Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Volume 3, Issue 1

Volume 3, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2003, Page 1-81

Management of gagging patient during intra–oral posterior region radiography

Anas A Mohammad

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2003.165712

The aim of this study is to determine the relation of gag reflex with sex of the patient and the region of the radiograph during intra–oral radiographic technique. The study also shows the difference in the management of gagger patient by the radiologist than the dental student as operator. A sample of 115 students from College of Dentistry, University of Mosul; their ages 20–26 years were examined radiographically for their wisdom teeth condition. The females show higher incidence of gag reflex than males and in the maxillary region than the mandibular one. The right side of the patient shows high percentage of gag reflex than the left side. The results also reveal that the management of the radiologist to the gagger patient (by experience and several technical and instruction steps) shows successful results in resolving the gagging problem (96.2%).

Comparative antiplaque activity of pro-polis extract and chlorhexidine in vivo

Baceer A Abdullah; Rafi A Al–Talib; Faiz A Al–Sultan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 7-12
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2003.165735

This study compared the clinical efficacy of different mouthwashes [0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), 0.5%, 1% water extract of propolis, 0.5%, 1% ethanolic extract of propolis] with distil-led water in their ability to inhibit plaque accumulation.
In this double blind study, 10 (8 males and 2 females) dental students volunteers aged from 20-24 years, 1120 tooth surfaces from 280 teeth were examined. Each volunteer received a final professional tooth cleansing and was instructed to stop all mechanical tooth cleaning effort for next 5 days, where the mouthwashes used 3 times daily. Plaque system index (Silness and Löe, 1964) was obtained from teeth surfaces (buccal, lingual, mesial and distal) before and after the uses of mouthwashes.
The results of this study showed significant difference (p < 0.05) between 0.2% CHX, 0.5% and 1% water extract of propolis, 0.5% ethanolic extract of propolis and distilled water, but non significant difference (p > 0.05) between CHX and 1% ethanolic extract of propolis in their ability to inhibit plaque accu-mulation.
It can be concluded that the alcoholic extract of propolis may be used as adjunct to mechanical plaque control during the maintenance phase of therapy to ensure sustained low plaque level and this may meet patient approval because it is a natural substance and devoid of industrial chemical component. 

Evaluation of the effects of porcelain firing cycles on the marginal fit changes of porcelain– fused–to–metal crowns constructed utilizing two different marginal designs and alloys

Maan R Zakaria; Haidar H Jassim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 13-20
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165736

In this study the marginal fit changes
that occurred during the porcelain firing
cycles of palladium–silver alloy (Pd–Ag)
and nickel–chromium alloy (Ni–Cr) coping
both with shoulder and heavy chamfer facial
finishing lines were investigated with light
Forty copings were fabricated which
were divided into four groups according to
alloy type and facial finishing line, each
group consisted of ten copings: Group I
(Pd–Ag) alloy copings with shoulder
finishing line; group II (Pd–Ag) alloy
copings with heavy chamfer finishing line;
group III (Ni–Cr) alloy copings with
shoulder finishing line; and group IV (Ni–
Cr) alloy copings with heavy chamfer
finishing line.
Five control metal copings (non
veneered) from each group were subjected
to exactly the same firing cycles without the
application of porcelain.
Measurements were made during five
stages of crown fabrication: (1) Before
degassing, (2) after degassing, (3) after
opaque application, (4) after body porcelain
application, and (5) after glazing. Changes
in the marginal fit of the coping after the
various firing stages were calculated for
each coping.
The statistical analysis of the results
showed that the mean marginal fit changes
during porcelain firing cycles of the base
metal alloy copings (Ni–Cr) were significantly
greater than those of noble metal
alloy copings (Pd–Ag).
The copings with heavy chamfer
finishing line showed significantly greater
marginal fit changes during porcelain firing
cycles than those with shoulder finishing
The greatest amount of marginal fit
changes occurred during the degassing stage
of porcelain firing cycle followed by body
stage of porcelain firing cycles while there
were no significant marginal fit changes in
the other stages of porcelain firing cycles.

Dental caries experience of intermediate school children in relation to educational level of their parents in Mosul City

Rayia J Al–Naimi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 21-26
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2003.165744

The aim of the study was to determine the influence of educational level of parents on dental caries experience and treatment needs of intermediate school children aged 13–15 years in the center of Mosul City.
A sample of 981 children were exa-mined according to WHO guidelines using DMFT index. Results showed that there was a statistically significant age dif-ference in dental caries, while no sign-ificant results were obtained regarding sex and educational level of head of house-hold. The treatment needs of the children were massive with no significant dif-ference in the type of treatment required according to age, sex and educational level of the children’s parent.

