Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Volume 2, Issue 3

Volume 2, Issue 3, Summer and Autumn 2002

Dental caries changes between(1989) and(2001) in children aged(3-14) years in KasaFakhra and Al-Shamsiat villages,Ninevah Governorate, Iraq


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 269-278
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.166437

This study was designed to assess the trend of dental caries among children aged(3-14) years in KasaFakhira and Al-Shamsiat rural areas and compare the results with those obtained from the first study that conducted (12) years ago.The study comprised(255) chili aged(3-14) years, 117 (45.88%) males and 138 (54.12%) females.The sample was divided into four age groups (3-5),(6-8),(9-11) and (12-14) years. The numbers of children for each group were (31,62, 92 and 70) respectively. Clinical examination was carried out in the village school in good natural daylight using plane mouth mirror and sickle-shaped caries explorer. The index used was based on the WHO criteria and examination was done for both primary and permanent teeth.The results indicated that the mean DMFT for children aged (6-12) years regarding the total sample was (1.55), whereas the previous study recorded (3.06). The general mean for boys in this study (1.54) was nearly similar to the girls (1.56), while the boys in the previous study recorded a lower meanthan girls (2.44) and (3.52), respectively.Through the results, it could be noted that the mean dmft for primary teeth was (1.96) regarding the age group (3-5) years, increased with increase age to (2.43) for the age group (6-8) years,and decreased due to normal shedding of primary teeth and eruption of permanent teeth to (1.27) and (0.59) regarding age groups (9-11) and (12-14) years, respectively. All these means were lower than those in the previous study which were (3.7), (4.5), (2.6) and (0.9) respectively. The boys recorded lower mean of dental caries than girls (1.35) and (1.85) respectively. The results,therefore,confirmed that the trend of dental caries for this young age group was decreased gradually throughout this period (1989-2001) due to the sharp decrease in the quantity of sugar consumed in the previous years because of the unfair embargo on Iraq. This lowered percentage of dental caries could be maintained so and further decreased in the future.

Skeletal and dental norms for Sudanese adults with Class I normal occlusion

Fadhil Y JASIM; Adam I ADAM

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 279-298
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.166438

The purpose of this study is to establish skeletal and dental Norms for Sudanese adults by using lateral cephalometric radiography.A lateral cephalometric analysis of normal Sudanese adults was accomplished on (27) males and (23) females aged (18) to (25) years with class I normal occlusion, with no previous orthodontic treatment and with harmonious faces.Normative skeletolentalcephalometric Standards for adult Sudanese males and females including (18) angular and(21) linear parameters were developed.Skeletal comparison between males and females showed that:•Males were significantly greater than females in lower facial height (LFH) and gonial(Ar.Go.Me) angles, while the females were significantly greater than males in mandibular bend (MB) and symphysis(B-Me-Mp) ones.•Males were significantly longer than females in all the skeletal linear parameters except wits appraisal and (A-N-Pog.) line, which shows no significant sex, difference.•Males With longer cranial base longer upper andlower jaws.•When comparing the dental angular parameters: Males demonstrated greater significant values than females in theinterincisal(U1-L1)angle than the females, while the females were significantly greater than males in lower incisors inclination (L1-Mp) angle.•The Sudanese adults exhibited bimaxillary protrusion tendency.Comparing the dental linear parameters: Males were significantly longer than the females in the upper posterior (UPDH), lower posterior (LPDH), and lower anterior (LADH) dental heights.

Antimicrobial effect of propolis on Streptococcus mutans


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 299-303
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.166439

We choose two types of propolis extracts; watery and ethanolic; to estimate their activity against the most cariogenic microorganism; Streptococcus mutans, and evaluate this activity in vitro compared with chlorohexidine and tetracycline as negative controls, using the turbidity method, Both watery extract of propolis - WEP and ethanolic extract of propolis - EEP - show good inhibitory effect with significant variance compared with chlorohexidine, which also had better effect than tetracycline against Streptococcus mutans. The WEP at (1%) was the best antimicrobial solution in this study.

Inclination of lower teeth


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 304-309
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.166441

This is the first study carried out in Iraq to determine the reliability of using new technique to asses inclination of lower permanent teeth as an indicator to asses position of the teeth before and after orthodontic treatment with orthodontic treatment with orthopantomograph.A total (259) students select randomly from Mosul university only (34) students (16 males, 18 females) between (18-25 years old) were of Iraqi origin who fulfilled the criteria of the sample. We found no significant differences (95% confidence level) of mean values of inclination of the teeth between male and female, with a significant difference between right and left sides for both sexes.

