Iraq. The evidences are of importance that the everyday restorative practice will be analysed by academics to make a progression in the dental services in Iraq.

The Impact of the Type and Concentration of Different Additives on the Water Sorption of Denture Base Resin

nada zuhair; Radhwan H. Hasan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2022.129402.1086

Aims: To evaluate the effect of incorporation of different types and concentrations of additives on water sorption denture base acrylic resin.Materials and Methods: Heat polymerized acrylic resin samples were prepared and divided into two groups; control group (without additives) and experimental group (with additives). The additives were three types of polymers (Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR), Poly Ethylene Glycol (PE) and Poly Urethane(PU)) being added with three concentrations 1%, 3% and 5% . SPSS Version 19 was used to analyze and to assess the results of the present study by mean of Descriptive statistics, analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Duncan multiple range tests at p ≤0.05.Results: The results reveal that there is statistically significant reduction in the amount of water sorption of experimental group as compared to that of control group at p≤ 0.05.The reduction in the amount of water sorption of experimental group is directly proportional to the concentration of incorporate additives. Conclusions: Water sorption of experimental group is less than that of control group. The additives produce statistically significant reduction in the amount of absorbed water of denture base resin and this reduction was directly proportional to the concentration additives material being used.

The Early Microleakage of a Fflowable Composite in Class V Restorations

Ammar Kh Al-nori

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 156-161
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9120

Aims: To evaluate microleakage in Class V restorations, which were restored with flowable compositescompared to hybrid composite and to evaluate the difference of microleakage between occlusaland gingival margins. Materials and methods: Forty five non–carious upper premolar teeth were randomlydistributed into 3 groups of 15 teeth each. Class V preparations were made in the buccal surfacesof each tooth and restored by the use of two flowable composites (Tetric and Megafill) and thethird group with hybrid composite (Tetric Ceram). The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. The specimens were then thermocycled manually for 100 times between 5 + 2 °C and55 + 2 °C. All restored teeth were immersed in 0.2% methylene blue dye for 24 hours and sectionedbuccolingually with a finishing diamond wheel. Dye penetration was scored by use of a stereoscopicmicroscope under magnification of ×20. Results: The flowable composites had a significant effect onreducing the microleakage at gingival margin (p= 0.01). The type of material had no significant effectat occlusal margin (p= 0.454). The occlusal margin had significantly lower microleakage than gingivalmargin (p= 0.001). Conclusions: The flowable composites can reduce the microleakage at gingivalmargins, but non of the restorative materials completely sealed the tooth restoration interface.

Modification of Gypsum Products (Part II): The Effect of Drying Methods on The Compressive Strength and Surface Hardness of Modified Gypsum Products

Nadira A. Hatim; Isam K. Al-Khayat; Mohammed A Abdulla

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 162-167
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9107

Aims: Studying the effect of microwave drying on the physical and mechanical properties of modifiedIraqi plaster and modified Plaster of Paris in comparison with open air drying method. Materials andmethods: Two types of gypsum products were used in this study (Iraqi plaster, Plaster of Paris) withthe combined additives (gum arabic 0.5%, calcium oxide 0.75%, and ferric oxide 0.2%) that incorporatedwithin the two gypsum products. Physical and mechanical properties of the experimental gypsumproducts have been evaluated by measuring the compressive strength, surface hardness, and surfaceroughness. Mean, standard deviation, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Duncan's multiple rangestatistical test were used to analyze the data. Results: ANOVA analysis showed that there was a significantdifference in the compressive strength, surface hardness, and surface roughness between Iraqiplaster (I.P) and Plaster of Paris (P.O.P) with or without additives. Conclusions: At two hours timeinterval microwave oven drying, Iraqi plaster and Plaster of Paris samples were stronger than air driedsamples; and microwave oven at 10 minutes for 800 Watt not only increased the strength of gypsumproducts samples, but also save time.