The course and the branches of the greater palatine nerve on the inferior surface of the hard palate

Ayad A Al–Saraj; Abid Al–Jabbar Y Al–Hubity

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 27-30
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2003.165745

The both sides of twenty seven adult human cadavers were dissected to know the course and branches of the greater palatine nerve. The results showed that the most common course (81.5%) of the nerve when it was emerged from the greater palatine nerve between the 2nd and 3rd molar teeth about 1 cm superior to the margin of the palatine gingiva; and in 75.9% cases the nerve was seen divided into large medial and small lateral branches. The bony palate examination of both sides of twenty three adult dried human skulls showed two grooves on the inferior surface of the palate, and these grooves were converted into unilateral (26.1%) and bilateral (13.2%) bony canal. The present study also noticed a unilateral spine between the grooves in 34.8% of cases and bilateral spine in 17.4% cases of the examined skulls. It is concluded that the dentist has to take these anatomical notes with consider to obtain a successful injection for greater palatine nerve block.

Evaluating the effect of new denture cleaners on the surface roughness of acrylic resin denture base material (An in vitro study)

Nadira A Hatim; Salem A Al–Samarraie; Isam K Al–Khayat

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 31-38
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2003.165746

Three newly prepared denture cleaner solutions from materials available in our country [namely; oxalic, citric and tartaric acids dissolved in isopropyl alcohol (5% w/v)] were studied for their effect on 110 specimens of heat cure acrylic resin prepared according to ADA Specification for 7 days, 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months, compared with Steradent denture cleaner by two techniques (immersion and brushing techniques). The concentration (5% w/v) was selected according to the results of pilot study.
The results of this study showed that oxalic and tartaric acids have nearly the same effect on surface roughness in relation to Steradent by immersion technique for six months, but this result was increased to show high rough surface of samples treated by citric acid for one year.
Treatment with the four solutions led to reduction in weight (0.03 mg) except citric acid (0.49 mg).
Statistical analysis was performed using F–test two–sample. The results revealed that there was a significant difference at levels 1% and 5% between the brushing and immersion techniques, roughness of the surfaces, and period of using each solution. Changes in weight in relation to surface area were ranged between 0.01–0.03 mg/cm2 for Steradent and oxalic acid in immersion technique, while the result was 0.05–0.23 mg/cm2 for brushing technique of the other solutions except citric acid.
Oxalic acid showed complete rem-oving of the stain within 8–10 minutes, Steradent and tartaric acid need 6–8 hours, while citric acid did not show the same result.

Changes in gingiva with orthodontically banded and bonded teeth

Afrah Kh Al–Hamdany

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 39-43
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2003.165748

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of orthodontic bands and metal brackets on the gingival health. The sample was composed of 15 randomly selected patients (5 males and 10 females) 11 to 17 years old. All patients were treated with edgewise fixed orthodontic appliances. Bands were cemented to upper and lower first molars and rest of teeth were bonded with composite. The teeth included in the study were upper right and lower left central incisors, and upper left and lower right first molars. The plaque index, the gingival index and pocket depths were used to measure the oral hygiene of the patients during six months period of fixed orthodontic treatment. The results indicated that orthodontic bands will provoke more periodontal changes than brackets.

Periodontal health care by people of Humaidat village in Ninevah

Saher S Gasgoos

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 44-49
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2003.165749

This study was a part of a field work carried out by the University of Mosul in Humaidat village which is located at the Tigris river about 25 km to the northern west from Mosul. The size of the sample was 213 individuals; 105 males and 108 females. Their ages were ranged between 10 – 59 years.
Clinical dental examination was carried out using plaque index (Pl I), gingival index (GI) and calculus index (CI). Questionnaires were used to assess the level of dental health attitude and beh-aviour among the individuals.
Results showed that a large percent of them do not brush their teeth (46.4%) and do not use interdental cleaning aids (87.3%). Also a large percent of them did not attend a dental treatment previously (45%), and most of dental attendances of the others were for teeth extraction and due to pain.
Clinical examination showed that the mean scores for plaque, gingival and calculus indices were high (1.16, 1.22 and 0.54 respectively) and increased by increasing age.

