About Journal

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal is an English language, peer-reviewed scholarly publication in the area of dentistry.  Refereed Scientific Journal deals with fields of dental sciences ISSN: 1812-1217 E ISSN: 1998-0345 Date of first issue: 2001 No of Issues: 27 issues publishing biannually till 2012 publishing becomes triannually at 2013  
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Journal Information

Publisher: University of Mosul

Email:  alrafidaindentj@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Nada M. Saeed Al-Sayagh

Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Efficacy of Local Haemostatic Agent Following Minor Surgery (An Experimental and Clinical Study)

Alyaa Naser; Huda A Salim; Rayan S hamed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2019.126152.1005

Aims : This study aims to estimate the efficacy of Ostene as bone hemostatic agent clinically and experimentally and their effect on the ease of operation in clinical dental practice. Materials and Methods: For experimental part: Fifteen males rabbits were divided into three groups according to the time interval for hemostasis measurement, five rabbits in each group. Each group subdivides into other three groups according to study material "ostene, gelfoam, control". On femoral bone, three holes were made. After bleeding started, study material was placed inside holes, then a uniform piece of cotton was applied with gentle pressure, then hemostasis measured using the gravimetric method. For the clinical part: after complete extraction, a piece of study material was implanted inside the tooth socket and covered with uniform cotton for hemostasis, then hemostasis measured using the gravimetric method. Results and Discussion: For experimental part: study result revealed that the comparison between two local hemostatic agents (ostene and gelfoam) groups for hemostatic effect show Ostene has superiority effect over gelfoam in control bleeding at all interval times. Friedman test revealed a significant difference between study materials P =0.00 (P ≤ 0.05). For the clinical part: clinical measurement, ostene showed significant over gelfoam at 1min, 30 min While there were no significances between ostene and gelfoam at 5min,10min. Regarding visual analog scales for assessing bleeding and ease of operation, ostene, when comparing it with gelfoam, appeared better than gelfoam. Conclusion: Hemostatic effect of ostene is superior to gelfoam experimentally and after tooth extraction.

Evaluation of Apical Microleakage of Endodontically Treated Teeth Sealed With Three Different Root Canal Sealers

Omar S Rahawi; Manaf B Ahmad; Sabah A Ismail

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 11-19
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2019.126101.1004

Abstract:
Aims: Different materials can be used during endodontic treatment of teeth as a root canal sealer. Thus, this study was done to evaluate the sealing ability of three different types of root canal sealer in the apical part of canals. Materials and Methods: 50 sound human teeth can instrumented by using a rotary ProTaper nickel-titanium files under crown down technique. The samples was divided randomly into 3 groups (n=10), Additionally two groups were used for controls, first group use Endofill sealer ( PD product dentaires SA,Switzerland), and group two used Tagadseal sealer (technical general United kingdom), third group used AH plus sealer (Dentsply, Switzerland). All teeth were obturated using single cone technique with sealers, then the whole root surface layered with two layer of special type of nail varnish except apical 1 mm, then all teeth were placed into 2 % methylene blue dye liquid for one week at 37o C. After that removed from dye liquid, the nail varnish was removed. The positive controls (n=10) were left unfilled and coated as described earlier. Then the teeth was split longitudinally and each half examined under a stereomicroscope with magnification: 10 X. Then using computer software on the photo taken by a digital camera. Analyzing of data was done by One-Way Anova and Duncan,s Test analysis among the means of microleakage of the three types of sealers. All tests were computed at 5% significance level. Results: show statistically significant difference among groups.

Water sorption and solubility of two acrylic resin denture base materials polymerized by Infrared radiation

Aliaa W Alomari; Nagham H Kassab; Nada Z Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 20-31
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2019.126003.1003

Aims: To determine the effect of different curing times of a new method of polymerization by infrared radiation on the absorption and solubility in water of acrylic resin materials for denture base. Materials and Methods: In this study two types of denture base materials cured by heat were used (Traditional or Conventional and High Impact), the entire number of prepared specimens were (80) which grouped into: A- Control group: Consisted of two types of acrylic resin specimens polymerized by conventional water bath .B- Experimental group: Consisted of two types acrylic resin specimens polymerized by infrared radiation (IR) at different times of curing cycles. In each group; specimens were divided equally, some related to water sorption test others for solubility test. The mean of mass change of the material after they saturated with water and dried out of it was used, then analysis of data was done using one-way analysis of variance and Duncan test. Results: Statistically, no significant differences existed between Traditional and High Impact acrylic resin cured by water bath in water sorption and solubility tests. The means values for previously mentioned tests in two types of acrylic resin had been decreased significantly by changing type of curing from conventional water bath to (IR) method. Conclusions: The selection of appropriate time and type of curing method may optimize the level of absorption and solubility in water for previously mentioned materials.

