About Journal

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal (RDENTJ): is an English language, a double-blind peer reviewing system  to assure the quality of publication, scholarly publication in the area of dentistry, open access journal.  Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), this journal is published biannually by the College of Dentistry, University of Mosul, Iraq since 2001. We are using iThenticate to prevent plagiarism and to ensure the originality of our submitted manuscripts. Refereed Scientific Journal deals with fields of dental...
Read More ...

Journal Information

Publisher: University of Mosul

Email:  alrafidaindentj@gmail.com

Editor-in-chief: Assistant Prof. Dr. Rayan Salim Hamed

Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Assessment and Evaluation of Hydrochloric Acid Microabrasion on Enamel and its effect on Microleakage of Anterior Restorations

Raya jasm Al-Naimi; Asaad Mohammed Abd-AlQader; Aisha Akram A Qasim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.128449.1054

Aims: was to evaluate the effect of microabrasion on teeth, to determine the effect of using 2 types of composite resins and influence of storage time on microleakage of composite restorations after microabrasion before making a restoration. Materials and Methods: Fourty premolar teeth extracted were used, the teeth were microabrased and composite restorations were made at certain times after microabrasion according to the different groups of the study, a standard cavity was prepared on the two surfaces of the teeth that were restored with either a microhybrid or nanoceramic composite restoration, the teeth were subjected to thermocycling, and sectioned buccolingually longitudinally . Marginal leakage was evaluated using a dye penetration method. Results: Least microleakage scores were observed when the teeth were restored with out microabrasion, microleakage increased after microabrasion with no signicant difference for the occlusal site for both materials, while a significant difference was seen in favor of Tetric N ceram at the cervical sites. No difference in microleakage scores were observed regardless of the time of restoration after microabrasion, there was no significant difference in microleakage scores depending on the type of the material.
Conclusion: given the limitations of this study, there was an increase in levels of micro-leakage after microabrasion of teeth, regardless of the time of application of the restoration, microleakage was higher in gingival margins in all the groups, and no significant difference in microleakage scores depending on the type of material

Evaluation of the Effect of Casein Phosphopeptide–Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Mousse versus Natural Raw Fresh Milk on Enamel Hardness After a pH Challenge

Safa Ahmed Al-Ani; Raya jasm Al-Naimi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 14-24
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127142.1032

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CPP−ACP, raw fresh buffalo milk and cow milk on the microhardness of artificial initial caries lesions.Materials and Methods: 100 sound maxillary first premolars were collected and randomly divided into four groups, the teeth in all groups were subjected to pH cycling  procedure then treated with: Group1: n(25) deionized water, group2: n(25) CPP−ACP tooth mousse, group3: n(25) fresh  raw cow milk, group4: n(25)fresh raw buffalo milk. Enamel surface was assessed by Vickers microhardness test device at a baseline and after demineralization and after remineralization. Results: In all groups, there were high statistically significant reduction of surface microhardness after demineralization. There were high statistically significant increase in surface microhardness in all groups except deionized water after remineralization, the highest remineralization effect was found in CPP−ACP tooth mousse group followed by  the milk groups that showed encouraging results with  fresh raw buffalo milk  having superior results then fresh raw cow milk.Conclusions: CPP−ACP tooth mousse, raw fresh buffalo milk and cow milk were effective remineralizing agents which were reflected by increasing the surface microhardness of artificial initial caries lesion, but with different abilities, CPP−ACP tooth mousse was the best followed by buffalo milk then cow milk.  
 

Evaluation The Effect of Folic Acid on Some Inflammatory Mediators; IL-6 and TNF-α in Chronic Gingivitis Patients

Rawia Fehr Al-Basrawi; Faehaa Al-Mashhadane

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 25-34
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.126975.1031

Aims: To assay the anti inflammatory effect of systemic treatment with folic acid and relation to oral health indices of patients with chronic gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Forty patients were classified into two groups; Group 1: (n:20) chronic gingivitis patients, did not receive any medication (control group), Group 2: (n:20) chronic gingivitis patients (treatment group), received 1 mg/day oral tablet of folic acid for 42 days. Scaling and polishing have been carried out for each volunteer to reach the base line for gingival index and oral hygiene index. In the next day, these indices were measured for all participants , then measured after 21 days then after 42 days of treatment. At the same visits, five milliliters of unstimulated saliva were collected for measurement of salivary IL-6 and salivary TNF-α by human salivary ELISA kits. Results: There is no significant difference in gingival index and oral hygiene index between treatment and control group. Also there is a significant difference between means of treatment group and control group in salivary TNF-α level, while there is a non significant decrease in IL-6 at 21st and 42nd day. In treatment group there is non significant decrease in means of salivary IL-6 and salivary TNF-α during all the study period. Conclusions: Sub-acute using of systemic folic acid in chronic gingivitis patients improves their gingival health by reducing TNF-α level in their saliva.

