About Journal

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal (RDENTJ): is an English language, a double-blind peer reviewing system  to assure the quality of publication, scholarly publication in the area of dentistry, open access journal.  Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), this journal is published biannually by the College of Dentistry, University of Mosul, Iraq since 2001. We are using iThenticate to prevent plagiarism and to ensure the originality of our submitted manuscripts. Refereed Scientific Journal deals with fields of dental...
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Journal Information

Publisher: University of Mosul

Email:  alrafidain.dent@uomosul.edu.iq, alrafidaindentj@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Assistant Prof. Dr. Rayan Salim Hamed

Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles with Hydrogen Peroxide against Endodontic Enterococcus faecalis

Saraa Al-Mallah; Ali M Al-Naimi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 158-164
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2021.128786.1062

Aims: This study aimed to assess the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) effect of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in combination with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by evaluating its effect against endodontic Enterococcus Faecalis ( E. faecalis) in the planktonic model. Materials and Methods: the tested irrigants groups (IONPs, 3% H2O2, 5.25% NaOCl, IONPs+H2O2) were serially diluted in brain heart infusion broth, and 100 μl of standard microbial suspensions of E. faecalis were added. The results were obtained based on turbidity and growth on selective enterococcus agar plates. Results: IONPs+H2O2 showed to be more effective against E. faecalis than IONPs, 3% H2O2 and 5.25% NaOCl as lower dilutions were required to inhibit the growth of the bacteria. NaOCl exhibited an antibacterial effect equivalent to that of H2O2, while IONPs exhibited a stimulatory growth at the high tested concentration. Conclusions: IONPs+H2O2 showing promissory antibacterial properties as an intracanal irrigating solution to control E. faecalis from the infected root canal.

Clinical and Histological Effects of N-acetyl Cysteine Intraperitoneal Injection on Primary Wound Healing in Rabbits.

Zaid muhammad

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 165-176
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.129487.1087

Aims: This study aims to investigate the effect of ten days of intraperitoneal injection of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on full thickness wound healing of the  skin, using a rabbit model. Materials and Methods: Thirty - male rabbits were used to conduct this study. A full – thickness linear incision, (10 mm) was induced on the back of each rabbit and divided into two groups. Group 1: no treatment (control group) and group 2 (NAC-treated group) was injected intraperitoneally ten days before wound induction. Animals were randomly divided into three groups according to sacrificing date (1, 3 and 7) days. The site of intervention was assessed clinically and histopathologically on the 1st, 3rd, and 7th day of the experimental procedure. Results: The clinical observation of tissue type revealed that there were significant differences in type of tissue at 1 and 3 days at p-value ≤ 0.05, and the wound healing was converted to granulation tissue without slough and necrotic tissue formation. There was no significant difference at 7 days compared to the control group. The histopathological finding showed that there were significant differences in angiogenesis and granulation tissue formation between the two groups at 1 and 3 days at p-value ≤ 0.05, while there was no significant difference at 7 days. There was a significant difference of reepithelization at 3 and 7 days at p-value ≤ 0.05., Conclusions: Ten days of intraperitoneally N-acetyl cysteine injection before surgical procedures will significantly enhance the process of primary wound healing of rabbit skin.on secondary wounds.

Speeding Orthodontics: A Review Article

Nada N Al-Hafidh; Afrah Kh Al Hamdany; Lamiaa A Hasan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 177-184
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.128952.1067

The request for orthodontic treatment has grown quickly in the last years. One of the most critical issues in orthodontic treatment is how to decrease the duration of orthodontic treatment since the most common complaint of orthodontic patients is prolong the time of treatment which is a huge burden on patients. Orthodontic tooth movement can be enhanced by different methods and techniques. The current study reviewed and summarized the evidence regarding the success of different methods on speeding orthodontic tooth movement.

