Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Volume 1, Issue 1

Volume 1, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2001, Page 1-85

Oral hygiene and gingival health among adolescents and adult population (15-44) years in sharkhan village, Nineveh, Iraq


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2001, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2001.165711

The aim of the study is to evaluate the oral hygiene and gingival health and to identify if there is any variation between sex and age group among adolescents and adult population in rural area (sharkhan village), in Ninevah governorate. A sample of 203 individuals aged 1-44 years (84 males and 119 females) were examined using plaque index score by silness and loe (1964) and gingival index by loe and silness (1963). The results show that mean plaque score for total sample is (1.29), the plaque index was increase with age, the females reported less mean plaque score than male, however, there was no statistically significant difference of oral hygiene by sex. The mean gingival score was moderate (1.26) for total sample and it was increase with age significantly, the mean gingival score was slightly better in females in females than males with statistical significant between them. The study revealed that about (50%) of the total sample did not brush their teeth or brush infrequently. Therefore the objective of dental health education to those subjects is to brush their teeth regularly and to improve the effectiveness of oral hygiene practice.

Lips and incisors position in normal class I occlusion

Fadhil y. jasim; Neam F. Y. AGHA

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2001, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 8-17
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165807

In order to analyze the effectiveness of upper and lower incisors on the position of upper and lower lips, 100 students , 50 males and 50 females, aged 18-25 years from mosul  university are selected with class I normal occlusion, good facial esthetic, normal overbite and overjet, having no history of orthodontic treatment. A standard cephalometric film was taken showing the soft tissue profile with the underlying skeletal frame work. Tracing of these films including the cranial, maxillary and mandibular bases, upper and lower incisors and soft tissue out line. Eight variables entered SPSS computer analysis to evaluate the mean value of the variables. The sample is distributed according to skeletal classification into skeletal class I, II, and III, and a high correlation was found only in position of upper incisors with lower incisors and upper lip with lower lip.

Dental caries experience of rural and urban school children in Ninevah province . A comparative study


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2001, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 18-23
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165808

The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries in an urban and arural area in Mosul city, a sample of 240 school children aged 6-14 years was examined. The sample was divided into 3 age groups 6-8, 9-11 and 12-14 years.
The WHO methodology (1997) was used to assess the individual tooth status, results of dental caries in the primary dentition revealed that the mean dmft was decreasing with increasing age as it was 3.5, 2.12 and 0.57 for age groups 6-8, 9-11 and 12-14 years respectively with no sex variation but with statistically significant difference in location (1.69 in the rural and 2.44 in the urban area).
 For the permanent dentition the mean DMFT was increasing with increasing age with a statistically significant age difference, as it was 0.2, 1.34 and 2.45 for age groups 6-8, 9-11 and 12-14 years respectively, results also showed a statistically significant sex difference 1.12 for total males and 1.53 for total females, in addition to significant difference in location 1.68 for urban and 0.98 for rural areas.

Bond and rebond strengths an in vitro and in vivo evaluation

Hussain A OBAIBI

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2001, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 24-29
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165809

New orthodontic adhesives should be put under vitro and vivo investigation to evaluate their efficiencies and disadvantages, so that, Concise, No Mix and Right On orthodontic adhesives were tested in vitro and evaluated clinically by treating (15) cases. These adhesives were used in bonding (10) human sound extracted premolars for each one according to the manufactures instructions, and then rebonded new brackets to these tested teeth after cleaning and polishing.
The adhesive were used in bonding the brackets to the 40 teeth clinically (five upper dental arches) for each type, according to their manufacturer ' s instructions. The lowest number of failure brackets was within the use of concise adhesive.
The shear bond and rebond strength were measured in compression test Machine in Mega Pascal (Mpa).
The results showed that the Concise adhesive had strongest bond and rebond strength in vitro and clinically than that No Mix and Right-On adhesives and the later adhesives had adequate bonds strength and more successful in bonding anterior brackets.

An evaluation of etiologic factors in 300 patients treated in undergraduate endodontic program

Jabbar H Kamel H Kamel

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2001, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 30-34
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165810

A survey was carried out to determine the various etiologic factors leading to root canal therapy.
The study included cases of root canal filling that had been done by undergraduate students in conservative department. Results of this study can be concluded in the following:

Necrotic pulp and irreversible pulpits were the most frequent reasons for root canal filling and trauma was the second common reason.
The frequency of maxillary central incisor was the most often for endodontic therapy.
The frequency of endodontic therapy by arch showed three times as often in upper arch as in the lower arch.
Preoperative pain was noted in 58.3% of the patients.

Clinical evaluation of resin - bonded bridges

Sabah A ISMAIL; Abdul-haq A SULIMAN; Maan M NAYEF

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2001, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 35-39
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165811

This study evaluated resin-bonded fixed partial dentures (FPDs) clinically. Forty patients received 40 resin-bonded FPDs. Two types of luting materials were used, Super Bond Crown and Bridge Material and Degufill SC composite.
The metal frame works for Super Bond Crown and Bridge Material were sandblasted only, and for Degufill SC composite were electrolytically etched, Clinical evaluation were performed at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after cementation. None of the prostheses bonded by Super Bond Crown and Bridge Material lost retention, whereas two of the acid etched retainers required replacement after one year, Resin bonded prostheses appear to be favorable alternative to other types of fixed partial dentures.

Viscous acid etching agent


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2001, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 40-43
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165828

The acid etching effect of a new viscous 35% phosphoric acid dissolved in glycerol and known 35% gel phosphoric acid agent were investigated in vitro on 40 sound extracted premolars using concise orthodontic adhesive in bonding stainless orthodontic brackets. The results showed no significant difference in bond strength between the two etching agents at 0.05 significant level. But samples etched with Viscous phosphoric acid have higher numerical value. This finding was supported by the clinical investigation on 10 orthodontic patients in which the number of failure brackets was 8 for viscous phosphoric acid etching agent and 12 for gel phosphoric | acid agent after 11 months of treatment.