The Effect of Chlorohexidine Gel Foam on the Salivary Tumor Necrosis Factor and Interleukine-6 after Extraction of lower Third Molar

Dhafar mekdad .Abdul Fatah; Maha Talal Al saffar

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 35-41
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.128172.1050

Aim: This is study aimes to demonstrate the effect of chlorohexidine gelfoam on the salivary Tumor Necrosis factor and Interleukin-6 after extraction of lower third molar to compare these effect before and after extraction ' and to know the benefit of using chlorhexidine gelfoam after extraction of lower third molar .
Material and method:-twenty four patients were involved, patients classified into group 1[control group],group 2 [chlorhexidine group] saliva was taken from all patients by using salivette before extraction and seven day after extraction then measure TNF andIL-6 by using [ELISA] kits'
Results:- there is significance difference in (IL-6) after one week of extraction without treatment from the baseline (before extraction) and the result respectively was (1.96±0.51),( 6.20±5.22),and the result of (TNF-α) appeared no significance difference before and after treated the result after treatment is(25.9±30.8) and before treatment is (95.2±131.6) and the result of group used chlorhexidine gelfoam show significance difference in both (IL-6, TNF-α) after and before treatment, the result of IL-6 after treatment is (16.99±13.31) and before treatment is (1.57±0.18) and the result of (TNF-α) after treatment is (56±79.3) and before treatment is (102.9±133.3)
Conclusion:- the use of chlorohexidine gelfoam after extraction help to decrease the salivary TNF-α. with significant difference and decrease level of IL-6 with a significant differences compare it with control group which enhance healing process and decrease the chance of infection.

Effect of Staining and Bleaching on Surface Roughness of Different Nano Hybrid Resin Composite Materials

Zahraa S Abdulwahhab; Emad Farhan Alkhalidi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 42-50
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127506.1042

Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of staining by coffee and In-office bleaching by 30% hydrogen peroxide on surface roughness of two different Nano-Hybrid resin composite materials. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro experimental study, 32disc samples were fabricated from each type of the Nano-Hybrid resin composite materials, each sample measured 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height. The samples for each composite group were then sub-divided randomly into four sub-groups (n=8). In control sub-groups, samples were stored in artificial saliva at 37°C for 1 week. Samples of Staining sub-groups were stored in a coffee solution for 48h at 37°C. Samples of Staining Bleaching sub-groups were stained in a coffee solution for 48 h at 37°C then bleached with 30% H2O2. Samples of Bleaching sub-groups were bleached with 30% H2O2. The surface roughness measurements were taken for all samples of each sub-group; the measurements for control sub-groups considered as baseline data. Results: The surface roughness measurements of all sub-groups for both tested materials didn’t exceed the critical value (Ra< 0.2 μm) with no significant difference among all sub-groups (P >0.05). Conclusion:  Surface roughness of the two tested Nano-Hybrid resin composite materials were neither influenced by coffee staining nor by in-office bleaching with 30% H2O2.  

Evaluation of the Anti-inflammatory Effect of Nanocinnamon Gel on Oral Health

Zahraa mohammad Salih; Jawnaa K Mammdoh; Amer A Taqa

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 51-61
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127849.1046

Aims:  The study aimed to evaluate the  anti-inflammatory effects  of  nanocinnamon gel  on salivary concentrations of cytokines: interleukine-6( IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha ( TNF-α) in chronic gingivitis.Material and Methods: prepared nanocinnamon gel 2% concentration  from nanocinnamon powder. The  study  was carried out on the randomized clinical trial of chronic gingivitis  comprises of 45 patients of  age between (18-50)years old .They  were  divided  into three  groups, fifteen  for  each  group , treatment involved  mechanical therapy  by scaling and polishing  at  dental  clinic and  drug treatment in which   the first  group applied to the  mechanical treatment  alone, , second  group  received  chlorhexidine  gel topically and  third  group received  nanocinnamon  gel topically , the treated groups  used the  gel  twice  daily at  least  ten  minute  for three  weeks. Unstimulated saliva was collected for each individuals and at least two hours  after any food intake to disregard the food stimulatory effect on salivary secretions. ELISA kits (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) used to measure IL-6 and TNF-α in saliva . Data  were  analyzed  using  kruscal-wallias H test and  Friedmans̓ test  analysis  range test. Results: the  results of  present  study showed that there  were no significant differences in salivary  IL-6  among  groups  after treatment  however ,  there  were significantly decreasing  in  salivary TNF-α  of  nanocinnamon group  after  21 days  of  interval therapy  in comparison to  control  group. Conclusion :The use of nanocinnamon gel have anti-inflammatory effect against gingivitis and the changes in the salivary concentrations of IL-6  and TNF-α  can help in the diagnosis of periodontal disease

