Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Volume 2, Issue 2

Volume 2, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2002, Page 150-268

Enamel mottling in a group of Iraqi students in a high and low fluoride community


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 150-157
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.165846

The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of mottled enamel in a group of school students lived in area with high and low natural fluoride contained drinking water in Iraq. The study was conducted among (874) school's students aged (13-16) years from randomly selected intermediate schools in two provinces in Ninevah Governorate, Tour hundred and eight students who had lived since birth in high natural fluoride level area (Sinjar province) (2.05-2.22 ppm fluoride) and (466) students lived continuously from birth in low natural fluoride level area in their drinking water (Talkaif province) (0.11-0.19 ppm fluoride). Al-Alousi index has been used to assess mottled enamel. The results show that the prevalence of mottledenamel in Sinjar province is (95.8%) within individuals and (65.3%) within teeth, with significant difference between the sex; while the prevalence of mottled enamel in Talkaif province was (18.1%) within individuals and (3.6%) within teeth, with no significant sex difference. The high percentage of mottled channel was of type "A", followed by types "B" and "E" in high fluoride area, while in low fluoride area also type "A" reported thehigh prevalence, followed by types "B" and "C".

The effect of vanillin (2%) on the growth of cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus)


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 158-163
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.166035

 This purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of vanillin (2%) alone and with Amber dentifrice on the cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus). The vanillin material was prepared in this study by the use of pure vanillin (2%). Two microorganisms were selected to examine the antimicrobial activity of the vanillin against dental caries. These microorganisms are Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus; both are isolated from the dental plaque on the carious surface and from saliva. For the assay the turbidity method was used as described by Abdul-Rahman (2001), using the mean value of optical density to record the growth of bacteria. This study showed that the vanillin (2%) alone and withdentifrice reported significantly less mean value of optical density for both bacteria compared with the control read. That means it is effective in controlling and preventing dental caries by reducing the growth of cariogenic microorganisms.