Estimation of fluoride release in commercial toothpaste


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2001, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 44-49
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165829

The aim of study is to ensure that the fluoridated toothpaste remain (active) in terms of bioavailability of fluoride in toothpaste.
Seventeenth different brands of toothpastes were collected from the market to determine the concentration of fluoride in the toothpaste. The result indicated that the concentration of fluoride in these products range from 10 p.p.m. to 1000 p.p.m. fluoride. Also, the result revealed that many of these products did not mention the type of abrasive system used to be compatible with the type of fluoride used & to maintain high amount of active fluoride to be benefit by the consumers.

Shear bond strength of fluoride release core materials to dentine


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2001, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 50-60
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165830

The aims of this study were to determine the mean shear bond strength of fast setting fluoride releasing core materials (vitremer core build up restorative system,compoglass F resin modified glass ionomer,Tetricceram composite and Definite composite) to dentin and the effect of one hour, 24 hour, and one week storage on mean shear bond strength.
One hundred thirty molar teeth Were mounted in a plastic cylinder using self-curing resin, then the teeth were prepared to expose flat superficial dentinal surfaces. Each material was mixed according to the manufacturer ' s instruction ' s. A prefabricated nylon mold was applied to the exposed denton, filled with the core material, then light cured and stored in distilled water at 37°C for one hour, 24 hours and one week.
The 24 hours and one week storage groups were thermocycled(5°C to 55°C) for 100 cycles before shearing, The specimen were tested with universal compression machine and the mode of failure was observed. The result showed that Vitrether core build up exhibited the greatest bond strength followed by compoglass F and then Tetrie Composite, Definite showed the lowest for all storage time.
The differences among time groups were not statistically significant except for vitremer core build up and compoglass F which showed an improvement after 24 hour storage.
The adhesive mode of failure revealed a combination of cohesive adhesive failure and failure for vitremer core build up and compoglass F and adhesive failure for Tetricceram and Definite composite resin.

Mercury release from a two surface amalgam restoration

Jabbar H KAMEL; Faraed D SALMAN

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2001, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 61-64
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165899

Mercury release from a two surface amalgam restoration has been determined in blood and urine at different time interval after performing amalgam restoration. The results showed that the average mercury released in blood reached relatively the level that was before restoration to be done after 3 weeks

Presence of Entamoebagingivalis in dental patients


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2001, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 65-68
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165900

This study has been carried out to investigate the presence of E. gingivalis in dental patients in Mosul. Soa total of 115 patients with different oral pathological conditions (dental caries, periodontitis, gingivitis & abscess) were examined. The result revealed 52 (45.2%) were positive for the presence of Entamoebagingivalis. In addition 55 healthy individuals with good oral hygiene were also examined as control group, 3 of them (5.4%) were seen positive for the presence of parasite. Examination Was carried out by direct wet smear method.
Results shows the highest incidence (53.3%) of this parasite was found in patients with dental caries, they were 24 out of 45, while the lowest incidence (26%) Was found in patients with tooth extraction, they were 4 out of 15. The present of this parasite was (46.7%) in males and (43.3%) in females, the percentage are approximately similar in both sexes.

An evaluation of mercury hygiene level for dentists in Mosul City


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2001, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 69-73
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165901

The present study was carried out to observe the level of mercury hygiene for the dentists in Mosul city via a questionnaire given to the 98 dentists selected randomly. The data was collected and percentages were calculated. The results revealed that the dentists had some of good hygienic methods, for example, (80% of dentists were ventilate their clinic, 100% of dentists were use water cooling System during removal of old amalgam restorations), and some of unhygienic methods, for example, (33% of dentists only were uses amalgam capsules, 93% of dentists work without rubber gloves) which increase the possibility of dentists exposure to mercury toxicity. According to this results the dentists should change they manner form unhygienice type to minimize as much as possible the mercury toxicity. Seminars & lectures of continuos education are very important in this field.

An evaluation of an intracoronal restorations among people in Sharkhan village


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2001, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 74-77
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165902

The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically the intracoronal restorations among people in Sharkhan village. A sample of (180) persons was selected randomly for the study. The age range between 18-60 years old. A clinical examination was performed. The restorations were examined for different types of failures. A percentages of failures are observed with expose margins (37%), recurrent caries (27%), over - hang fillings (18%), restoration fractures (11%), open contacts (7%), over filling (7%), corrosion (6%), color failure for anterior restoration (4%) and finally fracture of restored teeth (3%).

The effect of social class on periodontal condition and treatment needs of 13-15 year old students in Mosul city - Ninevah : Iraq


Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2001, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 78-85
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165903

This study was carried out on 900 intermediate school students aged 13-15 years from high, middle and low socioeconomic classes in the center city of Mosul in order to determine the prevalence of periodontal disease and treatment need with the three different socioeconomic levels.
The CPITN (Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs) was used to asses the periodontal condition and treatment needs. The results showed that the disease was prevalent in 97.6% of the sample, with a slight higher percentage of students with healthy gingiva in high social class group compared to middle and low class (4%, 2% and 1.3%) respectively, but with no statistically significant difference between them.
The result indicated that there was statistically significant difference in the mean number of healthy Sextants in the three groups (1.78, 1.32 and 0.91) for high, middle and low class respectively.
Results also revealed a significant a healthier gingiva in females compared to males (1.55 for females and 1.12 for males).
The periodontal treatment needs for the students were massive with no significant difference between the three socioeconomic level, while there are statistically significant differences between males and females,as more tales need prophylactic scaling and polishing compared to females.