Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Volume 3, Issue 2

Volume 3, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2003, Page 82-160


Incidence of impacted third molar among Mosul dental students

Anas A Mohammad; Luqman M Ismail

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 82-87
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2003.165761

The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence of impacted third molar and its distribution between the jaws among Mosul dental students, in addition to the study of its relationship with the family history, habit and sex of the patient. The incidence of congenital missing third molar and its distribution between the jaws were also estimated. The sample for this study consisted of 165 Mosul dental students; their age ranged from 20–25 years.
The results revealed 46.06% of impaction third molar where the females show higher incidence of impaction than
the males and in the mandibular arch than the maxillary one. Patients with chewing gum and singing habits show less degree   of impacted third molar than those without these habits. A high significant correlation
was observed between third molar impaction and family history of the patient.The study also revealed that the
incidence of congenitally missing third molar was 12.57% and it is slightly higher in the maxilla than the mandible.

Psychosocial profile of patient with missing teeth and refuses treatment

Nadira A Hatim; Sameer A Muhammed; Nadia H Hasan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 88-95
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2003.165762

This study aimed to assess the psychosocial and medical factors that are related to refusal of prosthetic replace-ment, as well as to give a treatment for such problem. Also the number and distribution of missing teeth in partially edentulous individuals according to Ken-nedy classification was evaluated, as well as to assess the prevalence of Kennedy classification in partially edentulous pati-ents in rural areas.
The study was conducted in Al–Humaidat village that is located at the Tigris river about 25 Km to the northern west of Mosul City. Six hundred and twenty three individuals aged 4–85 years were selected randomly from houses and schools (275 females and 356 males). Clinical examinations were carried out using dental probe, mirror and dental chair. The results were calculated acc-ording to special chart depending on Crown–Crisp Experimental Indexes.
The results of this study showed that the incidence of tooth loss increases with age group between 26–35 years. Class III Kennedy classification recorded higher percentage (57.14%) compared with Class II, IV and I. It was shown that 63% of patients refused the replacement of their missing teeth, 72.86% of which refused replacement due to psychological reac-tions.
The anxiety score showed a low per-centage (28.09%) in comparison with other scores of psychological reactions. Percentage of smoking tobacco was not more than 19.26% of total samples.

Aqueous extract of propolis in the treat-ment of recurrent aphthus stomatitis (Double blind study)

Faiz A Al–Sultan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 96-102
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2003.165763

In this study, aqueous extract of propolis, which is a natural bee product, tested for treatment of recurrent aphthus stomatitis (RAS). A total of 40 patients with RAS divided into 4 groups. Each patient received one of following pre-prepared mouthwash:
Group A received aqueous propolis extract at 1% concentration.
Group B received aqueous propolis extract at 0.5% concentration.
Group C received dexamethosone at 0.1% concentration.
Group D received distilled water. (Control group).
The study was double blind and the patient instructed to use the mouthwashes for 5 min 3 times daily.
The results of study showed signi-ficant difference between groups in pain score assessed at day 2 of study. High percentage of no pain recorded in group A comparing to other groups. However at 5 days of drug therapy no significant diff-erence noticed among the groups regard-ing pain score.
For assessment of healing after 5 days, although no significant difference noticed among the groups, group A repor-ted to show high percentage of complete healing comparing to other groups. Also groups A, B and C showed 50% healing of ulcer comparing to only 20% in patient on group D.
In conclusion, aqueous propolis ext-ract at 1% concentration showed good percentage of early reduction of pain score and rapid healing of ulcer with minimal side effect and further studies on other extract and concentration may be reco-mmended.

Examination of the particle’s shape, size and distribution of the commercial dental gypsum products

Lamia T Rejab; Sawsan H Al–Jubori

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 103-107
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2003.165764

Gypsum products used in dentistry are in the form of α and β calcium sulfate hemihydrate as dental stone and plaster.
The aim of the study is examination of the particle’s shape, size and distrib-ution of the different commercial dental gypsum products. The particle’s shape was examined microscopically with trans-mitted light microscope instead of ref-lected light microscope or electron micro-scope. Analysis of the particle’s size distribution and the measurement of the powder particle’s fineness was performed by sieving procedure using sieving machine. The data was collected and calculated and then compared with the ADA Specification No. 25 for gypsum products.
The results showed that the micro-scopical examination with transmitted light microscope give clear accurate and precise image about the different shapes of the stone and plaster. The results of the analysis for particle’s size distribution showed that there is a difference in the distribution between the different tested commercial dental gypsum products and also showed that all products have par-ticle’s size larger than the ADA Speci-fication No. 25.

