About Journal

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal (RDENTJ): is an English language, a double-blind peer reviewing system  to assure the quality of publication, scholarly publication in the area of dentistry, open access journal.  Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), this journal is published biannually by the College of Dentistry, University of Mosul, Iraq since 2001. We are using iThenticate to prevent plagiarism and to ensure the originality of our submitted manuscripts. Refereed Scientific Journal deals with fields of dental...
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Journal Information

Publisher: University of Mosul

Email:  alrafidain.dent@uomosul.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Assistant Prof. Dr. Rayan Salim Hamed

Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Cone Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation of Two Rotary Systems with and without XP-Endo Finisher for Retreatability of Canals Obturated with Bioceramic Sealer

Ahmed Salahaldeen Mahmmod; Nawal A. Al-Sabawi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 220-232
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.130773.1114

Aims: To evaluate volumetric amount of endodontic obturating materials remnants after endodontic retreatment using two retreatment rotary systems (R-Endo and EdgefileXR)with and without supplementary retreatment(XP-Endo Finisher), in teeth obturated by Sure-Seal Root TM (Bioceramic sealer). Materials and Methods: Twenty human mandibular premolars with single straight root canals were prepared using a 2Shape endodontic rotary system with a file size of 25/0.04. All teeth were obturated using gutta-percha and Sure-Seal Root TM (Bioceramic sealer) using the single cone technique. The samples were then divided into two groups according to the retreatment system used (n=10). After retreating all samples with different rotary systems, the samples were evaluated using CBCT images. CBCT images of each sample were taken and evaluated in axial, coronal and sagittal planes to determine the obturating material remnants after retreatment. Then, all samples retreated with two retreatment systems (R-Endo and EdgefileXR) underwent supplementary retreatment with XP-Endo Finisher. Second CBCT images for each sample were taken and the volume of the remnant material inside the canal walls was analyzed. Data were analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA analysis of variance, Duncan’s multiple analysis rang test and independent t-test.  Results: EdgeFileXR and R-Endo were significantly different and XP-Endo Finisher improved the removal of obturating materials in both groups. Conclusions: The retreatment system had a significant effect on the amount of endodontic obturating material remnants after endodontic retreatment and XP-Endo Finisher had a supplementary removal effect.

Efficiency of Two Rotary Retreatment Systems with and without XP-Endo Finisher for the Removal of Root Filling Materials

Ahmed Salahaldeen Mahmmod; Nawal A. Al-Sabawi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 233-244
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.130785.1115

Aims: To evaluate the volumetric amount of endodontic obturating materials remains after endodontic retreatment with and without complementary retreatment(XP-Endo Finisher) utilizing two retreatment rotary systems (R-Endo and EdgefileXR).Materials and Methods: Twenty human mandibular premolars with single straight root canals were prepared using a 2Shape endodontic rotary system with a file size of 25/0.04. Gutta-percha and T-Seal (Epoxy resin sealer) were used to obtain all the teeth using a single cone technique. Samples were then divided into two groups based on the retreatment system used (n=10). CBCT images of each sample were taken and analyzed in axial, coronal, and sagittal planes to determine the obturating material remnants after retreatment. Then, all samples retreated by two retreatment systems (R-Endo and EdgefileXR) were subjected to supplementary retreatment by the XP-Endo Finisher. Second CBCT evaluation were performed to determine the XP-Endp Finisher effect. The data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA analysis of variance, independent t-test, and Duncan’s multiple analysis rang test. Results: EdgeFileXR and R-Endo were significantly different, EdgefileXR is more effective and XP-Endo Finisher improved removal of obturating materials in both groups. Conclusions: The retreatment system had a significant effect on the amount of endodontic obturating materials remnants, XP-Endo Finisher show a supplementary removal effect

Biomimetic Enamel Remineralization: A Comparative in vitro Study of Self-Assembling Peptide, Fluoride Varnish, and their Combination at Different Times by Surface Microhardness Test

Ahmed Al-baso; Raya Al-Naimi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 245-254
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2022.130557.1110

Aims: This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of self-assembling peptide, fluoride varnish, and their combination to remineralize the artificial carious lesion in vitro. Materials and methods: Sixty extracted sound premolars were randomly divided into four groups. The artificial carious lesion was created by immersion the specimens in the demineralizing solution. The enamel surface treated with: Group1: (n=15) artificial saliva alone, group2: (n=15) fluoride varnish, group3: (n=15) self-assembling peptide, group4: (n=15) self-assembling peptide + fluoride varnish. The enamel surface was assessed by Vickers surface microhardness at the baseline, after demineralization, 1-week, and 4-weeks after remineralization. Results: all four groups exhibited high statistically significant differences between the different times of test periods, In 1 and 4-weeks after remineralization, the greatest surface microhardness mean value was seen in the self-assembling peptide + fluoride varnish group followed by self-assembling peptide group then fluoride varnish group while the artificial saliva group showed the least surface microhardness mean value with a highly statistically significant difference between them. Conclusions: self-assembling peptide superior to fluoride varnish in remineralization ability and this potential is boosted when they combined together. Relating to surface microhardness, remineralization is a dynamic process that increases with time.