Evaluation of the Effect of Physically Magnetized Water on Some Properties of Dental Stone

Ahmed I. Jasim Al-Khyeat

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 32-41
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2019.163420

Aims: to study the effect of interaction of dental stone with tap water and physically magnetized water on two periods of time 24h. and 12h to study the change in the physical properties of final product. Materials and Methods: We started prepair no. of control samples and other of samples interacted with physically magnetized water for two periods of time 24h and 12h, then we studied the liner setting expansion and compressive strength.. Results: results obtained from comparing control sample with that treated with physically magnetized water showed an increase in the compressive strength of physically magnetized group and decrease of linear setting expansion in comparison with that of control sample. Conclusion: Reaction of dental stone with physically magnetized water lead to change in some physical properties of dental stone.

The Topical Effect of Coenzyme Q10 on Wound Healing in Mice

Ibtisam Taha Al-Jureisy; Wael Al-Wattar; Ghada Abd Alrhman Taqa

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 42-51
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2018.163600

Aims: the current paper examines the topical effect of Coenzyme Q10 ointment in mice. Materials and Methods: Fifteen well male albino mice with equivalent age were designated for this research. The animals were divided into 3 clusters of five animals for each group. Group one worked as a control and was applied Vaseline ointment topically on skin wound. Groups; two and three were applied topically Coenzyme Q10 ointment 4%, 8% respectively on skin wound. These applications were repeated every day. The wound size and wound contraction ratios were measured in 1st, 4th, 7th days of the experimental procedure. Result: There were significant differences between groups in wound size and wound contraction ratios. The groups were treated with Coenzyme Q10 in different concentrations. They are better in rating the wound healing. Conclusion: The topical application of CoQ10 in different concentrations encourages the wound curing in the soft tissue of mice.

The Effect of Surface Treatment on the Transverse and Tensile Bonding Strength of Relined Acrylic Resin Denture Base (Part I)

Nadira A Hatim; Aliaa W AL-Omari

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 202-210
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2013.84691

Aims: To investigate the effect of the thickness of relining material, curing method (water bath or mi-crowave), and the surface treatment by methyl methacrylate on transverse and tensile strength of re-lined acrylic resin denture base. Materials and methods: A pilot study was done by preparing 65 sam-ples to evaluate the effect of the thickness of relining material in relation to denture base on the trans-verse strength of acrylic resin denture base, and to study the effect of surface treatment by methyl methacrylate on the transverse strength of acrylic resin denture base. The main study was done by pre-paring 320 samples and divided into two parts to study the mechanical properties of samples represent-ing a denture base cured by water bath and other group cured by microwave curing technique, and then the effect of relining by the two curing methods and the effect of surface treatment were evaluated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: of this study showed that the different thickness of relining material in relation to denture base had no significant difference on the transverse strength of the relined denture base. The transverse strength and tensile bonding strength of the relined samples were significantly improved (P=0.05) by monomer surface treatment for 180 seconds. Conclusions: Transverse and tensile strength of the acryl-ic resin denture base were affected by relining. Microwave curing method gave better mechanical properties of the relined acrylic resin denture base.