Pregnancy–related changes in oral health and human unstimulated whole saliva

Karama MT Al–Nuaimy; Fadhila Sh Al–Doski

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 108-115
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2003.165765

This study was conducted on 200 women. One hundred fifty pregnant wo-men at different stages of pregnancy, fifty women in each group, first, second and third trimesters were included in the study. The other fifty non–pregnant women with comparable age were used as a control gr-oup. The sample was taken from Al–Batool Teaching Hospital and Antenatal Care Unit of Al–Hadbaa Health Center, Mosul during the period from June 2001 to March 2002.
The study was done to assess the cha-nges in the concentration of certain comp-ounds of human unstimulated whole mi-xed saliva; study the frequency and severity of Gingival Index, evaluate Dec-ayed, Missing and Filled Teeth Index (DMFTI) during pregnancy and also to correlate the pregnancy related changes (if any) in human unstimulated whole mixed saliva with oral manifestation during diff-erent stages of pregnancy.
The result of this study during preg-nancy included decreased salivary flow rate, pH, total protein and calcium conc-entrations, while increased α–amylase act-ivity, sodium concentration, severity of gingival inflammation and DMFT Index were identified compared with the con-trols.
In conclusion, the pregnancy involves complex changes with every system in even healthy women is altered to some degree during pregnancy. It modifies oral health and saliva composition.

Pre– and post– operative effectiveness of naproxen and ibuprofen on pain, swelling, and trismus following surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar

Tahani A Al–Sandook; Harith H Kaskos; Mohammad S Suleiman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 116-126
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2003.165766

This study focused on the clinical evaluation of naproxen and ibuprofen efficacy on pain, swelling and trismus after surgical removal of impacted mand-ibular third molar, whether they used only pre–operatively or pre– and post–opera-tively. The number of patients included in the present study was 40, divided into four groups: Each group is 10 patients, the first group received naproxen as sodium 1hour pre-operatively followed by three times daily for five days post–operatively. Whereas the second group received naproxen as sodium three times daily for five days begins 1hour post–operatively. However, the third group had been given ibuprofen 1hour pre–operatively followed by three times daily for five days post–operatively. The fourth group administered ibuprofen three times daily for five days begins 1hour post–operatively.
The pain was evaluated by the number of paracetamol tablets taken by the patients recorded on the pocket chart, whereas the swelling was measured subjectively. The trismus was evaluated by measuring the maximum mouth opening between the incisal edges of the maxillary and mandi-bular central incisors using the graduated vernier.
The results showed that the use of naproxen as sodium 1hour pre–operatively minimized the pain, swelling and trismus significantly compared to ibuprofen.

Prevalence of dental caries among primary school children in Thamar Governorate in Republic of Yemen

Faraed D Salman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 127-132
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2003.165767

The aim of the study was to det-ermine the prevalence of dental caries among primary school children in Thamar Governorate, Republic of Yemen. A ran-dom sample of 494 primary school child-ren was examined. The sample was divid-ed into 3 age groups; namely, 6, 9, and 12 years old.
The WHO methodology (1997) was used to assess the individual tooth status. Results of dental caries in the primary den-tition showed that the mean dmft for the total sample was 3.40 + 0.15 which was decreased with increasing age from 3.59 to 3.57 to 2.19 for the age groups 6, 9 and 12 years respectively with significant sex dif-ference (males was higher than females) as total, 3.93 for the total males, 2.84 for the total females.
For the permanent dentition, the mean DMFT was 3.35 + 0.12 which was incr-eased with increasing age with statistically significant age difference as it was 2.39, 2.98, 3.85 for the age groups 6, 9 and 12 years respectively with no sex variation.

Cusp resistance to fracture of posterior teeth restored with fluoride release restorative materials

Ammar Kh Al–Nori

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 133-138
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2003.165768

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different fluoride release restorative materials (resin modified glass ionomer, composite resin and conventional type of glass ionomer) on fracture resis-tance of the restored teeth.
Forty recently extracted human maxi-llary premolar teeth were used in this stu-dy. The teeth were mounted in acrylic re-sin inside a plastic ring by the use of a surveyor.
The specimen randomly divided into five groups: Group A: Five intact teeth; Group B: Five teeth prepared but not restored; Group C: Ten teeth restored with resin modified glass ionomer (Vitremer); Group D: Ten teeth restored with compo-site resin (Tetric); and Group E: Ten teeth restored with conventional type of glass ionomer (Ionofil).
Class II mesio–occluso–distal cavity preparation was made for the teeth of Groups B through E.
The specimens were thermocycled (5 ºC to 55 ºC) for 100 cycles, stored for one week at 37 ºC in distilled water and then fractured by occlusal force.
The statistical analysis of the results showed that resin modified glass ionomer and composite resin significantly increase the resistance of prepared teeth to fracture.