Biomimetic Enamel Remineralization: A Comparative in vitro Study of Self-Assembling Peptide, Fluoride Varnish, and their Combination at Different Times by Surface Roughness Test

Ahmed Al-baso; Raya jasm Al-Naimi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 255-264
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2022.130558.1111

Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of self-assembling peptide, fluoride varnish, and their combination to remineralize the artificial carious lesion in vitro. Materials and methods: Sixty extracted sound premolars were randomly divided into four groups. The artificial carious lesion was created by immersion the specimens in the demineralizing solution. The enamel surface was treated with: Group1: (n=15) artificial saliva alone, group2: (n=15) fluoride varnish, group3: (n=15) self-assembling peptide, group4: (n=15) self-assembling peptide + fluoride varnish. The enamel surface was assessed by a profilometer at the baseline, after demineralization, 1-week, and 4-weeks after remineralization. Results: all four groups exhibited high statistically significant differences between the different times of test periods, In 1 and 4 weeks after remineralization, the least surface roughness mean value was seen in the self-assembling peptide + fluoride varnish group followed by self-assembling peptide group then fluoride varnish group while the artificial saliva showed the greatest surface roughness mean value with a highly statistically significant difference between groups. Conclusions: self-assembling peptide superior to fluoride varnish in remineralization ability and this potential is boosted when they combined together.

Levels of Anxiety in Patients Undergoing Simple Tooth Extraction: The Possible Contributing Factors.

Abdurrahman Al-Samman; Zaid Bashir; Bashar Al-Mashhadani

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 265-270
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.129994.1102

Aims: The current study aims to assess the levels of patients’ anxiety towards simple tooth extraction, and the difference in pre-extraction anxiety levels; if present; between genders and among different age groups. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and ninety-two patients who presented for simple tooth extraction were recruited. Each participant filled a self-administrated questionnaire; the tooth-extraction anxiety (TEA) scale and asked to rate the amount of their anxiety toward tooth extraction on 11- point Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Results: Two hundred and sixty-three patients (90.07%) filled-out the questionnaire completely. Cronbach’s α for the present sample was 0.84 correlated significantly with NRS (0.48, P<0.01).  Anxiety among patients was moderate, and mean scores of 4.68 and 2.76 were recorded on NRS and TEA scale respectively. The scores of anxiety in female patients was slightly higher than in male patients but without statistical significance. When considering the age groups of participants, significantly higher anxiety was depicted in the young and old adult age groups than in middle-age adult group of patients. Conclusions: Anxiety may be more predicted in female, young, and old-adult patients. 

Impact of Azithromycin on Gingival Enlargement

Israa mahmood mustafs; Maha Talal Al saffar; Abdulsattar Salim mahmood

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 271-279
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.130646.1113

 
Aims: This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of azithromycin in reducing pathological gingival enlargement. Materials and methods: twelve adult New Zealand male rabbits weighing (900gm-1250mg) and almost the same in age and circumstance were chosen in this study. All animals with pathological gingival enlargement were clinically examined by using a periodontal probe and measuring their gingival sulcus depth. Then, six of them were slaughtered and considered the control group and the other six were experimental group, and at the end of study a specimens of oral mucosa were taken for immunohistochemical examinations. Results: Clinical examination shows there is no reduction in gingival enlargement in the control group while this enlargement decreased in the experimental group after use of azithromycin. Immunohistochemical analysis shows mild matrix metalloproteinase-1(MMP1) expression in the control group and moderate to strong MMP1 expression in sub-epithelial of gingiva in the experimental group. Conclusion: This study establishes that azithromycin is clinically   and immunohistochemically effective in the reduction of pathological gingival enlargement.

Assessment of Bone Density around Dental Implants Using Two Platelet-Rich Fibrin Protocols (A Comparative Clinical Study)

Rahma Atheed Kamal; Rayan Salim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 280-291
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2021.128683.1058

Aims: The current study  aimed to compare bone density means around dental implants covered with one of two platelet rich fibrin preparation protocols (Standard-Platelet Rich Fibrin and Advanced-Platelet Rich Fibrin) using standard intraoral digital periapical radiographs. Materials and methods: A total of ten male patients with an age range of 28-51 years participated in this split-mouth clinical study.  The patients were divided into two groups based on the platelet rich fibrin (PRF) protocol to be used with dental implant insertion into positive control (S-PRF) and study group (A-PRF). Each patient represented the two groups in which he received 2 dental implants; ten implants for each group (a total of 20 dental implants) of standard length and diameter in the posterior mandibular extraction sites of ipsilateral or contralateral side. In the positive control group, the standard PRF protocol was to be used to prepare the PRF clot. In the study group, the advanced PRF protocol was to be used to prepare the PRF clot. Both PRF membranes were to be instilled inside the osteotomy bed during dental fixture installation. Following the installation of dental implants and as a basis for comparison between both groups, densitometric analysis of bone around dental implants at immediate, four, eight and twelve weeks scheduled visits were made. Results: Total densitometric analysis results showed no significant difference within S-PRF group, within A-PRF group and between both groups, with the highest mean (167.07) being at twelve weeks after surgery in the A-PRF group. Conclusions: Both S-PRF and A-PRF, similarly enhanced and maintained bone density (synergistic effect) throughout the of study and as disclosed by densitometric values. The use of PRF in its current forms seems to be an accepted minimally invasive approach with good clinical results.
 

