Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Volume 2, Issue 1

Volume 2, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2002, Page 1-149

Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: A clinico-pathological analysis of (1425) cases from Iraq

Nazar Gh TALABANI; Natheer H AL-RAWI

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.165845

A total of (1425) cases of histologically diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma collected from the main centers of pathology in Iraq were analyzed according to age, sex, site, patient complain at time of presentation and histological grading Patients at their fiive decade of life were the most commonly affected with males to females ratio of (2:1). Lower lip was the most commonly affected site followed by the tongue. The most common clinical complain was ulceration and swelling. More than (70%) of the cases were well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The authors emphasize on the need for interprofessionalhealth care delivery approaches for reducing oral cancer mortality and improving patient's quality of life.

Naturally fluoride contained of drinking water and the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Ninevah Governorate, Iraq


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 7-19
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.165850

The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis in a group of school students lived in area with high and low natural fluoride contained drinking water in Ninevah Governorate. The study was conducted among (1724) school's students aged (11-16) years from randomly selected schools (primary and intermediate) in two provinces in Ninevah Governorate. Eight hundred and thirteen students who had lived since birth in high natural fluoride level area (Sinjar province) (2.05-2.22 ppm) and (911) students lived continuously from birth in low natural fluoride level area in their drinking water (Talkaif province) (0.11-0.19 ppm). Dean index has been used to assess the dental fluorosis. The results show that the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Sinjar province is (97.3%) within individual and (62.9%) within teeth, ranging from very mild to mild form of dental fluorosis, with no significant sex difference, but the percentage of severity has been found to be increasing with age, while the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Talkaif province was (5.5%) within individual and (1.2%) within teeth, with no significant sex difference. The community fluorosis indices for Sinjar and Talkaif provinces are (1.7 and 0.1) respectively. This difference is due to the difference in level of natural fluoride in both provinces drinking water supplies.

Bleaching effect on surface roughness and microhardness of dentin


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 20-26
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.165855

The main objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the bleaching solutions on the surface characteristics of dentin namely, microhardness and surface roughness. Sixteen dentin samples were prepared for the measurements. Teeth mounted in an acrylic resin blocks for microhardness measurements and surface roughness. The bleaching was performed by immersion of each sample in (35%) hydrogen peroxide at (37)°C in an incubator for a period of one hour. Vicker'smicrohardness instruments used for microhardness measurements and profilometertesting machine was used to evaluate surface Toughness. Two measurements were taken from each samples one before and the other after bleaching procedure. The data were collected and analyzed using analysis of variance and t-test, The results showed that the microhardness of dentin is greater before bleaching than the mean after bleaching procedures. This indicated that the bleaching solution used in this study reduced the microhardness of the dentin in vitro. There are slight changes in the mean value of the surface roughness of dentin after bleaching, which is statistically not significant

Estimation of the width of artificial anterior teeth in relation to the width of opposing natural teeth (A comparative study)

Nadira A HATIM

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 27-31
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.165856

The purpose of this study is to determine the width of the missing central incisor of one arch when the central incisor of the other arch is available in personsliving in the north of Iraq, and to compare these measurements with persons living in the middle of Iraq. Four hundred Iraqi students from University of Mosul, North of Iraq were selected for this study, The measurements of maxillary and mandibular central incisors were done on (800) stone casts. A new method was concluded in this study to determine the width of a missing central incisor in relation to the opposing central incisor using the following equation: The width of maxillary central incisor = The Width of mandibular central incisor × 1.65

Topical fluoride gel application: When and to whom starts therapy?


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 32-42
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.165857

This study aims at investigating the scope of topical acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel effect on initial carious lesions, evaluating the effect of the gel on newly erupted teeth, as well as on the low-, moderate, and high-risk School children. A sample of (340) school children [177 (52.06%) males and 163 (47.94%) females]initially in the fourth grade (aged 9-11 years) were collected from (4) Primary schools in Mosul city center, The children were allocated randomly to one experimental group (received topical APF gel) and one control group (did not receive any fluoride therapy). The dental examinations were done using DMFT index: one before fluoride application and the other after one year. It can be observed from this study that the topical APF gel is effective on initial lesions. Moreover, the efficacy of the gel on the newly erupted teeth, including chose teeth erupted during the study, is found to be greater than on the previously erupted ones. The results also reveal that the high - risk groups are the most benefitted from the fluoride treatment than the moderate- and low-risk groups. The percentages of caries reduction were (96.700%), (74.880%), and (36.071%) for the three groups, respectively. So, the use of such a fluoride therapy as a school-based programme is advised for all children with evidence of dental caries, and is recommended to be planned to match the pattern of eruption of teeth.