An Overview on the Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Orthodontic

Ali R Al-Khatib; lmiaa A Hasan; Nada N Al-Hafidh

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 185-192
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.129173.1074

In the 21st era, technological progressions challenged the dental professional to perform extremely risky and multifaceted procedures more reliably and harmless way using the finite element method (FEM) that can sim-ulate and analyze the dental structures. As orthodontic revolve about the forces so FEM is one of the most accurate tools for the researchers in this ground. This review highlights the use of the finite element method in orthodontics and craniofacial research. This stores the different researches performed by using the finite ele-ment model to study the growth of the cranial structure, biomechanical reaction to orthopedic forces, ortho-dontic tooth movement, orthognathic surgeries application, and orthodontic implants

The Early Microleakage of a Fflowable Composite in Class V Restorations

Ammar Kh Al-nori

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 156-161
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9120

Aims: To evaluate microleakage in Class V restorations, which were restored with flowable compositescompared to hybrid composite and to evaluate the difference of microleakage between occlusaland gingival margins. Materials and methods: Forty five non–carious upper premolar teeth were randomlydistributed into 3 groups of 15 teeth each. Class V preparations were made in the buccal surfacesof each tooth and restored by the use of two flowable composites (Tetric and Megafill) and thethird group with hybrid composite (Tetric Ceram). The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. The specimens were then thermocycled manually for 100 times between 5 + 2 °C and55 + 2 °C. All restored teeth were immersed in 0.2% methylene blue dye for 24 hours and sectionedbuccolingually with a finishing diamond wheel. Dye penetration was scored by use of a stereoscopicmicroscope under magnification of ×20. Results: The flowable composites had a significant effect onreducing the microleakage at gingival margin (p= 0.01). The type of material had no significant effectat occlusal margin (p= 0.454). The occlusal margin had significantly lower microleakage than gingivalmargin (p= 0.001). Conclusions: The flowable composites can reduce the microleakage at gingivalmargins, but non of the restorative materials completely sealed the tooth restoration interface.

Modification of Gypsum Products (Part II): The Effect of Drying Methods on The Compressive Strength and Surface Hardness of Modified Gypsum Products

Nadira A. Hatim; Isam K. Al-Khayat; Mohammed A Abdulla

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 162-167
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9107

Aims: Studying the effect of microwave drying on the physical and mechanical properties of modifiedIraqi plaster and modified Plaster of Paris in comparison with open air drying method. Materials andmethods: Two types of gypsum products were used in this study (Iraqi plaster, Plaster of Paris) withthe combined additives (gum arabic 0.5%, calcium oxide 0.75%, and ferric oxide 0.2%) that incorporatedwithin the two gypsum products. Physical and mechanical properties of the experimental gypsumproducts have been evaluated by measuring the compressive strength, surface hardness, and surfaceroughness. Mean, standard deviation, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Duncan's multiple rangestatistical test were used to analyze the data. Results: ANOVA analysis showed that there was a significantdifference in the compressive strength, surface hardness, and surface roughness between Iraqiplaster (I.P) and Plaster of Paris (P.O.P) with or without additives. Conclusions: At two hours timeinterval microwave oven drying, Iraqi plaster and Plaster of Paris samples were stronger than air driedsamples; and microwave oven at 10 minutes for 800 Watt not only increased the strength of gypsumproducts samples, but also save time.

The Effect of Denture Base Surface Treatments on Microlekage of Soft Lining Materials

Munther N. Kazanji; Nadia T. Jaffer

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 168-174
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9109