Neomycin sulfate: A new antifungal and antiadherent agent against Candida albicans cells on heat–cured acrylic resin denture base material. An in vitro study

Ghada Y Abdul–Rahman; Nagham H Kassab

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 139-142
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2003.165769

Neomycin sulfate is an antibacterial agent. In this research, the antifungal and antiadherent effect of neomycin sulfate on Candida albicans that colonize the heat-cured acrylic resin denture base material was evaluated.
The results showed a significant eff-ect compared with the control group. This effect is similar to the effect of the known antifungal agents (fluconazol and chlor-hexidine) and lesser than (nystatin).

Comparison of some physical properties of acrylic denture base material cured by water bath and microwave techniques

Radhwan H Hasan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 143-147
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2003.165770

This study was designed to evaluate the physical properties (porosity and transverse strength) for microwave cured acrylic resin using new Iraqi micro-wavable flask.
For transverse strength test, 20 acrylic samples were prepared with dimensions 65 × 10 + 0.03 × 2.5 mm. Ten samples were processed by conventional water bath technique, while the other 10 samples were prepared by microwave technique using new Iraqi microwavable flask. The transverse strength of the acrylic samples were measured by three–point bending test.
For porosity test, 16 acrylic samples were prepared with dimensions 65 × 55 × 2.5 mm. Eight acrylic samples were processed by conventional water bath while the other 8 samples were processed by microwave technique using new Iraqi microwavable flask. Evaluation of poro-sity occurrence was done using micro-scope at 20× and 40× magnifications.
The results of student’s t–test showed that there are no significant differences ( p > 0.05) in transverse strength for samples cured by water bath and microwave techniques while microscopical examina-tion revealed that all acrylic samples which cured by both techniques were free from porosities.
It was concluded that new Iraqi microwavable flask could be successfully used in curing of acrylic denture base material by microwave technique.

The effects of bonding agents and retention grooves on the retention of approximal slot amalgam restorations

Jabbar H Kamel; Kasim A Mohammad

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 148-155
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2003.165771

The retention of approximal slot amalgam restoration was measured in this in vitro study. Two bonding systems (All-Bond 2 and Scotchbond Multi Purpose Plus) in addition to Copalite varnish (as a control liner) were used as lining materials and compared in non–retentive and retentive approximal slot cavities using spherical and lathe cut alloys. Signifi-cantly higher retention values obtained with the retentive cavities. No significant difference was found between spherical and lathe cut alloys. Retention of the bon-ded restorations was significantly more than that of non–bonded groups, with All-Bond 2 was significantly more retentive than Scotchbond Multi Purpose Plus. Non-retentive cavity with varnish was the least retentive group while retentive cavity with All–Bond 2 was significantly more reten-tive than all other groups. When the rest-orations were bonded to the tooth, modes of failure were shifted toward mixed type (adhesive + cohesive failure) rather than complete dislodgment from the cavity.
The results of this study indicated that bonding agents can be used to enhance the retention of amalgam restoration instead of the traditional mechanical retention means thus conserving the sound tooth structure. Also, the combination of mechanical ret-ention means and bonding agents has an additive retentive effect.

Fracture resistance of premolars with bonded amalgam restorations

Abdul–Haq A Suleiman; Mohammad Gh Hamdoon

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 156-160
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2003.165772

The aim of this in vitro study is to evaluate the fracture resistance of pre-molars with three surface amalgam restor-ations. Fifty premolars were used, and divided into five groups. The teeth in group one remains intact whereas the teeth in the second group prepared and not restored. The teeth in the third group prepared and restored with amalgam only. In groups four and five, the amalgam res-torations were lined with All–Bond 2 and Scotchbond Multi Purpose Plus respec-tively. After thermocycling, the teeth were tested under universal compression ma-chine at a crosshead speed 5 mm/minute. Data were analyzed using one way Ana-lysis of Variance and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results of this study ind-icates that both Scotchbond Multi Purpose Plus and All–Bond 2 increase the fracture resistance as compared to the control groups (groups two and three). The results of this study also show no significant difference between the two bonding agents regarding teeth fracture resistance.