Evaluate the Anti-inflammatory Effects of Nanocinnamon Gel on Salivary Cytokines: Tumor Necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukine-6 (IL-6) in Chronic Gingivitis

Zahraa mohammad Salih; Jawnaa K Mammdoh; Amer A Taqa

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 62-74
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127851.1047

Aims:  The study aimed to evaluate the  anti-inflammatory effects  of  nanocinnamon gel  on salivary concentrations of cytokines: interleukine-6( IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha ( TNF-α) in chronic gingivitis.Material and Methods: prepared nanocinnamon gel 2% concentration  from nanocinnamon powder. The  study  was carried out on the randomized clinical trial of chronic gingivitis  comprises of 45 patients of  age between (18-50)years old .They  were  divided  into three  groups, fifteen  for  each  group , treatment involved  mechanical therapy  by scaling and polishing  at  dental  clinic and  drug treatment in which   the first  group applied to the  mechanical treatment  alone, , second  group  received  chlorhexidine  gel topically and  third  group received  nanocinnamon  gel topically , the treated groups  used the  gel  twice  daily at  least  ten  minute  for three  weeks. Unstimulated saliva was collected for each individuals and at least two hours  after any food intake to disregard the food stimulatory effect on salivary secretions. ELISA kits (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) used to measure IL-6 and TNF-α in saliva . Data  were  analyzed  using  kruscal-wallias H test and  Friedmans̓ test  analysis  range test. Results: the  results of  present  study showed that there  were no significant differences in salivary  IL-6  among  groups  after treatment  however ,  there  were significantly decreasing  in  salivary TNF-α  of  nanocinnamon group  after  21 days  of  interval therapy  in comparison to  control  group. Conclusion :The use of nanocinnamon gel have anti-inflammatory effect against gingivitis and the changes in the salivary concentrations of IL-6  and TNF-α  can help in the diagnosis of periodontal disease

Histological Assessment of Early Bone–Response to ZrO2 Implant Accompanied by CaSO4.0.5H2O as a Bone Substitute

Ghufran M Al-Banaa; Mohammad S. Sulaiman; Abdulsattar Salim Mahmood

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 75-85
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.128474.1055

Aims: The study aims to assess the early bone response to a digitally designed and manufactured zirconia dioxide (ZrO2) implant accompanied by Calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) as a bone substitute material. Materials and methods: Twenty rabbits were subjected to a surgical experiment to implant forty machined ZrO2 screws on their left femur bones. Each of the first twenty ZrO2 screws was fixated in the prepared implant cavity about 1cm away from the mesial femoral head of each rabbit, those were the group of (ZrO2). The other twenty implant cavities were prepared about 1cm away from each distal head and filled with a standard amount of CSH, then the remaining twenty ZrO2 screws were fixed, those were the group of (ZrO2+CSH). The bone response was evaluated histologically in intervals of 3, 7, 14, and 21 days where every 5 animals represent one interval. The histometric evaluation of the decalcified sections of the bone around each implant was done using a light microscope for the No. of osteoblast and osteocytes together with the bone trabecular thickness. Results: Significant differences were noted between both groups at all time–intervals regarding the number of osteocytes, and at each of 3, 7, and 14 days regarding the number of osteoblast, and at 3 and 7 days regarding the bone trabecular thickness. Conclusions: Within the limitation of this study we can conclude that the use of CSH as an artificial bone substitute around the ZrO2 implant can increase bone formation around the implant.