The efficacy of ibuprofen and naproxen on swelling following surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar

Tahani A AL-SANDOOK; Sabah M SAKA; Harith H KASKOS

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 43-49
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165891

In a double blind study the effect of ibuprofen and naproxen on swelling following surgical removal of impacted mandibular molar (M3) was evaluated on (48) patients. The patients were divided into three groups according to medication given for each group. The postoperative swelling at the area of surgery was measured by two methods namely, computerized photography and conventional facebow. The measurements performed at day (2) and day (7) postoperatively. The results showed that both ibuprofen and naproxen not reduced the expected swelling significantly in day (2) post-operatively comparing to control placebo group, but significant difference was noticed between the effect of ibuprofen and control group in day (7) post-operatively.

The effect of particles size distribution of gypsum powder on cast surface roughness

Munther N KAZANJI; Lamia T REJAB

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 50-55
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.165892

The aim of this study was to determine effect of particle size distribution on surface roughness of stone cast poured from two gypsum products (ZETA and QD). Ten samples from each gypsum product were prepared, Measurements of surface roughness were carried out by profilometer. The analysis of particle size distribution of the gypsum products tested was performed with sieving machine. Analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test used for data analysis. The result showed that particles size distributions of the two gypsum products were significant affect the surface roughness of stone cast. It was concluded that the smoothest surface of stone cast was obtained from ZETA dental stone were attributed to the distribution of different size of stone particles

Anterior and middle superior alveolar block anesthesia: A new technique estimated


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 56-64
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.165894

In this study, an estimation of new technique to achieve anesthesia at anteriorand middle superior alveolar nerve through palatal injection was performed. Total (25) patients who need conservative dental treatment were received this injection for treatment of (39) teeth. Success rate recorded in (72%) of patient who satisfy this new injection technique completely and (20%) failure rate reported (8%) of patients reported pain during dental work but did not need supplementary anesthesia. The complication recorded as follows; (15) patients feel pain immediately during injection, (4) patients had postoperative pain and (4) patients had swelling. In conclusion it is recommended that this new technique to be assessed clinically for other dental work and comparison with other technique utilized

The effect of disinfectant solutions on the surface topography of acrylic denture base materials


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 65-71
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.165897

The aim of this study was to measure the effect of different immersion period up to (7) days of acrylic denture base materials (heat cure acrylic Vertex and QD, and cold cure acrylic Miky-red and QD) in three types of disinfectant solutions (0.525% Sodium hypochlorite, 0.2% Chlorhexidine and 2% acidic Glutaraldehyde) on the Surface roughness. One hundred eighty acrylic plates were prepared from a base plate wax of (20mm × 10mm×2.5 ± 0.03mm) dimension using a conventional denture processing technique. From each type of acrylic denture base materials, (45) acrylic plates were prepared, which where intern divided into three groups: (15) unpolished (inner-side) Surface, (15) polished by conventional technique and (15) polished by a modificated polished technique. The surface roughness was measured by a prethometer. The results, revealed that there was a significant difference at (1%) level between the materials used, solution used, types of polishing technique and the time of immersion. The cold cure acrylic denture base material type (Miky-fed) showed the highest degree of the surface roughness, Photomicrograph microscopical study of the acrylic beads (mer-unit) showed the effect of the size of the beads on the surface roughness. It was concluded that the modificated polishing technique produces a Smoother surface for the acrylic denture base materials, the solutions and duration of immersion up to seven days showed a statistical significant difference but practically they can be used for denture disinfecting.