Evaluation of the Surface Roughness for Three Different Types of Composite Resin Materials Using (Sof–Lex) Finishing and Polishing Systems: A Comparative Study

Sabah A Ismail; Rajaa T Suliman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 221-227
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2013.84776

Aim: To evaluate the surface roughness of three different types of light activated composite resin using (Sof-Lex) – polishing system, a profilometer study. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 resin com-posite disks were prepared from three different types of composite resin include 3 – groups. Group I: 10 specimens were prepared from light activated nano hybride (Tetric n – Ceram, Ivoclar – Vivadent – Liechtenstein). Group II: 10 specimens were prepared from light activated microhybride composite resin (Arabesk – Voco, Germany). Group III: 10 specimens were prepared from light activated poly-glas composite resin (Solitaire – 2, Heraeus, Kulzer, Germany). The resin blocks finished and polished using (Sof – Lex) polishing system. The specimens were analyzed for surface roughness using “Pro-filometer”. Results: Tetric n – Ceram composite resin showed the lowest roughness average (0.112 μm) followed by Arabesk composite (0.150 μm), Solitaire – 2 composite resin showed the highest roughness average (0.341 μm). Conclusions: Tetric n– Ceram (nano-hybride) was the best polished composite resin, showed the least roughness average.

Efficacy of Three Denture Cleansers on Candida-Related Denture Stomatitis

Lamia T Rejab; Oday A Al-Abbod

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 235-240
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2013.84795

Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of three dentures cleanser on Candida related denture stomatitis through assessing their ability to reduce the number of colony forming unit (CFU) of Candida on palate of the patient for different times. Materials and methods: Group of 12 patients who have denture stomatitis were divided into four groups according to the type of denture cleaners (Protefix, sodium hypochlorite solution 0.02%, saturated sodium chloride salt solution and control wa-ter). The microbiological examination was done to determine the efficacy of the cleansers that used by assessing the number of (CFU) at different times (day before treatment and after 14, 28days of treat-ment). The data were statistically analyzed, (ANOVA) followed by Duncan's multiple Range test to assess the significant difference between the groups at P≤0.05. Results: The results showed that there was a significant effect of three cleansers on reducing number of (CFU) of Candida species in the treatment of denture stomatitis after 14 and 28 days of treatment, but it was not significant for control water group. Sodium hypochlorite showed the highest efficacy. Conclusions: Result showed that there was no significant difference in the efficacy between the three cleansers indicating that all cleansers are effective in the treatment of denture stomatitis .

Finite Element Analysis of Stress Distribution During Retraction of Mandibular Incisors

Nada M Al-Sayagh; Mohammad N Mahmood; Rasha Y Al-Darzi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 251-258
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2013.84798

Aims: The present study aimed to determine stress and strain distribution on the four lower incisors under the effect of (400g) calculated retracted orthodontic force. Materials and methods: Using finite element analysis method, frictionless retraction technique was successfully used with the aid of continuous (delta loop) on NiTi, Stainless steel wires without gable bends and stainless steel looped wire using 40°. gable bends(20° alpha, 20° beta gable) respectively. Results: High compressive stress concentration in labiolingual direction are observed near the point of force application and along the line of action of orthodontic wire at the crown of both lateral and central incisors. Conclusions: The stress distribution is not the same for the all retracted segment and there was independent movement of lateral incisors from the central incisors except for the retraction using NiTi wires which exhibits uniform movements for both lateral and central incisors.

Effect of Enamel Resin-Removal Methods on Tensile Bond Strength of Rebonded New Brackets

Hakam H Sabah

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 176-183
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.84767

Aims: The objective of this study is to determine (1) the effect of different resin-removal methods on tensile bond strength (TBS) of rebonded new brackets (2) compare various methods of enamel resin-removal to define the best method that produces adequate bond strength (3) to compare the bond strength of newly bonded enamel (virgin enamel) with previously bonded enamel after resin removal from the enamel surface with different methods. Materials and Methods: Seventy human premolars were bonded with stainless steel new brackets, then the teeth were randomly assigned in to 7 groups, each group of 10 teeth. Group1 (control group) where TBS at the first debonding was evaluated (initial bond). Group2 brackets were debonded by bracket removal plier and the remnant adhesive removed by high-speed tungsten carbide bur (TCB) and rebonded with brackets as in initial bond, then the TBS were tested. Group3 as with group2 except that the remaining resin were removed by low-speed TCB . Group 4 as with group2 except that the remaining resin were removed by Diamond carbide Disk . Group 5 as with group2 except that the remaining resin were removed by a microetcher, Group 6 as with group 2 except that the remaining resin were removed manually by composite removing pliers, Group 7 as with group6 except that rebonding bracket without cleaning enamel with rubber cup and pumice. Results: All rotary instrument groups (G2, G3 and G4) showed significant increase in the TBS in comparing with the other groups (G1, G5, G6 and G7) also there were significant decrease in the TBS of the manually removal of adhesive remnant groups in comparing with control group, while there were no significant differences between microetcher group and control group with greater mean value for control group. Conclusions: The outcomes of this study showed that the use of the rotary instrument in the removal of adhesive remnant gives the highest tensile bond strength in compared with the other methods used in this study .