Provisional versus histopathological diagnosis of periapical lesions

Sabah M SAKA

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 310-313
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.166442

One hundred and thirteen cases of periapical lesions associated with-vital anterior teeth are analysed and reported. The associated teeth were apicoectomised and the lesions were measured grossly and interpreted histopathologically. It was found that(66) out of (72) cases (91.7 %) provisionally diagnosed as periapical granuloma or chronic periapical abscess show correct diagnosis histopathologically, whereas of (41) cases provisionally diagnosed as periapicalradicular cyst only (24)(58.5%) show correct diagnosis histopathologically. It was found also that (29)periapical lesions out of (30)diagnosed histopathologicallyas periapical radicular cyst measured more than (10) mm of(83)periapical lesions diagnosed histopathologically as agranuloma or abscess,(71) measured less than1 (10) mm.

Volumetric changes in acrylic denture base material

Nadira A HATIM; Sameer M RASHAD

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 314-326
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2008.166443

Aims of this study are to determine:a-Three dimensional chances (Volumetric changes) of the internal surfaces of twenty four maxillary acrylic resin complete denture bases in relation to their corresponding master casts, were determined among six patients by using three dimensional measuring machine {Cordimet 1200}.b-The maximum dimensional change of the acrylic resin denture that can be allowed to avoid displacement of the tissue.c-The effect of muco-static impression technique on the tissue displacement.Three maxillary dentures A, B, and C were constructed in the conventional way. Dentures B, and C were designed by increasing the space between the internal surface of the denture and the tissue surface of themaster cast by using tinfoil (0.2)mm, and (0.3)mm except the periphery region respectively.By the aid of computer, three special programs were designed for this study to, calculate the surface area,volumetric changes in acrylic denture base, and to draw any section of the tissue surface of the oral cavity in relation to the tissue surface of the denture every (5)mm longitudinally, and (2)mm horizontally.The results of this study showed that maximum tissue displacement was found in the midline region toward the posterior part of the denture base (27.465 mm).The area of tissue displacement was reduced toward the periphery, away from the midline of the maxillary arch. While in the post-dam region, tissue displacement was found in the middle part of the palate.In the periphery region there was a convergence of buccal flanges toward the middle of the denture base.A positive volumetric change in denture base was found in moral region (0.072 mm3). The results of muco-static impression technique was a pressure on the tissue to 0.3 mm vertically lead to have negative volume equal to (0.00 mm3).

Time and order of eruption of primary teeth for children in Mosul City, Iraq


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 327-340
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.166444

The aims of the study were to determine the time and sequence of eruption of primary teeth. Also, to determine the differences in timing of tooth emergence according to side, jaw and gentler variation.Tinning and sequence of cruption were studied cross-sectionally in a group of (1843) children from Mosul City, Iraq:(940) were males and(903) were females aged between (2-37)months. The data were statistically analysed by using Karber's analysis in order to compute the mean and standard deviation of emergence.The results showed that there are no significant differences between the mean time of corresponding right and left teeth in both genders. The findings of the study indicated that the males have their primary teeth to emerge earlier than those of females. The differences between the two genders are clearly seen in the eruption of maxillary lateral incisor and maxillary first molar. The males acquired all their primary teeth to emerge in shorter time span than the females (difference 2.04 months).The results demonstrated that the maxillary teeth emerge before their mandibular opposing teeth in males with the exception of central incisor. However, in females, the mandibular teeth emerge before their maxillary opposing teeth with the exception of the canine and second molar.A specific sequence of primary teeth emergence was found in both arches and for both genders. In general, the emergence of primary teeth started with the emergence of mandibular central incisor and ended with mandibular second molar.

Reliability of different methods for diagnosis of approximal carious lesions


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 341-348
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.166445

The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnosis accuracy of approximal carries by visual, fiber optic transillumination(FOTI) and bitewing radiograph examination performed by two observers.A total of(372) unrestored posterior pertinent approximal surfaces of(186) patients were examined in Conservative Department during final clinical examination for under-graduate students, using the diagnostic methods under the study. The results were compared with the validation.The accuracy of each diagnostic method for identification of cavitated carious lesions was expressed by the terms: sensitivity, specificity and predictive values.The sensitivities for identification of cavitated lesions using visual examination about(0.28), for FOTI and radiography were(0.04) and(0.59) respectively. The specificity collectively was about(0.9).On the basis of these results, it was concluded that FOTI was the least reliable of the diagnostic methods tested. Also, it was found that visual examination should precede theradiographical examination for identification of cavitated carious lesions.