Platelet Concentrates: Review of Evolution and Classification

Rayan Salim; Alyaa I. Naser

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 292-300
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2022.131498.1137

Platelets contain a reservoir of growth factors that have numerous biological activities such as assisting in chemotaxis, cell differentiation, proliferation, and angiogenesis which all are pivotal in the wound healing process. From this, platelet concentrates have been described in the literature beginning from the first generation to the second generation both of which have a beneficial impact on the healing of soft and hard tissue following oral surgical procedures. The following review will illustrate the evolution of platelet concentrates and the current classification of the marketed products available.

Push-out Bond Strength Evaluation for Different Endodontic Sealers (A Comparative Study).

Israa Muwafaq Attash; Wiaam M. AL-Ashou

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 301-312
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2022.130209.1105

 
Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the push-out bond strength values between four different types of sealers. Materials and method: Forty extracted straight, single-rooted, sound human mandibular first premolar teeth were selected for this study. The crown portion of each tooth was decoronated to the level of the cement-enamel junction (CEJ) to standardize the root length to 16 mm. The working length was measured and the canals were instrumented using Nickel-Titanium ProTaper Universal Rotary System up to size F3. The canals were rinsed with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite followed by 17% EDTA, then the samples were divided into four groups (n=10) according to the sealer to be used with F3 gutta-percha. These are (AH Plus, GuttaFlow 2, GuttaFlow Bioseal and MTA Fillapex) sealers. The push-out bond strength test was performed and the data were analyzed using one way ANOVA, and post hoc Duncan’s multiple range tests at (p ≤ 0.05). Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the push-out bond strength among the four sealers’ groups at (p ≤ 0.05). The highest mean value of bond strength (3.605) MPa was shown in the AH Plus group. Bioseal group produced (1.833) MPa followed by (0.822) MPa for GuttaFlow2 group. The lowest value (0.645) MPa was shown in MTA Fillapex group. Conclusion:  Based on the findings of this study, AH Plus sealer revealed the highest bond-strength value followed by GuttaFlow Bioseal and GuttaFlow 2, whereas MTA Fillapex showed the least bond value.
 

The Effect of Smear Layer on the Push-out Bond Strength of Silicone-based Root Canal Sealers

Israa Muwafaq Attash; Wiaam M. AL-Ashou

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 313-322
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.130285.1106

 
Aims: The study aimed to evaluate the effect of smear layer on the push-out bond strength of silicone-based root canal sealers. Materials and methods: Sixty extracted, single-rooted, sound human mandibular first premolar teeth were selected for this study. The Crown portion of each tooth was decoronated to the level of cement-enamel junction to standardize the root length to 16 mm. The working length was measured by subtracting 1mm from the visually determined canal length and the canals were instrumented using ProTaper universal rotary system up to size F3. The canals were divided into two groups according to the irrigating solutions used. Group.1 was rinsed with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite followed by 17% EDTA to ensure complete smear layer removal. Group.2 was rinsed using 0.9% normal saline to keep the smear layer. Then the samples were subdivided into three subgroups according to the sealer used with gutta-percha. These include AH Plus, GuttaFlow 2, and GuttaFlow Bioseal groups. The push-out bond strength test was performed using the universal testing machine and the data were analyzed using independent sample T-test at (p ≤ 0.05) to compare the results of each sealer group in the presence and absence of the smear layer. Results: For all sealers’ groups the results has shown a statistically significant difference in the bond strength at (p ≤ 0.05) between group 1 (without smear layer) and group 2 (with smear layer). The smear layer removal produced higher bond strength in AH Plus sealer, whereas the bond strength of both GuttaFlow 2 and GuttaFlow Bioseal was decreased when the smear layer was removed. Conclusion:Smear layer removal has a positive effect on the bond strength value of AH Plus sealer. The bond strength of GuttaFlow 2 and GuttaFlow Bioseal was not improved following smear layer removal.

Oxidative stress and Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms in Dentistry: A Literature Review.

Faehaa Azher Al-Mashhadane

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 323-331
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2022.130582.1112

 
This review paper aimed to evaluate the effect of oxidative stress in the prevalence of some dental diseases and the role of antioxidants in dentistry. Oxidative stress is a normal phenomenon, present in healthy human body help them to produce energy that they need for their life. During that, the formation of free radicals begins, including both reactive oxygen species "ROS" & also reactive nitrogen species "RNS". These radicals have a role in a many types of signalling pathways that regulate inflammation. Antioxidants constrain the formation of free radicals. Mitochondria, a small cell organelle acts to generate energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate "ATP". It combines oxygen & glucose to form carbon dioxide, water, & ATP. Free radicals result as by-products of this metabolic process & when natural defence apparatuses be unsuccessful, the level of free radicals begins to increase to levels where the capacity of the body is unable to neutralize them entering the body into the state of high oxidative stress, which means greater risk of numerous oral & systemic diseases. Oral tissues are liable to free radical damage in a unique manner due to the presence of mucus membranes that allow rapid absorption of constituents throughout their surfaces. In oral environment, infection of gingiva can produce oxidative stress. The rise in formation of free radicals by oxidative stress results in further destruction of cellular walls and oral tissues. The study results suggested that the use of antioxidants is an adjunct approach to dental therapy may be helpful in controlling the oral health status.
 