The Effect of Denture Base Surface Treatments on Microlekage of Soft Lining Materials

Munther N. Kazanji; Nadia T. Jaffer

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 168-174
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9109

Aims: To evaluate the effect of two acrylic resin denture base surface trearments on microleakageof 4 soft denture lining materials (Tru–soft, Bony plus, UfiGel–P and Molloplast–B after 2 periods ofstorage and thermalcycling. Materials and methods: One hundred eighty specimens for microleakagewere prepared in a disc shape 30 mm diameter and 4 mm thickness (2 mm for acrylic resin part and 2mm for soft lining material part). Soft lining materials were bonded to three different groups ofacrylic resin surface pretreatments (untreated, sandblasted and monomer treated denture base). Thesespecimens underwent two aging procedures: Storage with two periods (one week and one month), and500 cycles of thermalcycling inside 2% methylene blue dye. Results: Statistical analysis showed thattreating the acrylic resin denture base by sandblasting increased microleakage of silicone–based linings(UfiGel–P and Molloplast–B)and decreased microleakage of acrylic–based linings (Tru–soft and Bonyplus) in comparison to untreated denture base, while treating the denture base with MMA monomerpositively decreased microleakage for all tested soft lining materials in relation to untreated andsandblasted denture base at one week storage, one month storage and at thermalcycling. Conclusions:For all types of denture base surface treatments, microleakage was inevitable, however, wetting theacrylic resin denture base with MMA monomer was more effective in reducing microkeakage thansandblasted and untreated denture bases.

Preparation of Metal Mold For Production Of Microwave Flask

Nadira A Hatim; Radhwan H Hasan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 175-182
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9122

Aims: To design and prepare a metal mold used for production of Fiber Reinforced plastic flask (FRP)suitable for curing of acrylic resin by microwave irradiation, and investigate the effect of the following variableson the shear bond strength (SBS) of acrylic teeth to acrylic denture base material: A-curing techniques(water bath and microwave). B-surface treatment with monomer. C-cross – linking of the tooth resinby using the new microwave flask. Materials and methods: The FRP flask is not available in our countryso as a special design of metal mold was prepared for this study. Inner dimensions were determined accordingto standard Ash metal flask. A microwave flask was fabricated from unsaturated polyester resin reinforcedwith glass fibers, nuts and screws was fabricated from Teflon material which are available in ourcountry. One hundred sixty samples of five different brands of acrylic teeth were divided into four groups{untreated and treated (with monomer )groups each of these were cured by water bath or microwave techniques}.The bond strength between acrylic tooth and denture base resin was measured in shear mode byusing unconfined compression machine, the SBS in MPa was calculated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA)and Duncan’s multiple range test were used for statistical analysis. Results: There was a significant differencesin bond strength of acrylic denture base to different tooth materials by using FRP flask in relation toAsh metal flask at (P < 0.001). Conclusions: SBS of acrylic teeth improved by monomer surface treatmentfor 180 seconds to microwave cured resin by new prepared flask (FRP) was significantly higher than that ofwater – bath cured resin, and cross – linked acrylic teeth showed lowest SBS compared to other type ofacrylic teeth.

A Clinical Assessment on the Efficacy of the Anterior and Middle Superior Alveolar Nerve Block Technique During Extraction of Maxillary Teeth

Faiz A Ayoob Al Sultan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 183-188
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9111

Aims: A clinical evaluation on a recently introduced technique of anesthesia for maxillary teeth namelythe Anterior and Middle Superior alveolar nerve block compared with the conventional infiltrationtechnique for extraction of upper anterior and premolar teeth. Materials and methods: In the first partof the study, testing of pulpal anesthesia were performed after administering this technique for teethfrom upper central incisor to upper second premolar. The sample chosen for the second part of thestudy included 60 subjects of different ages and genders. The patients were divided randomly into twogroups: control group to whom the conventional supraperiosteal injection technique was administeredand the trial group to whom the anterior and middle superior alveolar nerve block technique was administered.In both groups, extraction was carried out. Results: The result of this study indicated thesuccess of achieving pulpal anesthesia after AMSA injection for teeth from the upper canine to the uppersecond premolar with no significant difference noticed between AMSA and control group in regardingto pain score levels after extraction of these teeth. Conclusions: This new technique could beused as a good alternative and or supplementary to the infiltration technique for anesthetizing maxillaryanterior and premolar teeth using a conventional dental syringe.