Densitometric Evaluation of Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate as a Bone Graft Substitute around CAD / CAM Machined Zirconium Dioxide Implants

Ghufran M Al-Banaa; Mohammad S. Sulaiman; Abdulsattar Salim Mahmood

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 86-95
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.128471.1053

Aims: This experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effect of β–calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) as a bone graft substitute on the bone response around CAD/CAM machined zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) implants. Materials and methods: Forty ZrO2 implants were digitally designed and manufactured using computer–aided design/ computer aided–manufacturing CAD/CAM machine. Twenty New–Zealand rabbits were included in the experiment and a bed was made for implantation in each head of the left femur. Each animal received a ZrO2 implant in the mesial femoral head and this group of implants was considered as a control group.  Then the calcium sulfate hemihydrate was placed in the implant bed at the distal femoral head followed by fixation of an implant, and this group was considered as an experimental group. The twenty rabbits were randomly allocated into four groups, to represent the study periods i.e. 3 days, 7days, 14 days, and 21 days. Bone response was assessed around each of the forty implants by measuring the bone mineral density using densitometric analysis of the digital periapical radiological image which was taken after the euthanization of the animals according to study intervals. Results: The results showed a statistically significant difference between the control group (ZrO2 implants) and the experimental group (ZrO2 implants with CSH) in bone mineral density. Conclusions: the use of CSH as an artificial bone graft around ZrO2 implant is beneficial for increasing bone formation around the implant as it increases bone density.

Histomorphological Evaluation of Teeth After Three Months Follow up of Pulp-Cell Homing Procedure in Teeth with Incomplete Apex Formation in Dogs

Amar S Salim; Ghada Younis abdulrahman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 96-109
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.128219.1051

Aims: To evaluate the tissues formed by the pulp stem cell homing technique through the histopathological sections, after a three months follow-up period. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on twelve right second premolars of twelve local breed female dogs, that were randomly selected form different areas of Mosul City. The study was divided into four stages, stage I (Induce infection), stage II (Disinfection), stage III (Treatment), and stage IV (3 months follow-up). In the stage IV the tooth and the surrounding bone segment was sectioned and routinely processed to produce H&Estained tissue sections that were evaluated under the light microscope. The histological examiners were evaluated presence or absence of 1st normal pulp-like tissue, 2nd newly hard tissue (bone,cementum, dentin),3rd empty/necrosis,4th intra-canal inflammation, 5th periapical inflammation, 6th apical narrowing and wall thickening. Results: The results have shown that 85.71% of specimens had normal pulp-like tissue ,100% had newly hard tissue structure, 14.28% had an empty canal\ necrosis, 57.14%had intra-canal inflammation, 71.42% had periapical inflammation, and 85.71% had apical narrowing. Conclusion: The pulp stem cell homing procedure showed an effective way to treat an open apex tooth and this procedure was increased the root length and thickness and also filled the pulp space with pulp-like tissue. The procedure did not regenerate the tooth structure, but formed a tissue like dental structure (dentin, bone and cementum) and these tissues did not for regeneration, but for tissue repair.     
 

The Plasma Levels of bFGF and Microbiological Evaluation of Cell Homing Procedure of Incomplete Teeth Apex Maturation in Dogs

Ammar S Salim; Ghada Younis abdulrahman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 110-123
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.128138.1049

Aims: The study aims to evaluate the blood level changes of basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) during pulp cell homing procedure of teeth with incomplete apices in dogs, and to evaluate the root canal disinfection recommendation of American Association of Endodontist protocol used in pulp revascularization procedure. Materials and Methods: Twelve local breed dogs randomly selected form different areas of Mosul City. The study was included four stages, the bFGF levels in the blood samples were measured by canine bFGF ELISA kit, stage I control (Induce infection),stage II (Disinfection),stage III (Treatment),and stage IV (3 month follow up).In stage II there are two microbial samples have taken from the root canals before and after AAE disinfection protocol ,and also after final irrigation in stage III by the aid of paper point  These microbial samples were diluted and spread on blood agar and after 24hr the colony forming unit per milliliter was calculated CFU/ml to evaluate the effectiveness of AAE disinfection protocol. Results: The aid of ANOVA for Repeated Measure Statistical Test, the levels of bFGF in all stages were statistically analyzed. The result show significance at 5% level of significant P-value=0.04. The microbial counting result showed a highly significant difference at 1% P-value=0.000. These three samples have been statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Conclusion: There is a difference in the levels of bFGF in the blood between the stages during pulp cell homing, also AAE protocol for disinfection is an effective method to disinfect the open apex root canal system.       