The Effect of Three Coating Materials on the Candidal Growth, on the Surface and Color of A heat–Cure Acrylic Resin Denture Base

Monia MN Kandil; Nadia T Jaffer; Enas Yaseen Shehab

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 279-288
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9112

Aims: To evaluate the effect of three coating materials: Acrylic resin coating "monopoly", olive oil andgrape seeds oil on the Candida albicans growth, and on color of a heat – cured acrylic resin denture base.Materials and methods: Three coating materials underwent pores method to find out their antifungaleffect. The effect of coating materials on the acrylic denture base surface was determined via Sensitivity testin which twenty discs of acrylic resin 6mm diameter and 2mm thickness were prepared and divided intofour groups: control (uncoated), monopoly, olive, and grape oil coated groups. These discs were added toSabouraud Dextrose agar surface and incubated for 24 hours at 37 oC and the diameter of growth inhibitionzones were measured. Then the Turbidity test was taken place, in which 60 acrylic specimens (1cm x 1cm x2mm) were prepared and immersed in 60 test tubes that were divided into four groups, each group (15specimens) was subdivided into three groups of incubation: 7, 20, and 30 days incubation period, each testtube contained 4 ml Brain Heart Infusion Broth, 0.1 ml of 24 hours Candida albicans, and its correspondingacrylic specimen, turbidity (yeast growth) was measured by a spectrophotometer at 530 nm wave length.For color change measurement test, 20 acrylic resin specimens (45 x 10 x 2.5 mm) were prepared anddistributed into four studied groups. The absorbed light was measured by spectrophotometer and termedoptical density at 345 nm. Results: All coating materials were fungicidal in pores method. Statisticalanalysis of sensitivity test showed that Candida albicans was susceptible at highest extent to monopolycoated denture base followed by the oils coated groups. In turbidity test, monopoly specimens showedantifungal activity in all periods of incubation, but the effect decreased gradually, olive and grape oil coatedspecimens exhibited their highest antifungal activity after 30 days incubation. Color change measurementsshowed that monopoly coated group had the highest optical density, while the olive and grape groupsshowed a decrease in the optical density when compared to uncoated group. Conclusions: Use of coatingmaterials on the acrylic denture base surface was beneficial, especially monopoly in terms of antifungalactivity against Candida albicans followed by natural oils (olive and grape oils). However, coatingmaterials showed a significant change in the color of acrylic denture base.

Reinforced Microwave - Cured Acrylic Resin Denture Base Material with Glass Fibers

Radhwan H. Hasan; Mohammed A Abdulla

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 314-321
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.45447

AIMS: To evaluation the Effect of adding glass fibers on the transverse strength and the levels of the residual monomer of specially formulated acrylic resin to be cured by microwave and heat cured acryl-ic resin denture base materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The materials were used in this study heat cured acrylic resin and microwave cured acrylic resin which is formulated to be cured by microwave energy( Acronacrylic resin). Thirty two samples were prepared for transverse strength test and divided into the following groups Control group (I) heat cured alone, group (II) microwave cured alone, the group (III) heat cured+fibers, group (IV) microwave cured+fibers the transverse strength was evaluated by using an Instron testing machine . Thirty two samples were prepared for residual mono-mer test and divided into four groups water bath and microwave cured with and without glass fibers, the residual monomer was evaluated by using ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer for seven days. RESULTS: Transverse strength test: Statistical Analysis of Variance(ANOVA) shows that there is significant differences at (p>0.0001)among the four groups and Duncan's multiple range test showed that microwave cured + fibers significantly higher transverse strength followed by heat cured +fibers, microwave alone, while heat alone shows significantly lowest transverse strength. Residual monomer test: Analysis of variance(ANOVA) for the four groups from the first day of immersion in water until 7th day shows that there are significant differences between the four groups in the all six days except the 7th day shows that there are no significant differences among the four groups for the level of the residual monomer. CONCLUSIONS: Microwave cured acrylic resin with glass fibers have signifi-cantly higher transverse strength than that of acrylic resin cured by water bath, also microwave cured acrylic resin have significantly lower residual monomer content from the 1st day of immersion when compared to that of water bath which show the same level of residual monomer at the 7th day of im-mersion