Assessment of transient bacteremia following various oral and dental interventions

Mohammad Kh Hasouni; Wael T Al–Wattar; Mahmoud YM Taha

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 50-56
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2003.165750

The incidence of bacteremia foll-owing various dental interventions of 280 selected patients were studied using blood culture technique with aerobic and anaero-bic cultivation. The incidence of bacter-emia after multiple teeth extraction was higher (51.72%) than those single tooth extraction (44%). The incidence of bacter-emia after local anaesthetic injection differs according to the type of injections significantly. In scaling and root planning the use of local prophylactic solution reduced the incidence of bacteremia from 37.7% to 13.9%.
Poor oral hygiene had an effect on incidence of bacteremia at different dental interventions. The role of sex and age in bacteremia was variable.
Aerobic bacteria were more than anaerobic and the most common bacteria isolated were Streptococcus viridans (30.5%) and Staphylococcus aureus (19.7%)

A comparative study in dental caries prevalence and treatment needs of pregnant women and single females in Mosul City, Iraq

Tarik Y Khamrco; khawla M Saleh

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 57-64
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2003.165751

An epidemiological study was carried out to compare the prevalence of dental caries and treatment need of pregnant women and single females in Mosul City, Iraq.
A total sample of 666 women (399 pregnant women and 267 single females) selected randomly. Pregnant women were selected from four health care centers, when attending to periodic maternal check up with different stages of pregnancy in Maternal and Child Health Care Center. Single females were selected randomly as control group to compare with pregnant group from health centers. Each group subdivided into 4 subgroups according to the age.
Caries experience and the treatment need were diagnosed and recorded according to the criteria suggested by WHO (1997).
The results showed a significant difference in the mean Decayed, Missing and Filled Surfaces (DMFS) between pregnant and single females, and the prevalence of dental caries increase with advanced age. The mean DMFS value for pregnant women is 28.78 and for single females 19.09. The study demonstrated that the decay surface component was formed more than the half of DMFS value.
Educational programmes to pregnant women through medical and dental centers as well as mass media are suggested to increase the dental awareness and prev-entive behaviour.

Microleakage of fluoride containing propolis varnish

Lamia T Rejab; Ihsan N Behnam; Basima A Abdullah

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 65-69
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2003.165752

Dental cavity varnishes used to coat the freshly cut tooth structure to reduce microleakage and post-operative hyper-sensitivity. Dental cavity varnishes are prepared from natural gum or synthetic resin dissolved in a volatile organic sol-vent.
The aim of this study is preparation of the fluoridated cavity varnish from pro-polis. Propolis is a natural gum used by bees to seal their honeycombs, it is avail-able, cheep material in Iraq.
The effectiveness of the propolis var-nish in reducing the microleakage under amalgam restoration was evaluated by microleakage test by which microleakage tested by penetration of methylene blue dye and examined microscopically.
The data was analyzed statistically with ANOVA and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test.
The results of this study showed that the fluoridated propolis varnish has a good quality and it is highly effective in redu-cing the microleakage under amalgam restoration.

Pathogenic effect of Entamoeba gingivalis on gingival tissues of rats

Wisam M Al–Saeed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 70-73
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2003.165753

Entamoeba gingivalis was isolated from patients suffering of periodontal problem cultured on a special culture, a suspension of the parasite made and spreaded on the gingival margins of three groups of rats: The first group gives immunosuppressive drugs (prednisolone acetate), while not given to the other two groups.
Results show the rat’s gingival tissues of the 1st group became red and swollen within 2 days while a mild inflammation occurs at the gingival tissue of the 2nd group and no lesion or inflammatory process occurs to the third group (control). This experiment revealed that Entamoeba gingivalis may become pathogenic in immunocompromised indi-viduals.

Cross arch and antero–posterior dimen-sional changes of impressions and stone casts at different storage times

Sawsan H Al–Jubori

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2003, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 74-81
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2003.165754

The aim of study is to evaluate the linear dimensional changes (cross arch, antero–posterior dimensions) of imp-ressions and die stone casts of two brands of addition silicone impression materials (Express and President) for special master model using two–steps (putty–wash) tech-nique, at different storage times before pouring of impression, by using of three dimensional measuring machine and to compare between the accuracy of the two brands of impression materials.
The results indicated that a significant difference between the interabutment dist-ances of impression and die stone casts. The Express impression materials produce the most accurate results.
There is slightly increase in inter-abutment distances of stone casts. At one hour storage time there are the smallest dimensional changes of impressions and stone casts in relation to construction of complete–arch fixed partial denture.