Surface Roughness, Hardness and FTIR of the Modified Soft Liner with Different Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

Mohammed M Sadoon; Ammar Kh. Al-Noori

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 332-342
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2022.129989.1104

 
Aims: To study the effect of metal oxide nanoparticles (MgO, ZrO2, ZnO) on acrylic based soft liner surface properties and FTIR. Materials and Methods: Acrylic-based soft-liner specimens were prepared by adding three different concentrations (0.5, 1, and 2) %wt of metal oxide nanoparticles (MgO, ZrO2, ZnO). A disk-shaped specimens with 30mm diameter and 3mm thickness were prepared for shore (A) hardness test to evaluate the surface hardness of modified soft liner. The surface roughness of soft-liner samples (10X10X2mm) was tested by a profilometer. FTIR analysis was conducted to evaluate chemical reaction that may occur between acrylic-based soft liner and nanoparticles. Results: there were no chemical reaction carried out between soft liner and metal oxide nanoparticles at different concentration- surface hardness (shore A) was increased as nanoparticles concentration increased in modified resin. Nanoparticles with 1 and 2% concentration incorporated in soft liner had lower surface roughness value. Conclusions: Metal oxide nanoparticles have improved the surface texture of acrylic-based soft liner, while the hardness of modified soft liner was increased with nanoparticles concentration increases.
 
 
 
 

Antifungal Activity of Magnesium Oxide and Zirconium Oxide Nanoparticles Incorporated into Alginate Impression Material. In Vitro Study

Luma Mudhafar Al-Nema; Ahmed Asim Al-Ali

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 343-351
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2022.129812.1095

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effect of adding nanoparticles with different concentrations into irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials. Materials and Methods: This study evaluated the antifungal effect of MgO and ZrO2 nanoparticles by Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and using the Agar-Well diffusion method after incorporation of different concentrations of nanoparticles into irreversible hydrocolloid impression material. Results: The results of this study showed that MIC and MFC of magnesium oxide nanoparticles were 0.2wt% and 0.3wt% respectively and for zirconium oxide nanoparticles were 5wt% and 10wt% respectively. Conclusions: The incorporation of MgO and ZrO2 into irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials acts as antifungal agents.

Setting Time and Solubility of Thymol Incorporated Zinc Oxide-Guaiacol Root Canal Sealer: An in Vitro Study

Fatin Salim Mohammed; sawsan hameed al-jubori

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 352-362
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2021.128839.1063

Aims: This study aimed to establish whether changes in setting time and solubility of the locally prepared zinc oxide-guaiacol endodontic sealer when incorporated with thymol crystals as an antibacterial agent.  Materials and Methods: zinc oxide-guaiacol endodontic sealer with thymol crystals incorporated at three different concentrations (2%, 5%, and10%) were tested, For setting time test similar specimens were prepared using ring molds with an internal diameter of (10 mm) and a height of (2 mm), nearly (120±10) seconds once mixing, the sample was located on a metal block in an incubator. A Gilmore needle with a mass of (100±0.5 g) which had (2±0.1 mm measurement) was used; the period of “no indent” was noted from the start of mixing. For the solubility test, similar specimens were prepared using ring molds with an internal diameter of (20 ± 0.1 mm) and a height of (1.5 ± 0.1 mm) and digitally weighted to register the mass of each specimen before and after immersion in distilled water. Solubility was determined after 24 hours and statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics, a One-Way ANOVA test, and post-hoc Duncanʼs Multiple Range Test was used. Results: The means of setting time of three experimental sealers were decreased as thymol crystal concentrations increased and the means of solubility for three experimental sealers were increased as the concentrations of thymol crystal increased. Conclusions: This study concluded that the prepared sealers with three concentrations were still adapted within the requirements of ANSI\ADA specifications NO.57\2008 for root canal sealer materials.

Silver Diamine Fluoride Applications in Dentistry: Review Article

Zainab Alkhayat; Reem R. Ali

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 363-375
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2022.132677.1151

The worth of using Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) during COVID-19 pandemic has highly increased due to its low invasiveness and non-aerosolizing technique. The blend of silver and fluoride in an alkaline solution has a great action in arresting active enamel and dentin carious lesions, also acting as a desensitizer to lessen dentine hypersensitivity in adults, this review article was conducted to highlight the SDF mechanism of action, clinical applications, and its main indications and contraindications.

Factors Contributing to Microleakage in Orthodontics: A Review of Literature

lara Al-Banaa; Saif Sufyan Alsoufy; Ali Rajih Al-Khatib

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 376-388
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2022.131409.1136

Abstract
Aims: Microleakage under brackets and bands is considered as one of the common problems that occurs during orthodontic treatments. The main objective of this paper was to review the available information regarding the factors contributing to microleakage in Orthodontics. Materials and Methods:  Microleakage was defined, reviewed and explained the factors contributing to microleakage in orthodontics. Conclusion: A considerable amount of research has been published concerning factors contributing to microleakage in orthodontics. this paper hopes to provide some information regarding this topic for both researchers and peoples working on clinical fields.