Modification of Gypsum Products (Part III): Practical Application of Modified Gypsum Products

Nadira A Hatim; Isam K Al-Khayat; Mohammed A Abdullah

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 17-24

Aims: To determine the suitability of new modified Iraqi plaster and modified Plaster of Paris as a cast in microwave curing of acrylic denture base material, and microwave and open air drying methods on the surface roughness and dimensional accuracy of the cast. Materials and methods: Two types of gypsum products were used in this study {(Iraqi plaster, Plaster of Paris) with the combined additives (Gum Arabic 0.5%, calcium oxide 0.75%, and ferric oxide 0.2%), and Type III stone Plaster/Stone 3:1} that incorporated within the two gypsum products. The effects of drying method and combined additives on the surface roughness and dimensional accuracy of the experimental gypsum products, and acrylic denture base pro-duced from the modified gypsum casts have been evaluated. Mean, standard deviation, variance (ANOVA), and Duncan's multiple range tests were used to analyze the measurements. Results: ANOVA test showed that there was a significant difference in the surface roughness and dimensional accuracy between Iraqi plaster and plaster of Paris with or without additives dried in open air and microwave techniques. Conclu-sion: There was slight dimensional change in the gypsum cast with additives of clinical importance to compensate the polymer shrinkage of the acrylic denture base after cooling. There was no significant dif-ference in the average roughness of acrylic resin cured by microwave oven as a curing method. Keywords: acrylic, roughness, dimensional accuracy.

The effects of two bone substitute materials in the treatment of experimentally induced mandibular defects: An experimental study

Atalla F Rejab

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 9-20
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2018.160843

Aims: To compare between the effects of deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) and osteon in the healing of mandibular bone defects in the rabbits. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on ten rabbits at the Animal House, Dentistry college, Mosul University. The rabbits weighted between 1.5 and 2 kg and each rabbit was given anesthesia (10% ketamine (40 mg/kg) and 2% xylazine (5 mg/kg). Surgery was performed aseptically. Mandibles were exposed through a sub-mandibular incisions. Three rectangular full thickness defects (6×5 mm) were created in each side. The first defect in each side was filled with DBB, the second defect was filled with osteon, while the third defect was left untreated to serve as a control. Five rabbits were sacrificed after one week and the other five rabbits were sacrificed after one month. The bony mandibles were immersed in 10% formalin solution and examined histologically by two histopathologists. Results: Microscopically, sections for one week of all groups showed mild degree of inflammation, moderate amount of vascularity, granulation tissue and osteoid tissue formation. Sections of one month showed no difference regarding the degree of inflammation vascularity, but the amount of granulation tissue and osteoid tissue formation in the control group were lesser than the amount seen in both experimental groups. Conclusions: DBB and osteon accelerate bone healing after month regarding the amount of granulation tissue and osteoid tissue formation.

Visible Light Cure Fiber Frame Work Reinforcement of Acrylic Resin Denture Base Material. A Comparative Study.

Aliaa W AL-Omari

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 173-181
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.160898

Aims: Heat cured acrylic resin is the material of choice for construction of complete dentures due to its desirable properties, although it has some disadvantages as its susceptibility to fracture. Several methods and materials are used to reinforce acrylic resin denture base. One of these methods is reinforcement by using fibers. In this study, visible light cure fiber frame work is used as reinforcement material and compared with reinforcement with glass fiber. Materials and methods: in this study, 128 samples were prepared for evaluation of transverse strength, impact strength, surface hardness, and residual monomer tests. The samples were divided into four groups 8 sample for each group; control group without reinforcement, reinforcement by using visible light cure fiber frame work, random glass fiber reinforcement, and mesh glass fiber reinforcement. Results: the results of this study showed that visible light cure fiber frame work system significantly increase the transverse strength and impact strength of the heat cured acrylic resin, and it didn’t affect the surface hardness and amount of residual monomer of heat cured acrylic resin. Conclusions: visible light cure fiber frame work system increase acrylic resin denture base resistance to fracture.