 

Comparison of Tensile Bond Strength Between Fissure Sealants Placed After Rubber Cup Polishing and Air Polishing of Enamel Surface (An in vitro study)

ibrahim Basheer Badran; Saher Sami

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 124-134
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.128036.1048

Aims: The purpose of this study is to compare the tensile bond strength between fissure sealants placed after rubber cup  pumice polishing and air polishing of the enamel surface. Materials and Methods: An experimental study was carried out using 40 non-carious upper first premolars extracted for an orthodontic reason, the crowns were separated from the roots, the teeth were randomly divided into 2 main groups consisting of 20 crowns depending on the sealant material used (Prevent or Angie), the teeth were subdivided into two subgroups of 10 teeth depending upon whether rubber cup with pumice slurry polishing or air polishing. Group Ia: Prevent Rubber cup (PRC). Group Ib : Prevent Air polisher (PAP), Group IIa: Angie Rubber cup (ARC). Group IIb: Angie Air polisher (AAP). Each tooth in this study was etched with a 37% semi-gel phosphoric acid for 15 seconds on the buccal surface, rinsed thoroughly for 20 seconds, and dried with the air stream to get an uniformly white, chalky-similar appearance. A translucent plastic tube was fixed on an etched enamel surface and filled incrementally with a fissure sealant then ready small post screws with twisted orthodontic wire gauge 0.012 inches which placed inside the tube until the serrations of screws were embedded in the last increment and light-cured. Samples were kept in the distilled water at room temperature for 24 hours. Tensile bond strength was measured by using the universal testing machine (GESTER, GT-C04-2, CHINA) and the values were statistically analyzed using Independent sample t-test. Results: A non-significant difference in tensile bond strength was detected between two methods used in the groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: The air polishing method is easy and useful but, there were no significant differences  on the tensile bond strength of material  in comparison with a rubber cup and pumice.

Tensile Bond Strength of Self-adhesive Flowable Composite as Pit and Fissure Sealant Bonded to the Enamel Surface in Comparison with Fissure Sealants (in vitro study)

ibrahim Basheer Badran; Saher Sami

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 135-145
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127668.1045

Aims: The objectives of this study to compare the tensile bond strength (TBS) of self-adhesive Flowable composite with conventional fissure sealants. Materials and Methods : an experimental study was carried out using forty non-carious upper first premolars that were collected of orthodontic extracted teeth. The crowns separated from the roots and  the buccal surface were cleaned and polished to obtain a clean enamel surface. The samples were randomly divided into 4 main groups according to the types of resin material (n:10 for each group). Group I: testing TBS for Vertise Flow, Group II: testing  TBS for Prevent, Group III: testing TBS for Angie, Group IV: testing TBS for Conseal. A translucent plastic tube was fixed  after acid etching application on enamel surface for 15 seconds followed by water rinsed and air dryness, the tube filled incrementally with flowable resin  and fissure  sealant then ready small post screws with twisted orthodontic wire gauge 0.012 inch which placed inside the tube until the serrations of the screws were embedded in the last increment and light-cured. The Samples were stored in the distilled water at room temperature for 24 hours. Tensile bond strength was measured using a universal testing machine (Electronic Elastic Strength Tester GT-C04-2, GESTER, CHINA).The values were statistically analyzed using  one way ANOVA and Duncan tests. Results : A significant difference in the tensile bond strength were observed among all groups (p<0.05). Vertise Flow showed higher tensile bond strength value than fissure sealants followed by Prevent , Angie and Conseal. Conclusions: The tensile bond strength of Vertise Flow better than the fissure sealant due to the presence bond (Optibond) with etchant properties.

Surface Roughness Assessment of the Sandblasted and Acid- Etched Zirconia Ceramic

Mohammed Riyadh ALobaide; Maan M Nayif

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 146-157
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2021.128358.1052

Aims: To evaluate the effect of sandblasting with Al2O3 particle and 30% citric acid etching on the roughness of zirconia ceramic. Materials and Methods: Thirty disks were prepared from partial sintered zirconia (IPS e.max ZirCAD MT blank disk, Ivoclar Vivadent; Schaan, Liechtenstein). Specimens were assigned randomly into three groups based on surface treatment techniques (n=10).  Group I zirconia surface was left without surface treatment (control). Group II specimens were subjected to sandblasting with 110 µm Aluminum oxide particles (Al2O3) while the group III surface was treated with citric acid solution 30% for 10 minutes. The surface roughness of the zirconia was investigated using a profilometer. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Duncan’s tests at 5% level of significance.  Results: Sandblasting with AL2O3 110µm significantly increased the surface roughness value of the zirconia surface. Chemical treatment with 30% citric acid did not exhibit any significant changes in comparison to the control group.  Conclusions: Sandblasting with AL2O3 increased zirconia surface roughness but acid etching has no effect.