Evaluating the Effect of Polyetheretherketone Particles Adding on Some Mechanical Properties of Polymethacrylate Denture Base Material

Mohand abduljawad mustafa; Aliaa Wameedh AL-Omari

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 389-399
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2022.130532.1109

Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess some mechanical properties of PMMA after incorporating with polyetheretherketone particles (vectrex peek polymer) (PEEK) material with a different percentage (1%, 2% and 3%). Materials and Methods:The PEEK particle size of 130μm. The PEEK of 1%, 2% and 3% wt. respectively was added to the PMMA resin base to achieve a PMMA/PEEK composite of three different particles percentage to compare with the PMMA with no additives (control). The conventional heat-curing method was applied using a water bath to polymerize the specimens for both Vickers hardness, tensile and transvers strength tests. Study data were analysed via One-way ANOVA (post-hoc/Tukey test) performed at significant P-value of (p≤0.05) and confidence. Results: After comparing the results, a significant alteration in the hardness, tensile and transvers strength of PMMA/2%PEEK composites was noticed comparing to other tested groups (p≤0.05). Conclusions: the polyetheretherketone particles used as dental filler at 1%, 2% and 3% wt. added to PMMA reduced the tensile strength and enhanced the hardness and transvers strength of PMMA denture base material.

Evaluating the Effect of Polyetheretherketone Particles Addition on Water Sorption and Solubility of Polymethylmethacrylate Denture Base Material

Mohand abduljawad mustafa; Aliaa Wameedh AL-Omari

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 400-408
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.130526.1108

 
Aims: To assess water sorption and solubilityof PMMA after incorporating with polyetheretherketone particles (vectrex peek polymer PEEK) material with a different percentage (1%, 2%, and 3%). Materials and Methods:The PEEK particle size of 130μm. Peek with (1%, 2%, 3%by wt.) concentrations were added to the PMMA resin base to compare with the PMMA with no additives (control). The conventional heat-curing method was applied using a water bath to polymerize the specimens and study water sorption and water solubility of prepared samples. Study data was analysed via One-way ANOVA performed at significant P-value of (p≤0.05) and confidence. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy used to detect any chemical modification occurs.Results: After comparing the results show significant difference in Water sorption of PMMA/PEEK. Water Solubility show no significant difference comparing to other tested groups (p≤0.05). Conclusions: the PEEK particles use it as dental filler at 1%,2% and 3% wt. incorporating PMMA material with3% PEEK material have lowest mean value for water sorption and solubility

Histological evaluation of gingival enlargement response to oral folic acid administration in rabbit

Marwa hashim Ali; Maha Talal Al saffar; Abdulsattar Salim mahmood

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 409-417
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2022.130074.1103

Aims of the study: to clarify the clinical and histological evaluation of oral folic acid effect on reduction of gingival enlargement.
Materials and methods: The study was carried out in the collage of dentistry /university of Mosul on twelve white newzeland male rabbit with gingival enlargement weight between (900 g±1.250g). six rabbit considered as control group and the other six rabbit considered as treated group which taking 15 mg orally folic acid once daily for about 14 days then depth of gingival sulcus evaluated clinically by periodontal` probe and euthaniused for histological examination.
Result: Clinically: after 14 days of drug administration, there is a high clinical differences between two group (mean +- SD), control group have (3-5mm) of gingival enlargement and experimental group have (1-3 mm) of gingival enlargement.
Histological finding show significant differences in the form of gingival sulcus depth and inflammatory cell infiltration and connective tissue in control group and experimental group.
Conclusion: the effect of oral administration of folic acid have higher evaluation on reducing the gingival enlargement in rabbit

The Effect of Adding Different Types and Concentrations of polymers on the Water Solubility of Heat Cured Acrylic Resin

Nada Zuhair; Radhwan H. Hasan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 418-426
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.129782.1093

 
Aims: To evaluate the effect of adding different types and concentrations of polymers on the water solubility of heat cured acrylic resin. Materials and Methods: Heat cured acrylic resin specimens were prepared and divided into: Control group (without additives) and experimental group (with additives). Three kinds of additives (Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR), Poly ethylene glycol (PEG) and Poly urethane (PU)) were incorporated with acrylic resin in three concentration s 1%, 3% and 5% by weight. The water solubility was tested, calculated and the data were statistically analyzed by SPSS Version 19 by mean of Descriptive statistics, analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and Duncan multiple range tests at p ≤ 0.05. Results: The results showed that the water solubility of experimental group was less than that of the control group and its values decreased as the additives concentration increased. The lowest mean value of water solubility was achieved by the incorporation of SBR polymer at 5% concentration (0.018 μg/mm3). Conclusions: The type and concentration of additives directly affected the water solubility of heat cured acrylic resin. The control group has higher mean value of water solubility than that the experimental group. The additives were significantly decreased the amount of water solubility of heat cured denture base resin.
 