The Effect of Three Coating Materials on the Candidal Growth, on the Surface and Color of A heat–Cure Acrylic Resin Denture Base

Monia MN Kandil; Nadia T Jaffer; Enas Yaseen Shehab

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 279-288
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9112

Aims: To evaluate the effect of three coating materials: Acrylic resin coating "monopoly", olive oil andgrape seeds oil on the Candida albicans growth, and on color of a heat – cured acrylic resin denture base.Materials and methods: Three coating materials underwent pores method to find out their antifungaleffect. The effect of coating materials on the acrylic denture base surface was determined via Sensitivity testin which twenty discs of acrylic resin 6mm diameter and 2mm thickness were prepared and divided intofour groups: control (uncoated), monopoly, olive, and grape oil coated groups. These discs were added toSabouraud Dextrose agar surface and incubated for 24 hours at 37 oC and the diameter of growth inhibitionzones were measured. Then the Turbidity test was taken place, in which 60 acrylic specimens (1cm x 1cm x2mm) were prepared and immersed in 60 test tubes that were divided into four groups, each group (15specimens) was subdivided into three groups of incubation: 7, 20, and 30 days incubation period, each testtube contained 4 ml Brain Heart Infusion Broth, 0.1 ml of 24 hours Candida albicans, and its correspondingacrylic specimen, turbidity (yeast growth) was measured by a spectrophotometer at 530 nm wave length.For color change measurement test, 20 acrylic resin specimens (45 x 10 x 2.5 mm) were prepared anddistributed into four studied groups. The absorbed light was measured by spectrophotometer and termedoptical density at 345 nm. Results: All coating materials were fungicidal in pores method. Statisticalanalysis of sensitivity test showed that Candida albicans was susceptible at highest extent to monopolycoated denture base followed by the oils coated groups. In turbidity test, monopoly specimens showedantifungal activity in all periods of incubation, but the effect decreased gradually, olive and grape oil coatedspecimens exhibited their highest antifungal activity after 30 days incubation. Color change measurementsshowed that monopoly coated group had the highest optical density, while the olive and grape groupsshowed a decrease in the optical density when compared to uncoated group. Conclusions: Use of coatingmaterials on the acrylic denture base surface was beneficial, especially monopoly in terms of antifungalactivity against Candida albicans followed by natural oils (olive and grape oils). However, coatingmaterials showed a significant change in the color of acrylic denture base.

Reinforced Microwave - Cured Acrylic Resin Denture Base Material with Glass Fibers

Radhwan H. Hasan; Mohammed A Abdulla

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 314-321
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.45447

AIMS: To evaluation the Effect of adding glass fibers on the transverse strength and the levels of the residual monomer of specially formulated acrylic resin to be cured by microwave and heat cured acryl-ic resin denture base materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The materials were used in this study heat cured acrylic resin and microwave cured acrylic resin which is formulated to be cured by microwave energy( Acronacrylic resin). Thirty two samples were prepared for transverse strength test and divided into the following groups Control group (I) heat cured alone, group (II) microwave cured alone, the group (III) heat cured+fibers, group (IV) microwave cured+fibers the transverse strength was evaluated by using an Instron testing machine . Thirty two samples were prepared for residual mono-mer test and divided into four groups water bath and microwave cured with and without glass fibers, the residual monomer was evaluated by using ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer for seven days. RESULTS: Transverse strength test: Statistical Analysis of Variance(ANOVA) shows that there is significant differences at (p>0.0001)among the four groups and Duncan's multiple range test showed that microwave cured + fibers significantly higher transverse strength followed by heat cured +fibers, microwave alone, while heat alone shows significantly lowest transverse strength. Residual monomer test: Analysis of variance(ANOVA) for the four groups from the first day of immersion in water until 7th day shows that there are significant differences between the four groups in the all six days except the 7th day shows that there are no significant differences among the four groups for the level of the residual monomer. CONCLUSIONS: Microwave cured acrylic resin with glass fibers have signifi-cantly higher transverse strength than that of acrylic resin cured by water bath, also microwave cured acrylic resin have significantly lower residual monomer content from the 1st day of immersion when compared to that of water bath which show the same level of residual monomer at the 7th day of im-mersion