Palatal Dimensions and Its Correlation with the Circumference of Upper Anterior Teeth

Zeina M Ahmad

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 259-267
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9124

Aims: To put a bases for the prediction of the circumference of artificial anterior teeth depending on thepalatal dimensions Materials and methods: The study sample consists of 30 female and 32 male withclass I occlusion aged 19– 24 years .The dimensions of the palatal vault and the circumferences of upperanterior teeth were recorded with digital venire caliper and analyzed with SPSS program (version 11). Results:significant correlation was found between the dimension of the palatal vault and the circumference ofupper anterior teeth. Conclusions: the angle of circumferences of upper anterior teeth of narrow short anddeep palate will be more tapered than those one in the wide, long and shallow palate.

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Citrus Juices: An In Vitro Study

Nahla O Tawfik; Siba M Al-Haliem; Waidulla N Al-Ani

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 376-382
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.9030

Aims: This work aimed at determining the antibacterial activity of three Citrus Juice on Staphylococ-cus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: The antibacteri-al activities of juices of three types of Citrus (C.) fruit, C. limon (lemon), C. aurantium (bitter orange) and C. paradisi (grapefruit), against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria using four concen-trations of these juices by agar diffusion method with measurement of diameter of the zone of inhibi-tion around the extracts. Results: The results confirmed the presence of anti bacterial activity of the Citrus juice. The highest inhibition zone (18 mm) was observed with a 10% concentration of C. para-dises juice on Staphylococcus aureus, but Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resis-tant. C. limon and C. aurantium juice at 10% and 5% concentration gave positive results with bacteri-cidal effects on the three tested bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The zones of inhibition of C. limon were 10, 12 and 13mm for 5% and 15, 21 and 20 mm for 10% respectively. For C. aurantium, they were 18, 19 and 20 mm for 5% concentration and 16, 19 and 19 mm for 10% concentration respectively. Those effects were better than those produced by stan-dard antibiotic disc used for comparison. Conclusions: The use of different concentrations of Citrus juice extracts had an effective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

CAD-CAM Technology: A literature review

Mohammed A Abdulla; Hala Ali; Raghad S Jamel

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 95-113
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164542

Aims: this article focus some of an important aspects related to a CAD/ CAM technology including: applications, designing, construction by the use of computerized controlling machines that developed very fastly in the last two decays. Conclusions: CAD/CAM technology is attained finished different dental restorations through designing and milling processes of a two dimensional or three dimensional models using different ready blocks by numerical controlled machines.

Comparison Between Laceback and Tie-back in Sliding Mechanics (An in vitro study)

Khawla M Awni

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 148-152
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42658

ABSTRACTAims: The current study aims to investigate the rate of space closure, tipping and rotation of canine during its retraction by laceback and tieback using standard ceramic brackets along 2 types of arch-wires using typodont simulation system (Ormco). Materials and Methods: The standardization crite-ria were all typodont teeth situated in well aligned position, covered and immobilized by the acrylic bite except canine, laceback and tieback were used to slide the canine. Results: The present study showed that when slide the canine on 0.017x 0.025 inch archwire gave rise to significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation as compared when sliding it on 0.020 inch archwire, also sliding the canine using laceback as a method of retraction gave rise to a significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation as compared with tieback. Conclusions: It was concluded that canine retraction using laceback retraction method along 0.017x0.025 inch archwire gave rise to a significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation.

The Effect of Honey on the Healing of Oral Ulcers(Clinical Study).

Shatha S Mohamed; Asmaa S Al-Douri

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 157-160
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2008.9066

Aim: to assess the effect of honey on healing of recurrent aphthous ulcers. Materials and Methods:
fifty patients with minor oral ulcers (2–5 mm) were attended to consultant clinic in the College of Dentistry demanding a treatment for their painful ulcers were treated by either kenalog in orabase or the
application of honey dressing. Results: The ulcerations have almost completely disappeared after 3 days treatment by honey dressing. Conclusions: Honey has an obvious influence on the rate of healing
process of the oral ulcers.