Facial analysis and facial types of the students in Mosul University, aged 20-25 years, with class one normal occlusion: The direct method

Khudair A SALMAN; Farid M RAUF

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 72-79
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.165898

this study was accomplished with aim in mind that facial feature differences in facial types, differences between sexes of the sane face type of the population in Mosul University would be made clear. The direct method for facial analysis was followed selecting a sample of (95) males and (89) females with class one normal occlusion and they were within (20-25) years of age. The sample was divided into (3) groups according to the type of the face as square face group; oval face group and tapered face group, (22) horizontal and vertical measurement were recorded for each subject

Malocclusion assessment in orthodontically treated young Iraqi (6-18) years old


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 80-87
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.165919

The aim of this study was to provide an additional information about occlusal variations, and to determine the possible sex difference in a group of young Iraqi who were seeking for orthodontic treatment. A sample of (253) orthodontically treated patients (125 female and 128 male) selected from (3719) patients attending P.O.P department in college of dentistry in Mosul University, for each one the age, sex, molar occlusion in accompanied to some selected malocclusion criteria (crowding, spacing, crossbite and openbite) were recorded. The results of this research evaluated the number, percentage for each type of molar occlusion and the malocclusion criteria. The using of two sided Z-test of twoproportions at (p<0.05) indicate that significant sex difference in CL IIb, CL II1,crowding and spacing and a non-significant difference in CL Ib, CLIu, CL II, CL II2, CL III, CLIV, crossbite and openbite. The occlusal variation for Iraqi follows a universal general distributional pattern for most world populations.

Effect of vitamin C and E administration on haemoglobin and packed cell volume in chicken


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 88-95
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.165920

There is an increasing interest on the effect of antioxidant in the treatment of certain pathological conditions. A low haemoglobin(Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) level in chicken were induced, by feeding them Hypericumperforatum (Aran) at a dose of (2.5) gm/kg orally in gelatin capsules and exposing them to direct sunlight at noon for (20) minutes. Experimental animals were divided into seven groups; each group consists of six animals, Vitamins C or E was administered either before Aran administration orafter cessation of Aran administration. Aran toxicity associated with several clinical signs including photosensitivity, itching, redness of skin, hyperkeratosis of comb and shaking of head and keratoconjunctivitis. In addition a significant lowering of Hb and PCV level. Vitamin C and E significantly effective in elevating the reduced Hb and PCV level when these vitamins were administered one hour before the administration of Aran or after cessation the administration of Aran, besides all the clinical signs were abolished except the persistence of mild keratinization of comb and redness of cornea, when these animals were examined in the last day of experiment. This study suggests the use of either vitamin C or E either as prophylactic against toxicity with this plant, or as medication in case of toxicity.

Downs cephalometric norms for Iraqi adolescents in Mosul City


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 96-107
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.165922

The purpose of this study is to develop cephalometric standards for Iraqi adolescents in Mosul City, using Downs' analysis, and to compare them with those of white Americans. The lateral cephalometric radiographs (108) Iraqi adolescents (57 males and 51 females) with age range was (12) to (15) years (with a mean of 13.7 years) were carried out. The subjects were chosen on the bases of having class I normal occlusion and well-balanced faces. Measurements were taken for all dento-skeletal variables in Downs' analysis. Norms were established for the Iraqi sample and the comparison between both sexes was carried out. No significant difference was demonstrated between males and Females. When the measurements of this study were compared with Downs' original data for white Americans, the Iraqi adolescents showed a highly significant greater values of facial convexity angle, mandibular plane angle, Y-axis angle, occlusal plane angle, lower incisors inclination to the occlusal plane and to the mandibular plane and the distance of upper incisors to Apog line. The interincisal angle and facial angle were significantly higher in Downs' original standards than the present study

Aspiration before local anesthetic deposition: Its importance in dental practice


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 108-111
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.165923

Aspiration is an important and highly recommended step before giving a local anesthetic solution In this regard, a survey involving (50) dentists were requested to fill in a special form specifically designed for this purpose. The results showed that the majority of dentists (90%) do not routinely perform aspiration before giving a local anesthetic solution for one or more reasons.