Modification of Gypsum Products (Part III): Practical Application of Modified Gypsum Products

Nadira A Hatim; Isam K Al-Khayat; Mohammed A Abdullah

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 17-24

Aims: To determine the suitability of new modified Iraqi plaster and modified Plaster of Paris as a cast in microwave curing of acrylic denture base material, and microwave and open air drying methods on the surface roughness and dimensional accuracy of the cast. Materials and methods: Two types of gypsum products were used in this study {(Iraqi plaster, Plaster of Paris) with the combined additives (Gum Arabic 0.5%, calcium oxide 0.75%, and ferric oxide 0.2%), and Type III stone Plaster/Stone 3:1} that incorporated within the two gypsum products. The effects of drying method and combined additives on the surface roughness and dimensional accuracy of the experimental gypsum products, and acrylic denture base pro-duced from the modified gypsum casts have been evaluated. Mean, standard deviation, variance (ANOVA), and Duncan's multiple range tests were used to analyze the measurements. Results: ANOVA test showed that there was a significant difference in the surface roughness and dimensional accuracy between Iraqi plaster and plaster of Paris with or without additives dried in open air and microwave techniques. Conclu-sion: There was slight dimensional change in the gypsum cast with additives of clinical importance to compensate the polymer shrinkage of the acrylic denture base after cooling. There was no significant dif-ference in the average roughness of acrylic resin cured by microwave oven as a curing method. Keywords: acrylic, roughness, dimensional accuracy.

The effects of two bone substitute materials in the treatment of experimentally induced mandibular defects: An experimental study

Atalla F Rejab

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 9-20
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2018.160843

Aims: To compare between the effects of deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) and osteon in the healing of mandibular bone defects in the rabbits. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on ten rabbits at the Animal House, Dentistry college, Mosul University. The rabbits weighted between 1.5 and 2 kg and each rabbit was given anesthesia (10% ketamine (40 mg/kg) and 2% xylazine (5 mg/kg). Surgery was performed aseptically. Mandibles were exposed through a sub-mandibular incisions. Three rectangular full thickness defects (6×5 mm) were created in each side. The first defect in each side was filled with DBB, the second defect was filled with osteon, while the third defect was left untreated to serve as a control. Five rabbits were sacrificed after one week and the other five rabbits were sacrificed after one month. The bony mandibles were immersed in 10% formalin solution and examined histologically by two histopathologists. Results: Microscopically, sections for one week of all groups showed mild degree of inflammation, moderate amount of vascularity, granulation tissue and osteoid tissue formation. Sections of one month showed no difference regarding the degree of inflammation vascularity, but the amount of granulation tissue and osteoid tissue formation in the control group were lesser than the amount seen in both experimental groups. Conclusions: DBB and osteon accelerate bone healing after month regarding the amount of granulation tissue and osteoid tissue formation.

Visible Light Cure Fiber Frame Work Reinforcement of Acrylic Resin Denture Base Material. A Comparative Study.

Aliaa W AL-Omari

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 173-181
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.160898

Aims: Heat cured acrylic resin is the material of choice for construction of complete dentures due to its desirable properties, although it has some disadvantages as its susceptibility to fracture. Several methods and materials are used to reinforce acrylic resin denture base. One of these methods is reinforcement by using fibers. In this study, visible light cure fiber frame work is used as reinforcement material and compared with reinforcement with glass fiber. Materials and methods: in this study, 128 samples were prepared for evaluation of transverse strength, impact strength, surface hardness, and residual monomer tests. The samples were divided into four groups 8 sample for each group; control group without reinforcement, reinforcement by using visible light cure fiber frame work, random glass fiber reinforcement, and mesh glass fiber reinforcement. Results: the results of this study showed that visible light cure fiber frame work system significantly increase the transverse strength and impact strength of the heat cured acrylic resin, and it didn’t affect the surface hardness and amount of residual monomer of heat cured acrylic resin. Conclusions: visible light cure fiber frame work system increase acrylic resin denture base resistance to fracture.

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