Aims: To evaluate the effect of two acrylic resin denture base surface trearments on microleakageof 4 soft denture lining materials (Tru–soft, Bony plus, UfiGel–P and Molloplast–B after 2 periods ofstorage and thermalcycling. Materials and methods: One hundred eighty specimens for microleakagewere prepared in a disc shape 30 mm diameter and 4 mm thickness (2 mm for acrylic resin part and 2mm for soft lining material part). Soft lining materials were bonded to three different groups ofacrylic resin surface pretreatments (untreated, sandblasted and monomer treated denture base). Thesespecimens underwent two aging procedures: Storage with two periods (one week and one month), and500 cycles of thermalcycling inside 2% methylene blue dye. Results: Statistical analysis showed thattreating the acrylic resin denture base by sandblasting increased microleakage of silicone–based linings(UfiGel–P and Molloplast–B)and decreased microleakage of acrylic–based linings (Tru–soft and Bonyplus) in comparison to untreated denture base, while treating the denture base with MMA monomerpositively decreased microleakage for all tested soft lining materials in relation to untreated andsandblasted denture base at one week storage, one month storage and at thermalcycling. Conclusions:For all types of denture base surface treatments, microleakage was inevitable, however, wetting theacrylic resin denture base with MMA monomer was more effective in reducing microkeakage thansandblasted and untreated denture bases.

Preparation of Metal Mold For Production Of Microwave Flask

Nadira A Hatim; Radhwan H Hasan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 175-182
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9122

Aims: To design and prepare a metal mold used for production of Fiber Reinforced plastic flask (FRP)suitable for curing of acrylic resin by microwave irradiation, and investigate the effect of the following variableson the shear bond strength (SBS) of acrylic teeth to acrylic denture base material: A-curing techniques(water bath and microwave). B-surface treatment with monomer. C-cross – linking of the tooth resinby using the new microwave flask. Materials and methods: The FRP flask is not available in our countryso as a special design of metal mold was prepared for this study. Inner dimensions were determined accordingto standard Ash metal flask. A microwave flask was fabricated from unsaturated polyester resin reinforcedwith glass fibers, nuts and screws was fabricated from Teflon material which are available in ourcountry. One hundred sixty samples of five different brands of acrylic teeth were divided into four groups{untreated and treated (with monomer )groups each of these were cured by water bath or microwave techniques}.The bond strength between acrylic tooth and denture base resin was measured in shear mode byusing unconfined compression machine, the SBS in MPa was calculated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA)and Duncan’s multiple range test were used for statistical analysis. Results: There was a significant differencesin bond strength of acrylic denture base to different tooth materials by using FRP flask in relation toAsh metal flask at (P < 0.001). Conclusions: SBS of acrylic teeth improved by monomer surface treatmentfor 180 seconds to microwave cured resin by new prepared flask (FRP) was significantly higher than that ofwater – bath cured resin, and cross – linked acrylic teeth showed lowest SBS compared to other type ofacrylic teeth.

A Clinical Assessment on the Efficacy of the Anterior and Middle Superior Alveolar Nerve Block Technique During Extraction of Maxillary Teeth

Faiz A Ayoob Al Sultan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 183-188
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9111

Aims: A clinical evaluation on a recently introduced technique of anesthesia for maxillary teeth namelythe Anterior and Middle Superior alveolar nerve block compared with the conventional infiltrationtechnique for extraction of upper anterior and premolar teeth. Materials and methods: In the first partof the study, testing of pulpal anesthesia were performed after administering this technique for teethfrom upper central incisor to upper second premolar. The sample chosen for the second part of thestudy included 60 subjects of different ages and genders. The patients were divided randomly into twogroups: control group to whom the conventional supraperiosteal injection technique was administeredand the trial group to whom the anterior and middle superior alveolar nerve block technique was administered.In both groups, extraction was carried out. Results: The result of this study indicated thesuccess of achieving pulpal anesthesia after AMSA injection for teeth from the upper canine to the uppersecond premolar with no significant difference noticed between AMSA and control group in regardingto pain score levels after extraction of these teeth. Conclusions: This new technique could beused as a good alternative and or supplementary to the infiltration technique for anesthetizing maxillaryanterior and premolar teeth using a conventional dental syringe.