An Evaluation of Cytotoxicity of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles with Hydrogen Peroxide Endodontic Irrigant

Saraa Al-Mallah; Ali Al-Naimi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2021.129103.1069

Aims: The aim of this research was to determine the cytotoxic effect of different concentrations of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in combination with hydrogen peroxide ( H2O2) in vitro as a potential endodontic irrigating solution. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity of IONPs at concentrations (8, 4, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.25 mg/ml) with 3% H2O2 were evaluated on cultured Human Dermal Fibroblast  (HDFn) cell line. Cytotoxicity was assessed after 10 minutes of exposure using the Mosmann’s Tetrazolium Toxicity (MTT) assay. Results: Tukey’s test indicated that no significant difference in cell viability was found at lower concentrations (0.2, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml). While at a concentration of 4 and 8 mg/ml, the cell viability was not significantly different from each other whereas, significantly different from previous concentrations. Conclusion: From the gained data, it can be deduced that IONPs+H2O2 had almost no cytotoxic effect on HDFn cell viability at concentrations 0.2, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml, while a moderate decrease of survival has been observed at concentrations 4 and 8  mg/ml.

The Early Microleakage of a Fflowable Composite in Class V Restorations

Ammar Kh Al-nori

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 156-161
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9120

Aims: To evaluate microleakage in Class V restorations, which were restored with flowable compositescompared to hybrid composite and to evaluate the difference of microleakage between occlusaland gingival margins. Materials and methods: Forty five non–carious upper premolar teeth were randomlydistributed into 3 groups of 15 teeth each. Class V preparations were made in the buccal surfacesof each tooth and restored by the use of two flowable composites (Tetric and Megafill) and thethird group with hybrid composite (Tetric Ceram). The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. The specimens were then thermocycled manually for 100 times between 5 + 2 °C and55 + 2 °C. All restored teeth were immersed in 0.2% methylene blue dye for 24 hours and sectionedbuccolingually with a finishing diamond wheel. Dye penetration was scored by use of a stereoscopicmicroscope under magnification of ×20. Results: The flowable composites had a significant effect onreducing the microleakage at gingival margin (p= 0.01). The type of material had no significant effectat occlusal margin (p= 0.454). The occlusal margin had significantly lower microleakage than gingivalmargin (p= 0.001). Conclusions: The flowable composites can reduce the microleakage at gingivalmargins, but non of the restorative materials completely sealed the tooth restoration interface.

Modification of Gypsum Products (Part II): The Effect of Drying Methods on The Compressive Strength and Surface Hardness of Modified Gypsum Products

Nadira A. Hatim; Isam K. Al-Khayat; Mohammed A Abdulla

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 162-167
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9107

Aims: Studying the effect of microwave drying on the physical and mechanical properties of modifiedIraqi plaster and modified Plaster of Paris in comparison with open air drying method. Materials andmethods: Two types of gypsum products were used in this study (Iraqi plaster, Plaster of Paris) withthe combined additives (gum arabic 0.5%, calcium oxide 0.75%, and ferric oxide 0.2%) that incorporatedwithin the two gypsum products. Physical and mechanical properties of the experimental gypsumproducts have been evaluated by measuring the compressive strength, surface hardness, and surfaceroughness. Mean, standard deviation, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Duncan's multiple rangestatistical test were used to analyze the data. Results: ANOVA analysis showed that there was a significantdifference in the compressive strength, surface hardness, and surface roughness between Iraqiplaster (I.P) and Plaster of Paris (P.O.P) with or without additives. Conclusions: At two hours timeinterval microwave oven drying, Iraqi plaster and Plaster of Paris samples were stronger than air driedsamples; and microwave oven at 10 minutes for 800 Watt not only increased the strength of gypsumproducts samples, but also save time.

The Effect of Denture Base Surface Treatments on Microlekage of Soft Lining Materials

Munther N. Kazanji; Nadia T. Jaffer

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 168-174
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9109

Aims: To evaluate the effect of two acrylic resin denture base surface trearments on microleakageof 4 soft denture lining materials (Tru–soft, Bony plus, UfiGel–P and Molloplast–B after 2 periods ofstorage and thermalcycling. Materials and methods: One hundred eighty specimens for microleakagewere prepared in a disc shape 30 mm diameter and 4 mm thickness (2 mm for acrylic resin part and 2mm for soft lining material part). Soft lining materials were bonded to three different groups ofacrylic resin surface pretreatments (untreated, sandblasted and monomer treated denture base). Thesespecimens underwent two aging procedures: Storage with two periods (one week and one month), and500 cycles of thermalcycling inside 2% methylene blue dye. Results: Statistical analysis showed thattreating the acrylic resin denture base by sandblasting increased microleakage of silicone–based linings(UfiGel–P and Molloplast–B)and decreased microleakage of acrylic–based linings (Tru–soft and Bonyplus) in comparison to untreated denture base, while treating the denture base with MMA monomerpositively decreased microleakage for all tested soft lining materials in relation to untreated andsandblasted denture base at one week storage, one month storage and at thermalcycling. Conclusions:For all types of denture base surface treatments, microleakage was inevitable, however, wetting theacrylic resin denture base with MMA monomer was more effective in reducing microkeakage thansandblasted and untreated denture bases.