Determination of Salivary pH in Patients With Recurrent Aphthous Ulceration (RAU)

Abbass F Al-Taee; Ahmed S Khudhur

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 390-393
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.9031

Aims: To determine salivary pH in patients with recurrent aphthous ulceration and in control normal subjects. Materials and Methods: A controlled clinical trial was performed on 60 subjects divided into 30 normal subjects and 30 patients with recurrent aphthous ulceration. The salivary pH was deter-mined using a chair-side pH meter. Results: Highly significant difference in pH level was observed between patients and control groups (t-value 5.420, p< 0.0001). There were no significant differences in pH levels between males and females in both patients and control groups. Conclusions: The pH of saliva in male patients with (RAU) was more toward acidic pH than normal male subjects.

Inter Observer Agreement in Evaluating the Position, Shape and Appearance of Mental Foramen by Panoramic Radiography

Shahrazad Sami

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 383-389
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.45449

Aims : the study aims is to examine the inter- observer variability in radiographic interpretation of the variable position , shape and appearance of mental foramen. Materials and Methods: Four examiners, two dental radiologists and two oral surgeons evaluated 30 panoramic radiographs to evaluated the position, shape and appearance of mental foramen. Results: The most frequent position of mental fo-ramen was between first and second premolars then followed by those below the apices of the first and second premolars and the most frequent shape of mental foramen was irregular where separated type is the frequent appearance of mental foramen. For agreement there was no significant difference between two radiologist for position ,shape and appearance of mental foramen , but with a significant difference was found between four observer, for the position of mental foramen. Conclusions: The study concluded that the position of mental foramen is most commonly below and between the pre-molar teeth and the most frequent shape are irregular and appearance separated type

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Citrus Juices: An In Vitro Study

Nahla O Tawfik; Siba M Al-Haliem; Waidulla N Al-Ani

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 376-382
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.9030

Aims: This work aimed at determining the antibacterial activity of three Citrus Juice on Staphylococ-cus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: The antibacteri-al activities of juices of three types of Citrus (C.) fruit, C. limon (lemon), C. aurantium (bitter orange) and C. paradisi (grapefruit), against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria using four concen-trations of these juices by agar diffusion method with measurement of diameter of the zone of inhibi-tion around the extracts. Results: The results confirmed the presence of anti bacterial activity of the Citrus juice. The highest inhibition zone (18 mm) was observed with a 10% concentration of C. para-dises juice on Staphylococcus aureus, but Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resis-tant. C. limon and C. aurantium juice at 10% and 5% concentration gave positive results with bacteri-cidal effects on the three tested bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The zones of inhibition of C. limon were 10, 12 and 13mm for 5% and 15, 21 and 20 mm for 10% respectively. For C. aurantium, they were 18, 19 and 20 mm for 5% concentration and 16, 19 and 19 mm for 10% concentration respectively. Those effects were better than those produced by stan-dard antibiotic disc used for comparison. Conclusions: The use of different concentrations of Citrus juice extracts had an effective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

The Effects of Ginger, Diazepam and Metoclopramide in Patients Receiving Dental Treatment

Fayhaa AM Al – Mashhadane; Mohammad A Mohi–Al Deen

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 358-365
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.9025

Aims: To diagnose and treat patients with gagging reflex during dental treatment and to compare ef-fects of ginger, diazepam and metoclopramide as different treatment modalities. Materials and Me-thods: This study was carried out on 120 dental patients, 37 males and 83 females who they are suffer-ing from moderate to severe gag reflex, their ages was ranged between 31 – 68 years old. The sample is randomly subdivided into 4 groups, each group consist of 30 patients, they was received different treatments (ginger, diazepam, metoclopramide and glucose (placebo)). Severity of gag reflex before and after treatments is reported depending on patient's words and direct reaction. Results: Kruskal – Wallis test was used to compare the response to treatment in 4 groups and there was significant differ-ences between them (p≤ 0.00). Conclusion: Ginger is effective antiemetic agent and can be useful for reducing nausea and vomiting (gag reflex) during and after dental treatment.