Radiographic evaluation of mental foramen on the panoramic radiography


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 249-259
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.166446

The appearance and the location of the mental foramen have been evaluated on the panoramic radiograph of(83) adult patients with complete dentition. The most frequent appearance was a separated type of mental foramen(50.61%) followed by continuous(24.09%), diffuse(19.28%) and unidentified type(6.02%). The most common location of mental foramen in relation to the lower bicuspid teeth was below the apex of second premolar(53.85%), and it lied lower than the midway between the upper and lower border of the body of the mandible, and some what it lied at one third of distance from the mandibular symphysis to the posterior border of the ramus of the mandible.

Occlusal criteria in two Iraqi rural communities


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 360-368
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.166447

This study was carried out to assess the occlusal features in two Iraqi rural populations, to evaluate the prevalence of these criteria, to explore the difference in these features between the two communities and to provide data base for the malocclusion add to the available informations mainly in rural areas. A sample of(268) males with age range(12-18) years(139 persons from Al-Sharkhan and 129 from Al-Shamsiat rural areas. The statistical analysis revealed that the normal occlusion form(38%) for the two areas while the Class I malocclusion appeared in(54.1%) of the total sample, but Class II division 1 and 2 occurred in(8.2%),(2.2%) respectively, and lastly the Class III malocclusion noticed at(6.3%). The most commonly occurring feature was the generalized dental spacing(40.31%) followed by the generalized crowding(23.25%), and deep bite of which the total overlapping of the lower anterior teeth was occur in(7.08%). Nevertheless, open bite noticed at(1.49%) of the total sample. In this research, there was only a significant difference between the samples of two rural areas at the generalized dental crowding, spacing and in the slight and extreme increase in over jet. Also the unilateral cross bite,buccally erupted canines were more common than the bilateral one.

Dental discoloration prevalence of rural and urban population in Ninevah Governorate, Mosul, Iraq. A comparative study


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 369-374
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.166448

The aims of this study are to determine and compare the prevalence of teeth discoloration in an urban and rural area in Mosul City.A sample of(228) subjects aged(5-44) years was examined. The sample was divided into four age groups(5-14),(15-24),(25-34) and(35-44) years.The results revealed a significant difference in the prevalence of teeth discoloration between rural and urban areas,(80.7) and(56.1), respectively. Also the results showed that natural and acquired stains in general were greater than other causes of the staining; the highest level of natural discoloration found to be due to habits. There were no significant differences between age groups and sex.

New technique for microscopical examination of the powdered dental materials with transmitted light microscope by using "Taha Indicator"


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 375-387
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.166449

The aim of this study is to examinethe physical from of the powder particles of the dental materials by microscopical examination.Dried powder can't beexamined microscopically with ordinary transmitted light microscope, but need special microscope like reflected light microscope or electron microscope.In this study a new technique for microscopical examination of the powder particles was performed with transmitted light microscope by using a special indicator named "Taha Indicator".The technique is easy,cheep and give clear and accurate image of the powder particles, so it can be used in studies and researches as a method for evaluation, comparison and differentiation between thedifferent types of thematerial, it has a great benefit for the industration and in discovering the industrial deceit of dental materials.

The effectiveness of different methods of teaching dental health on the incidence of plaque and gingivitis


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 388-398
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.166450

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various methods of delivery of dental health education. A sample of(223) secondary school students in Mosul City were randomly allocated to one of the following modes of dental health education: Professional instruction(by the dentist), self-educational manual(by a booklet) and audio-visual method(by video film), in addition to a control group where no dental health education was given. Three clinical dental examinations were carried out to evaluate the presence of dental plaque and gingival health, one prior to the programme(baseline examination) are two examinations following the programme at six weeks and three months later to the baseline examination.The results indicated a very high significant reduction in the plaque and gingival index scores for the three experimental groups,which was maintained on these low levels three months after the baseline examination.The results were achieved with a minimum of time, cost and personals, and do confirm the effectiveness of dental health education alone in improving gingival health. Therefore, these methods seem to be highly valuable and efficient for teaching dental health to the students in Iraqi schools.