Preparation of Metal Mold For Production Of Microwave Flask

Nadira A Hatim; Radhwan H Hasan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 175-182
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9122

Aims: To design and prepare a metal mold used for production of Fiber Reinforced plastic flask (FRP)suitable for curing of acrylic resin by microwave irradiation, and investigate the effect of the following variableson the shear bond strength (SBS) of acrylic teeth to acrylic denture base material: A-curing techniques(water bath and microwave). B-surface treatment with monomer. C-cross – linking of the tooth resinby using the new microwave flask. Materials and methods: The FRP flask is not available in our countryso as a special design of metal mold was prepared for this study. Inner dimensions were determined accordingto standard Ash metal flask. A microwave flask was fabricated from unsaturated polyester resin reinforcedwith glass fibers, nuts and screws was fabricated from Teflon material which are available in ourcountry. One hundred sixty samples of five different brands of acrylic teeth were divided into four groups{untreated and treated (with monomer )groups each of these were cured by water bath or microwave techniques}.The bond strength between acrylic tooth and denture base resin was measured in shear mode byusing unconfined compression machine, the SBS in MPa was calculated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA)and Duncan’s multiple range test were used for statistical analysis. Results: There was a significant differencesin bond strength of acrylic denture base to different tooth materials by using FRP flask in relation toAsh metal flask at (P < 0.001). Conclusions: SBS of acrylic teeth improved by monomer surface treatmentfor 180 seconds to microwave cured resin by new prepared flask (FRP) was significantly higher than that ofwater – bath cured resin, and cross – linked acrylic teeth showed lowest SBS compared to other type ofacrylic teeth.

A Clinical Assessment on the Efficacy of the Anterior and Middle Superior Alveolar Nerve Block Technique During Extraction of Maxillary Teeth

Faiz A Ayoob Al Sultan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 183-188
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9111

Aims: A clinical evaluation on a recently introduced technique of anesthesia for maxillary teeth namelythe Anterior and Middle Superior alveolar nerve block compared with the conventional infiltrationtechnique for extraction of upper anterior and premolar teeth. Materials and methods: In the first partof the study, testing of pulpal anesthesia were performed after administering this technique for teethfrom upper central incisor to upper second premolar. The sample chosen for the second part of thestudy included 60 subjects of different ages and genders. The patients were divided randomly into twogroups: control group to whom the conventional supraperiosteal injection technique was administeredand the trial group to whom the anterior and middle superior alveolar nerve block technique was administered.In both groups, extraction was carried out. Results: The result of this study indicated thesuccess of achieving pulpal anesthesia after AMSA injection for teeth from the upper canine to the uppersecond premolar with no significant difference noticed between AMSA and control group in regardingto pain score levels after extraction of these teeth. Conclusions: This new technique could beused as a good alternative and or supplementary to the infiltration technique for anesthetizing maxillaryanterior and premolar teeth using a conventional dental syringe.

Palatal Dimensions and Its Correlation with the Circumference of Upper Anterior Teeth

Zeina M Ahmad

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 259-267
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9124

Aims: To put a bases for the prediction of the circumference of artificial anterior teeth depending on thepalatal dimensions Materials and methods: The study sample consists of 30 female and 32 male withclass I occlusion aged 19– 24 years .The dimensions of the palatal vault and the circumferences of upperanterior teeth were recorded with digital venire caliper and analyzed with SPSS program (version 11). Results:significant correlation was found between the dimension of the palatal vault and the circumference ofupper anterior teeth. Conclusions: the angle of circumferences of upper anterior teeth of narrow short anddeep palate will be more tapered than those one in the wide, long and shallow palate.

CAD-CAM Technology: A literature review

Mohammed A Abdulla; Hala Ali; Raghad S Jamel

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 95-113
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164542

Aims: this article focus some of an important aspects related to a CAD/ CAM technology including: applications, designing, construction by the use of computerized controlling machines that developed very fastly in the last two decays. Conclusions: CAD/CAM technology is attained finished different dental restorations through designing and milling processes of a two dimensional or three dimensional models using different ready blocks by numerical controlled machines.

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Citrus Juices: An In Vitro Study

Nahla O Tawfik; Siba M Al-Haliem; Waidulla N Al-Ani

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 376-382
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.9030

Aims: This work aimed at determining the antibacterial activity of three Citrus Juice on Staphylococ-cus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: The antibacteri-al activities of juices of three types of Citrus (C.) fruit, C. limon (lemon), C. aurantium (bitter orange) and C. paradisi (grapefruit), against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria using four concen-trations of these juices by agar diffusion method with measurement of diameter of the zone of inhibi-tion around the extracts. Results: The results confirmed the presence of anti bacterial activity of the Citrus juice. The highest inhibition zone (18 mm) was observed with a 10% concentration of C. para-dises juice on Staphylococcus aureus, but Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resis-tant. C. limon and C. aurantium juice at 10% and 5% concentration gave positive results with bacteri-cidal effects on the three tested bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The zones of inhibition of C. limon were 10, 12 and 13mm for 5% and 15, 21 and 20 mm for 10% respectively. For C. aurantium, they were 18, 19 and 20 mm for 5% concentration and 16, 19 and 19 mm for 10% concentration respectively. Those effects were better than those produced by stan-dard antibiotic disc used for comparison. Conclusions: The use of different concentrations of Citrus juice extracts had an effective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Comparison Between Laceback and Tie-back in Sliding Mechanics (An in vitro study)

Khawla M Awni

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 148-152
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42658

ABSTRACTAims: The current study aims to investigate the rate of space closure, tipping and rotation of canine during its retraction by laceback and tieback using standard ceramic brackets along 2 types of arch-wires using typodont simulation system (Ormco). Materials and Methods: The standardization crite-ria were all typodont teeth situated in well aligned position, covered and immobilized by the acrylic bite except canine, laceback and tieback were used to slide the canine. Results: The present study showed that when slide the canine on 0.017x 0.025 inch archwire gave rise to significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation as compared when sliding it on 0.020 inch archwire, also sliding the canine using laceback as a method of retraction gave rise to a significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation as compared with tieback. Conclusions: It was concluded that canine retraction using laceback retraction method along 0.017x0.025 inch archwire gave rise to a significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation.