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Citrus Juices: An In Vitro Study

Nahla O Tawfik; Siba M Al-Haliem; Waidulla N Al-Ani

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 376-382
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.9030

Aims: This work aimed at determining the antibacterial activity of three Citrus Juice on Staphylococ-cus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: The antibacteri-al activities of juices of three types of Citrus (C.) fruit, C. limon (lemon), C. aurantium (bitter orange) and C. paradisi (grapefruit), against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria using four concen-trations of these juices by agar diffusion method with measurement of diameter of the zone of inhibi-tion around the extracts. Results: The results confirmed the presence of anti bacterial activity of the Citrus juice. The highest inhibition zone (18 mm) was observed with a 10% concentration of C. para-dises juice on Staphylococcus aureus, but Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resis-tant. C. limon and C. aurantium juice at 10% and 5% concentration gave positive results with bacteri-cidal effects on the three tested bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The zones of inhibition of C. limon were 10, 12 and 13mm for 5% and 15, 21 and 20 mm for 10% respectively. For C. aurantium, they were 18, 19 and 20 mm for 5% concentration and 16, 19 and 19 mm for 10% concentration respectively. Those effects were better than those produced by stan-dard antibiotic disc used for comparison. Conclusions: The use of different concentrations of Citrus juice extracts had an effective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Palatal Dimensions and Its Correlation with the Circumference of Upper Anterior Teeth

Zeina M Ahmad

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 259-267
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9124

Aims: To put a bases for the prediction of the circumference of artificial anterior teeth depending on thepalatal dimensions Materials and methods: The study sample consists of 30 female and 32 male withclass I occlusion aged 19– 24 years .The dimensions of the palatal vault and the circumferences of upperanterior teeth were recorded with digital venire caliper and analyzed with SPSS program (version 11). Results:significant correlation was found between the dimension of the palatal vault and the circumference ofupper anterior teeth. Conclusions: the angle of circumferences of upper anterior teeth of narrow short anddeep palate will be more tapered than those one in the wide, long and shallow palate.

The Effect of Honey on the Healing of Oral Ulcers(Clinical Study).

Shatha S Mohamed; Asmaa S Al-Douri

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 157-160
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2008.9066

Aim: to assess the effect of honey on healing of recurrent aphthous ulcers. Materials and Methods:
fifty patients with minor oral ulcers (2–5 mm) were attended to consultant clinic in the College of Dentistry demanding a treatment for their painful ulcers were treated by either kenalog in orabase or the
application of honey dressing. Results: The ulcerations have almost completely disappeared after 3 days treatment by honey dressing. Conclusions: Honey has an obvious influence on the rate of healing
process of the oral ulcers.

CAD-CAM Technology: A literature review

Mohammed A Abdulla; Hala Ali; Raghad S Jamel

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 95-113
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164542

Aims: this article focus some of an important aspects related to a CAD/ CAM technology including: applications, designing, construction by the use of computerized controlling machines that developed very fastly in the last two decays. Conclusions: CAD/CAM technology is attained finished different dental restorations through designing and milling processes of a two dimensional or three dimensional models using different ready blocks by numerical controlled machines.

Comparison Between Laceback and Tie-back in Sliding Mechanics (An in vitro study)

Khawla M Awni

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 148-152
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42658

ABSTRACTAims: The current study aims to investigate the rate of space closure, tipping and rotation of canine during its retraction by laceback and tieback using standard ceramic brackets along 2 types of arch-wires using typodont simulation system (Ormco). Materials and Methods: The standardization crite-ria were all typodont teeth situated in well aligned position, covered and immobilized by the acrylic bite except canine, laceback and tieback were used to slide the canine. Results: The present study showed that when slide the canine on 0.017x 0.025 inch archwire gave rise to significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation as compared when sliding it on 0.020 inch archwire, also sliding the canine using laceback as a method of retraction gave rise to a significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation as compared with tieback. Conclusions: It was concluded that canine retraction using laceback retraction method along 0.017x0.025 inch archwire gave rise to a significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation.