Stainless steel brackets failure rate after topical fluoride application in etching procedures


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 399-405
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.166451

Enamel demineralization that occurs adjacent to directly bonded orthodontic attachments is of great concern to orthodontists. One of the suggested procedures to overcome this problem is to use topical fluoride treatment after acid etching. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the failure rate of stainless steel bracket with metal mash base after topical application of(1.1%) neutral sodium fluoride gel after(37%) phosphoric acid etching. Twenty patients with full maxillary and mandibular "0.018" standard edgewise fixed appliances were included. Maxillary right, mandibular left sides were received the topical sodium fluoride gel application after etching with(37%) H3PO4 for(30) seconds. The gel was applied for(4) minutes after etching, then rinse with air and water stream for(5) seconds; while in the contralateral sides the bonding was done conventionally. The bonding adhesive was the No-Mix chemical cure adhesive. The follow-up period was(12-15) months. The results showed that brackets failure rate in fluoridated group did not differ significantly from the non-fluoridated one. Hence the(1.1%) neutral sodium fluoride may have a clinical application in preventing demineralization that occurred around and under orthodontic brackets without any significant increase in failure rate of stainless steel brackets

Fluoride release from Iraqi made glass ionomer cement. A comparative study

Jabbar H KAMEL; Faraed D SALMAN; Mohammed S AL-AJELY

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 406-410
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.166452

This study was carried out to determine the fluoride release from Iraqi and two imported glass ionomer cements by placing(15) specimens(five for each type of glass ionomer cement) in a polyethylene container filled with deionized water and TISAB. Measurements of fluoride release were taken daily for(8) days following specimen preparation followed by onceweekly for a month Mean daily fluoride release was plotted against time. The results showed that there was a significant difference between Iraqi and Hibond materials within the same period of fluoride release and no significant difference between Iraqi and Degussa cements

A new type of powder denture cleaner


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 411-413
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.166453

A new type of weak acid (oxalic acid) sodium carbonate of bicarbonate powder mixture denture cleaner was prepared. The powder mixture was examined pre-clinically and clinically to clean partial and complete dentures using immersion technique. It gave us a good cleaning effect through removing calculus and stains, beside its neglectable effect on denture base materials

A clinical study of the medical condition of patients requiring tooth extraction in Mosul City


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 414-422
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.166454

The number of medically compromised patients is increasing in both dental school patient populations and private practices presenting specific challenges to the dental profession. In this clinical study, the population studied consisted of(2943) patients, of them(1737) were males and(1206) females. The patients selected for this study were those attending Department of oral and maxillo-facial surgery in Saddam Dental Hospital, College of Dentistry, University of Mosul, and the author's private clinic between(1-10-2001 and 1-6-2002). The results showed that about the fifth of the patients(19.06%) were medically compromised patients(MCP) who need special care during tooth extraction. Lower and upper first molars showed the highest number of tooth extraction(28.94%). Dental caries and its sequalae were the most common cause of tooth extraction. The age group(15-34 year) contained the highest percentage of tooth loss(49.13%).

Periodontal health and treatment needs of intermediate school children and its relation to educational level of parents


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 423-431
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.166455

This study was carried out on(981) intermediate school children ages (13-15) years to determine the influence of parent education on periodontal health status and treatment needs.The Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) was used to assess the periodontal condition and treatment needs. The results showed that the percentage of children with a healthy gingiva was low inspective of the educational level of their parents; periodontal disease was prevalent in(93.2-100%) of the sample.There was no significant difference in the mean number of healthy sextants between males and females in the different levels of parent education. Also, there was no significant difference in periodontal disease and treatment needs for the total sample in relation to different levels of parent education.The periodontal treatment feels for the students were massive;(93.2-100%)needed dental health education, while prophylactic scaling and polishing was required in(62.7-84.21%) of the sample

Chemical and antimicrobial effects of incorporated compounds on denture base materials


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 432-434
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.166456

Four chemical materials(eugenol, vanillin,chlorhexidine, and thymol) were incorporated separately into the denture base materials. The chemical changes of such incorporation were studied. The antimicrobial effect was assessed after one day to one year. Results showed that vanillin incorporation gave denture base material persistent antimicrobial effect. The chemical study showed some changes on denture base materials vary according to the different chemical materials used.