The effect of different vasoconstrictor containing local anaesthetic solutions on plasma glucose in normal and diabetic-volunteers


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 112-119
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.165924

In this study, the change in plasma glucose half an hour after injection of different vasoconstrictors contained in local anaestheticsolution where measured both in normal and diabetic volunteers. Single cartridge contain (1.8) ml of plain (2%) Xylocain or that with (1:80000) concentration of a adrenaline or (3%) prilocain with (0.03) IU of felypressin injected at labial to left maxillary lateral incisor region. The result showed that half an hour after injection of a adrenaline containing solution, a very highly significant increase in plasma glucose noticed in both study groups from pre-injection base line value (p<0.001). Increase in plasma glucose in diabetic group were significantly greater than that in normal control group (p<0.05). Within diabetic volunteers, this increase were significantly greater in insulin dependent diabetic group than that in non insulin dependent volunteers. After injection of plain solution or that containing felypressin, reduction in plasma glucose noticed. In conclusion, adrenaline contained within local anaesthetic solution produce hyperglycemic effect even in dose of single dental cartridge. This response enhanced in diabetic patient in general with greater enhancement noticed in insulin dependent patient.

comparative evaluation on the effectiveness of infiltration and infraorbital nerve block techniques of local anesthesia in periapical surgery on maxillary anterior and premolar teeth


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 120-127
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.165925

 A comparative clinical evaluation was made between the effectiveness of infiltration and infraorbital nerve block techniques in periapical surgery on maxillary anterior and premolar teeth. The comparison was based on certain criteria adopted for this purpose. The study was conducted on (80) subjects of different ages and sexes. After a final diagnosis was made on the teeth chosen, they were indicated for periapical surgery (Currettage, apicectomy... etc.) as a last resort to extraction. Forty subjects received infiltration anesthesia at the site of surgery, while the other forty received the infraorbital nerve block technique as a single injection at site of surgery. The over all success was based on the grade of surgical anesthesia achieved during surgery. The results showed that the infraorbital nerve block technique provided 87.5% Grade 4 anesthesia during surgery when compared with only 27.5% Grade A anesthesia provided by infiltration techniques alone.

The effect of metal alloys and surface treatment on the retention of cast post: An in vitro study

Jabbar H KAMEL; Ragheed M BASHEER

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 128-139
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.165926

The main objectives of this study were to determine the effect of different metal alloy posts with different surface treatments cemented within their prepared post canal spaces with two luting agents on the tensile strength of cast posts. Ninety sound upper permanent canines were collected; the anatomical crown were removed about (1) mm above the Cemento-Enamel Junction, Preparation of post space Was made by using slow speed straight hand piece fixed onto swiveled arm of the Surveyor direct acrylic pattern is made and undergoes a casting procedure immediately. The samples were divided into (3) groups thirty in each; first group was casted with MAX-white A alloy, second group with CB Blando (72) alloy and the third group with Palliag M alloy. Three surface treatment procedures for each group were done. Ten samples in each, first group was sandblasted with (100)μm aluminum oxide andsecondone was sandblasted with (50) μmaluminum oxide and the third one receive no surfacetreatment and considered as a control group. Then each of these three groups were further subdivided randomly into two subgroups, (5) samples for each according to the type of luting agent used for cementation of the posts. First subgroup was cemented with zinc phosphate cement, the second subgroup was cemented by adhesive resin luting cement (Aureocem). A tensile strength tester was used to test the tensile strength. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the mean tensile strength among different alloys used and surface treatment with (100) μm aluminum oxide procedure, produced the highest tensile strength when it is used in combination with resin cement. Examination of the type of failure after tensile test showed that most of the samples cemented with resin cement failed adhesively at resin-dentin interface. While for samples that were cemented with zinc phosphate most of failure were cohesive within the cement followed by failure at the metal cement interfac

Evaluation of Ibuprofen, Clarithromycin and Suprax efficacy on swelling following apicectomy


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2002, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 140-150
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2002.165928

The effect of Suprax, Clarithromycin antibiotics and brufennonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug on the postoperative swelling after apicectomy of one upper anterior teeth was evaluated on sixty eight patients suffering from chronic periapical lesion requiring apicectomy without retrograde filling. They were divided into (5) groups according to the type of medicament administered postoperatively. The patients were examined in the 2ndand 7thpostoperative day for evaluation of postoperative swelling that may occur in the upper lip after apicectomy. The evaluation has been made by measuring the lip thickness by Sliding ruler method,face bow method and computerized photographic method. The results showed that Brufen tablets proved better control for postoperative swelling, Clarithromycin tables, also produce significant reduction in the amount of swelling whereas Suprax capsules and paracetamol tablets produce no significant effect postoperative swelling compared to placebo