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Citrus Juices: An In Vitro Study

Nahla O Tawfik; Siba M Al-Haliem; Waidulla N Al-Ani

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 376-382
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.9030

Aims: This work aimed at determining the antibacterial activity of three Citrus Juice on Staphylococ-cus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: The antibacteri-al activities of juices of three types of Citrus (C.) fruit, C. limon (lemon), C. aurantium (bitter orange) and C. paradisi (grapefruit), against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria using four concen-trations of these juices by agar diffusion method with measurement of diameter of the zone of inhibi-tion around the extracts. Results: The results confirmed the presence of anti bacterial activity of the Citrus juice. The highest inhibition zone (18 mm) was observed with a 10% concentration of C. para-dises juice on Staphylococcus aureus, but Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resis-tant. C. limon and C. aurantium juice at 10% and 5% concentration gave positive results with bacteri-cidal effects on the three tested bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The zones of inhibition of C. limon were 10, 12 and 13mm for 5% and 15, 21 and 20 mm for 10% respectively. For C. aurantium, they were 18, 19 and 20 mm for 5% concentration and 16, 19 and 19 mm for 10% concentration respectively. Those effects were better than those produced by stan-dard antibiotic disc used for comparison. Conclusions: The use of different concentrations of Citrus juice extracts had an effective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Palatal Dimensions and Its Correlation with the Circumference of Upper Anterior Teeth

Zeina M Ahmad

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 259-267
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9124

Aims: To put a bases for the prediction of the circumference of artificial anterior teeth depending on thepalatal dimensions Materials and methods: The study sample consists of 30 female and 32 male withclass I occlusion aged 19– 24 years .The dimensions of the palatal vault and the circumferences of upperanterior teeth were recorded with digital venire caliper and analyzed with SPSS program (version 11). Results:significant correlation was found between the dimension of the palatal vault and the circumference ofupper anterior teeth. Conclusions: the angle of circumferences of upper anterior teeth of narrow short anddeep palate will be more tapered than those one in the wide, long and shallow palate.

The Effect of Honey on the Healing of Oral Ulcers(Clinical Study).

Shatha S Mohamed; Asmaa S Al-Douri

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 157-160
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2008.9066

Aim: to assess the effect of honey on healing of recurrent aphthous ulcers. Materials and Methods:
fifty patients with minor oral ulcers (2–5 mm) were attended to consultant clinic in the College of Dentistry demanding a treatment for their painful ulcers were treated by either kenalog in orabase or the
application of honey dressing. Results: The ulcerations have almost completely disappeared after 3 days treatment by honey dressing. Conclusions: Honey has an obvious influence on the rate of healing
process of the oral ulcers.

CAD-CAM Technology: A literature review

Mohammed A Abdulla; Hala Ali; Raghad S Jamel

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 95-113
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164542

Aims: this article focus some of an important aspects related to a CAD/ CAM technology including: applications, designing, construction by the use of computerized controlling machines that developed very fastly in the last two decays. Conclusions: CAD/CAM technology is attained finished different dental restorations through designing and milling processes of a two dimensional or three dimensional models using different ready blocks by numerical controlled machines.

Comparison Between Laceback and Tie-back in Sliding Mechanics (An in vitro study)

Khawla M Awni

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 148-152
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42658

ABSTRACTAims: The current study aims to investigate the rate of space closure, tipping and rotation of canine during its retraction by laceback and tieback using standard ceramic brackets along 2 types of arch-wires using typodont simulation system (Ormco). Materials and Methods: The standardization crite-ria were all typodont teeth situated in well aligned position, covered and immobilized by the acrylic bite except canine, laceback and tieback were used to slide the canine. Results: The present study showed that when slide the canine on 0.017x 0.025 inch archwire gave rise to significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation as compared when sliding it on 0.020 inch archwire, also sliding the canine using laceback as a method of retraction gave rise to a significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation as compared with tieback. Conclusions: It was concluded that canine retraction using laceback retraction method along 0.017x0.025 inch archwire gave rise to a significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation.

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