Palatal Dimensions and Its Correlation with the Circumference of Upper Anterior Teeth

Zeina M Ahmad

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 259-267
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9124

Aims: To put a bases for the prediction of the circumference of artificial anterior teeth depending on thepalatal dimensions Materials and methods: The study sample consists of 30 female and 32 male withclass I occlusion aged 19– 24 years .The dimensions of the palatal vault and the circumferences of upperanterior teeth were recorded with digital venire caliper and analyzed with SPSS program (version 11). Results:significant correlation was found between the dimension of the palatal vault and the circumference ofupper anterior teeth. Conclusions: the angle of circumferences of upper anterior teeth of narrow short anddeep palate will be more tapered than those one in the wide, long and shallow palate.

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Citrus Juices: An In Vitro Study

Nahla O Tawfik; Siba M Al-Haliem; Waidulla N Al-Ani

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 376-382
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.9030

Aims: This work aimed at determining the antibacterial activity of three Citrus Juice on Staphylococ-cus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: The antibacteri-al activities of juices of three types of Citrus (C.) fruit, C. limon (lemon), C. aurantium (bitter orange) and C. paradisi (grapefruit), against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria using four concen-trations of these juices by agar diffusion method with measurement of diameter of the zone of inhibi-tion around the extracts. Results: The results confirmed the presence of anti bacterial activity of the Citrus juice. The highest inhibition zone (18 mm) was observed with a 10% concentration of C. para-dises juice on Staphylococcus aureus, but Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resis-tant. C. limon and C. aurantium juice at 10% and 5% concentration gave positive results with bacteri-cidal effects on the three tested bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The zones of inhibition of C. limon were 10, 12 and 13mm for 5% and 15, 21 and 20 mm for 10% respectively. For C. aurantium, they were 18, 19 and 20 mm for 5% concentration and 16, 19 and 19 mm for 10% concentration respectively. Those effects were better than those produced by stan-dard antibiotic disc used for comparison. Conclusions: The use of different concentrations of Citrus juice extracts had an effective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

CAD-CAM Technology: A literature review

Mohammed A Abdulla; Hala Ali; Raghad S Jamel

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 95-113
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164542

Aims: this article focus some of an important aspects related to a CAD/ CAM technology including: applications, designing, construction by the use of computerized controlling machines that developed very fastly in the last two decays. Conclusions: CAD/CAM technology is attained finished different dental restorations through designing and milling processes of a two dimensional or three dimensional models using different ready blocks by numerical controlled machines.

Comparison Between Laceback and Tie-back in Sliding Mechanics (An in vitro study)

Khawla M Awni

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 148-152
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42658

ABSTRACTAims: The current study aims to investigate the rate of space closure, tipping and rotation of canine during its retraction by laceback and tieback using standard ceramic brackets along 2 types of arch-wires using typodont simulation system (Ormco). Materials and Methods: The standardization crite-ria were all typodont teeth situated in well aligned position, covered and immobilized by the acrylic bite except canine, laceback and tieback were used to slide the canine. Results: The present study showed that when slide the canine on 0.017x 0.025 inch archwire gave rise to significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation as compared when sliding it on 0.020 inch archwire, also sliding the canine using laceback as a method of retraction gave rise to a significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation as compared with tieback. Conclusions: It was concluded that canine retraction using laceback retraction method along 0.017x0.025 inch archwire gave rise to a significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation.

The Effect of Honey on the Healing of Oral Ulcers(Clinical Study).

Shatha S Mohamed; Asmaa S Al-Douri

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 157-160
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2008.9066

Aim: to assess the effect of honey on healing of recurrent aphthous ulcers. Materials and Methods:
fifty patients with minor oral ulcers (2–5 mm) were attended to consultant clinic in the College of Dentistry demanding a treatment for their painful ulcers were treated by either kenalog in orabase or the
application of honey dressing. Results: The ulcerations have almost completely disappeared after 3 days treatment by honey dressing. Conclusions: Honey has an obvious influence on the rate of healing
process of the oral ulcers.

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