Risk Factors Influence on the Prevalence and Severity of Root Caries in Mosul (Rural and Urban)

Aisha A Qasim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 348-357
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.9020

Aims: To determine the association of root caries with some risk factors among adult population in Mosul City (rural and urban). Materials and Methods: A sample of 231 subjects was selected, aged 20-70 years old, from rural and urban areas of Mosul City. For each subject, clinical examination was performed for root surface caries, pocket depth and tooth loss. The questionnaire forms were completed by the dentist. Root Caries Index (RCI) was used for detecting root caries. Billings Index was used to record the severity of root caries, while WHO Index was used to measure pocket depth. Results: From the total sample, the mean RCI was 19.37 in rural and 18.62 in urban areas; with no significant differ-ence between them. The study revealed that for severity of the root caries lesion, grade I (incipient) was the most prevalent for both genders. Subjects of this study revealed correlation between some risk fac-tors and the occurrence of root surface caries. The mean pocket depth in relation to root surface caries with not significant difference between urban and rural areas (p > 0.05). the mean number of the miss-ing teeth increased with the increasing age in both rural and urban areas. Conclusion: Root surface caries is regarded to be high in both rural and urban population, especially those with old age. As such, management of a root caries in older population is predicted to be one of greatest challenges facing dental team in the future

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Citrus Juices: An In Vitro Study

Nahla O Tawfik; Siba M Al-Haliem; Waidulla N Al-Ani

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 376-382
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.9030

Aims: This work aimed at determining the antibacterial activity of three Citrus Juice on Staphylococ-cus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: The antibacteri-al activities of juices of three types of Citrus (C.) fruit, C. limon (lemon), C. aurantium (bitter orange) and C. paradisi (grapefruit), against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria using four concen-trations of these juices by agar diffusion method with measurement of diameter of the zone of inhibi-tion around the extracts. Results: The results confirmed the presence of anti bacterial activity of the Citrus juice. The highest inhibition zone (18 mm) was observed with a 10% concentration of C. para-dises juice on Staphylococcus aureus, but Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resis-tant. C. limon and C. aurantium juice at 10% and 5% concentration gave positive results with bacteri-cidal effects on the three tested bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The zones of inhibition of C. limon were 10, 12 and 13mm for 5% and 15, 21 and 20 mm for 10% respectively. For C. aurantium, they were 18, 19 and 20 mm for 5% concentration and 16, 19 and 19 mm for 10% concentration respectively. Those effects were better than those produced by stan-dard antibiotic disc used for comparison. Conclusions: The use of different concentrations of Citrus juice extracts had an effective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Palatal Dimensions and Its Correlation with the Circumference of Upper Anterior Teeth

Zeina M Ahmad

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 259-267
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9124

Aims: To put a bases for the prediction of the circumference of artificial anterior teeth depending on thepalatal dimensions Materials and methods: The study sample consists of 30 female and 32 male withclass I occlusion aged 19– 24 years .The dimensions of the palatal vault and the circumferences of upperanterior teeth were recorded with digital venire caliper and analyzed with SPSS program (version 11). Results:significant correlation was found between the dimension of the palatal vault and the circumference ofupper anterior teeth. Conclusions: the angle of circumferences of upper anterior teeth of narrow short anddeep palate will be more tapered than those one in the wide, long and shallow palate.

The Effect of Honey on the Healing of Oral Ulcers(Clinical Study).

Shatha S Mohamed; Asmaa S Al-Douri

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 157-160
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2008.9066

Aim: to assess the effect of honey on healing of recurrent aphthous ulcers. Materials and Methods:
fifty patients with minor oral ulcers (2–5 mm) were attended to consultant clinic in the College of Dentistry demanding a treatment for their painful ulcers were treated by either kenalog in orabase or the
application of honey dressing. Results: The ulcerations have almost completely disappeared after 3 days treatment by honey dressing. Conclusions: Honey has an obvious influence on the rate of healing
process of the oral ulcers.

Comparison Between Laceback and Tie-back in Sliding Mechanics (An in vitro study)

Khawla M Awni

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 148-152
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42658

ABSTRACTAims: The current study aims to investigate the rate of space closure, tipping and rotation of canine during its retraction by laceback and tieback using standard ceramic brackets along 2 types of arch-wires using typodont simulation system (Ormco). Materials and Methods: The standardization crite-ria were all typodont teeth situated in well aligned position, covered and immobilized by the acrylic bite except canine, laceback and tieback were used to slide the canine. Results: The present study showed that when slide the canine on 0.017x 0.025 inch archwire gave rise to significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation as compared when sliding it on 0.020 inch archwire, also sliding the canine using laceback as a method of retraction gave rise to a significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation as compared with tieback. Conclusions: It was concluded that canine retraction using laceback retraction method along 0.017x0.025 inch archwire gave rise to a significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation.