The Effect of Honey on the Healing of Oral Ulcers(Clinical Study).

Shatha S Mohamed; Asmaa S Al-Douri

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 157-160
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2008.9066

Aim: to assess the effect of honey on healing of recurrent aphthous ulcers. Materials and Methods:
fifty patients with minor oral ulcers (2–5 mm) were attended to consultant clinic in the College of Dentistry demanding a treatment for their painful ulcers were treated by either kenalog in orabase or the
application of honey dressing. Results: The ulcerations have almost completely disappeared after 3 days treatment by honey dressing. Conclusions: Honey has an obvious influence on the rate of healing
process of the oral ulcers.

Palatal Dimensions and Its Correlation with the Circumference of Upper Anterior Teeth

Zeina M Ahmad

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 259-267
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9124

Aims: To put a bases for the prediction of the circumference of artificial anterior teeth depending on thepalatal dimensions Materials and methods: The study sample consists of 30 female and 32 male withclass I occlusion aged 19– 24 years .The dimensions of the palatal vault and the circumferences of upperanterior teeth were recorded with digital venire caliper and analyzed with SPSS program (version 11). Results:significant correlation was found between the dimension of the palatal vault and the circumference ofupper anterior teeth. Conclusions: the angle of circumferences of upper anterior teeth of narrow short anddeep palate will be more tapered than those one in the wide, long and shallow palate.

CAD-CAM Technology: A literature review

Mohammed A Abdulla; Hala Ali; Raghad S Jamel

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 95-113
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164542

Aims: this article focus some of an important aspects related to a CAD/ CAM technology including: applications, designing, construction by the use of computerized controlling machines that developed very fastly in the last two decays. Conclusions: CAD/CAM technology is attained finished different dental restorations through designing and milling processes of a two dimensional or three dimensional models using different ready blocks by numerical controlled machines.

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Citrus Juices: An In Vitro Study

Nahla O Tawfik; Siba M Al-Haliem; Waidulla N Al-Ani

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 376-382
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.9030

Aims: This work aimed at determining the antibacterial activity of three Citrus Juice on Staphylococ-cus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: The antibacteri-al activities of juices of three types of Citrus (C.) fruit, C. limon (lemon), C. aurantium (bitter orange) and C. paradisi (grapefruit), against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria using four concen-trations of these juices by agar diffusion method with measurement of diameter of the zone of inhibi-tion around the extracts. Results: The results confirmed the presence of anti bacterial activity of the Citrus juice. The highest inhibition zone (18 mm) was observed with a 10% concentration of C. para-dises juice on Staphylococcus aureus, but Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resis-tant. C. limon and C. aurantium juice at 10% and 5% concentration gave positive results with bacteri-cidal effects on the three tested bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The zones of inhibition of C. limon were 10, 12 and 13mm for 5% and 15, 21 and 20 mm for 10% respectively. For C. aurantium, they were 18, 19 and 20 mm for 5% concentration and 16, 19 and 19 mm for 10% concentration respectively. Those effects were better than those produced by stan-dard antibiotic disc used for comparison. Conclusions: The use of different concentrations of Citrus juice extracts had an effective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Comparison Between Laceback and Tie-back in Sliding Mechanics (An in vitro study)

Khawla M Awni

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 148-152
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42658

ABSTRACTAims: The current study aims to investigate the rate of space closure, tipping and rotation of canine during its retraction by laceback and tieback using standard ceramic brackets along 2 types of arch-wires using typodont simulation system (Ormco). Materials and Methods: The standardization crite-ria were all typodont teeth situated in well aligned position, covered and immobilized by the acrylic bite except canine, laceback and tieback were used to slide the canine. Results: The present study showed that when slide the canine on 0.017x 0.025 inch archwire gave rise to significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation as compared when sliding it on 0.020 inch archwire, also sliding the canine using laceback as a method of retraction gave rise to a significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation as compared with tieback. Conclusions: It was concluded that canine retraction using laceback retraction method along 0.017x0.025 inch archwire gave rise to a significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation.

The Effect of Honey on the Healing of Oral Ulcers(Clinical Study).

Shatha S Mohamed; Asmaa S Al-Douri

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 157-160
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2008.9066

Aim: to assess the effect of honey on healing of recurrent aphthous ulcers. Materials and Methods:
fifty patients with minor oral ulcers (2–5 mm) were attended to consultant clinic in the College of Dentistry demanding a treatment for their painful ulcers were treated by either kenalog in orabase or the
application of honey dressing. Results: The ulcerations have almost completely disappeared after 3 days treatment by honey dressing. Conclusions: Honey has an obvious influence on the rate of healing
process of the oral ulcers.

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