CAD-CAM Technology: A literature review

Mohammed A Abdulla; Hala Ali; Raghad S Jamel

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 95-113
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164542

Aims: this article focus some of an important aspects related to a CAD/ CAM technology including: applications, designing, construction by the use of computerized controlling machines that developed very fastly in the last two decays. Conclusions: CAD/CAM technology is attained finished different dental restorations through designing and milling processes of a two dimensional or three dimensional models using different ready blocks by numerical controlled machines.

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Citrus Juices: An In Vitro Study

Nahla O Tawfik; Siba M Al-Haliem; Waidulla N Al-Ani

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 376-382
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2010.9030

Aims: This work aimed at determining the antibacterial activity of three Citrus Juice on Staphylococ-cus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: The antibacteri-al activities of juices of three types of Citrus (C.) fruit, C. limon (lemon), C. aurantium (bitter orange) and C. paradisi (grapefruit), against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria using four concen-trations of these juices by agar diffusion method with measurement of diameter of the zone of inhibi-tion around the extracts. Results: The results confirmed the presence of anti bacterial activity of the Citrus juice. The highest inhibition zone (18 mm) was observed with a 10% concentration of C. para-dises juice on Staphylococcus aureus, but Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resis-tant. C. limon and C. aurantium juice at 10% and 5% concentration gave positive results with bacteri-cidal effects on the three tested bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The zones of inhibition of C. limon were 10, 12 and 13mm for 5% and 15, 21 and 20 mm for 10% respectively. For C. aurantium, they were 18, 19 and 20 mm for 5% concentration and 16, 19 and 19 mm for 10% concentration respectively. Those effects were better than those produced by stan-dard antibiotic disc used for comparison. Conclusions: The use of different concentrations of Citrus juice extracts had an effective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Palatal Dimensions and Its Correlation with the Circumference of Upper Anterior Teeth

Zeina M Ahmad

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 259-267
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2009.9124

Aims: To put a bases for the prediction of the circumference of artificial anterior teeth depending on thepalatal dimensions Materials and methods: The study sample consists of 30 female and 32 male withclass I occlusion aged 19– 24 years .The dimensions of the palatal vault and the circumferences of upperanterior teeth were recorded with digital venire caliper and analyzed with SPSS program (version 11). Results:significant correlation was found between the dimension of the palatal vault and the circumference ofupper anterior teeth. Conclusions: the angle of circumferences of upper anterior teeth of narrow short anddeep palate will be more tapered than those one in the wide, long and shallow palate.

The Effect of Honey on the Healing of Oral Ulcers(Clinical Study).

Shatha S Mohamed; Asmaa S Al-Douri

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 157-160
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2008.9066

Aim: to assess the effect of honey on healing of recurrent aphthous ulcers. Materials and Methods:
fifty patients with minor oral ulcers (2–5 mm) were attended to consultant clinic in the College of Dentistry demanding a treatment for their painful ulcers were treated by either kenalog in orabase or the
application of honey dressing. Results: The ulcerations have almost completely disappeared after 3 days treatment by honey dressing. Conclusions: Honey has an obvious influence on the rate of healing
process of the oral ulcers.

Comparison Between Laceback and Tie-back in Sliding Mechanics (An in vitro study)

Khawla M Awni

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 148-152
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42658

ABSTRACTAims: The current study aims to investigate the rate of space closure, tipping and rotation of canine during its retraction by laceback and tieback using standard ceramic brackets along 2 types of arch-wires using typodont simulation system (Ormco). Materials and Methods: The standardization crite-ria were all typodont teeth situated in well aligned position, covered and immobilized by the acrylic bite except canine, laceback and tieback were used to slide the canine. Results: The present study showed that when slide the canine on 0.017x 0.025 inch archwire gave rise to significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation as compared when sliding it on 0.020 inch archwire, also sliding the canine using laceback as a method of retraction gave rise to a significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation as compared with tieback. Conclusions: It was concluded that canine retraction using laceback retraction method along 0.017x0.025 inch archwire gave rise to a significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation.

CAD-CAM Technology: A literature review

Mohammed A Abdulla; Hala Ali; Raghad S Jamel

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 95-113
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164542

Aims: this article focus some of an important aspects related to a CAD/ CAM technology including: applications, designing, construction by the use of computerized controlling machines that developed very fastly in the last two decays. Conclusions: CAD/CAM technology is attained finished different dental restorations through designing and milling processes of a two dimensional or three dimensional models using different ready blocks by numerical controlled machines.

Keyword Cloud