Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Volume 11, Issue 1

Volume 11, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2015, Page 329-398

The effect of Beverages on Color Stability of Highly Impact Acrylic Resin

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 329-339

Aim: To evaluate the effect of beverages (Distilled water ,Artificial orange, Zamzam water, Natural orange, Cola, coffee, and Tea) on the color stability of the highly impact resin. Materials and methods: Total samples of this research were (48) samples of highly impact resin were prepared 30 * 20 * 1.5 mm (length, width and thickness). Six samples were immersed in each type of beverage. The last six sample (control) without any type of beverage (after control group and other beverage groups were evaluated after (3 hours, 9 hrs, 18 hrs, 36.5 hrs, and 73 hrs) immersion time intervals by using (CIE L* a* b* ) system. the results of this research were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range test. Results : There was no significant difference among beverages at immersion time intervals (3 hrs, 9 hrs, 18 hrs, and 73 hrs) except at (36.5 hrs) there was a significant difference, also the results showed that there was no significant difference among immersion time intervals for different types of bever-ages. Conclusions: among beverages coffee and tea showed unaccepted value of ΔE at all immersion time intervals except at (9 hrs) while cola showed an accepted values of ΔE except at (3 hrs) of immer-sion where ΔE value was unaccepted.

Hypothetical Evaluation of Stress and Displacement of the Mandible with Chin Cup Therapy Using Various Force Vectors (Finite Element Study)

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 340-347

Introduction: Early orthodontic treatment is recommended, since the morphologic pattern of the prognathic face associated with excessive forward mandibular growth is most likely established early in life. The chin cup is the preferred orthopedic appliance for growing children with mandibular prognathism and a normal maxilla. Aims Of Study: Evaluation of the stress and displacements in the mandible from various chin cup force vectors, using three-dimensional finite element model. Materials And Methods: Three-dimensional model of the mandible was modeled and analyzed. Chin cup with 800 g force was applied on the pogonion of the mandible. The direction of the loading vectors were 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400 and 900 relative to x axis, then, the mechanical responses in terms of displacement and Von Mises stresses are evaluated. Results: The highest stress levels observed in the condylar, posterior ramus regions and inferior sigmoid notch, and increased as the force vector was transferred away from the condyle. The mandible was displaced in downward and backward direction with the vector passing below and through the condyle (with angles 150, 200 and 250) forward and upward displacement was recorded as the force vector move away from the condyle (within 300, 350, 400 and 900). Conclusions: With the limitations of modeling, boundary conditions, and solution assumptions, chin cup applied in various directions produce different force vectors, which induce different stress and displacements. The force vector is an important determinant of the orthopedic effects of the chin cup and therefore should be carefully considered.

Antimicrobial Effects of some Plants on Bacteria Isolated from Oral Halitosis Patients

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 348-356

Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of three herbs (Salvadora persica ,Nigella sativa , and Elettaria cardamomum) by using three different methods of extractions (aqueous , ethanolic, and Soxhelt apparatus technique) . Materials and methods: Twenty eight subjects suffered from oral halitosis their ages range(18-65)years. Fifty eight samples were collected by sterile paper points(size 50 )or sterile cotton swab and transported in thioglycolate broth and cultured on blood agar in aerobic or anaerobic conditions for 48-72 hours. The herbal extracts were qualitatively examined against thirteen microbial strains, zones of growth of inhibition were measured as indicators of anti-microbial activity compared to chlorohexidin gluconate 0.2%(as control ). Results: Thirteen microbial species were isolated in this study : (Bacteriodes species, Viridans Streptococci, Peptostreptococci spp., Actinomyces spp., Porphymonos spp., Fusobacterium spp., Veillonella spp., Non-coagulase Staphylococcus, Prevotella spp., Propinobacterium spp., Tetragenococci spp. ,Eubacterium spp., and Staph.aureus .Ethanolic extraction of S. persica exhibited notable antimicrobial activities against most of the tested strains(85%to the control), N. sativa was (6.3% of the control) and E cardamomum was (22.9% of the control),aqueous extraction of S. persica was (13.5%of the control), N. sativa was ( about 0%of the control)and E cardamomum was (6.8%of the control), Soxhelt apparatus extraction method of S. persica was (14% of the control), N. sativa was (8.5% of the control), and E. cardamomum was (12.6% of the control) . Conclusion: Ethanolic extraction of S. persica has the first inhibitory effect compared to the control in the species of Peptostreptococci, Actinomyces, and Staphylococcus aureus. So , S persica can be considered as an effective antimicrobial agent in inhibiting the growth of oral halitosis including pathogens, while neither E. cardamomum nor N. sativa can be considered as effective antimicrobial agents in inhibiting the growth of oral bacteria causing halitosis.

Sealing Ability of Biodentine as a Retrograde Filling Materials (A Comparative in vitro study)

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 357-361

Aim: Inadequate apical seal is the major cause of endodontic failure, the root end filling material used should prevent ingress of potential contaminants from periapical tissue. Aims: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the sealing ability of Biodentine (Septodent) when used as a root-end filling material and to compared the result with that of White Mineral Trioxide Aggregate ( MTA) and Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC). Materials and Methods: The root canals of (34) extracted human teeth were instrumented and obturated with gatta percha. Apexes were resected and cavities were prepared to 3mm depth. Teeth were divided randomly into three groups(n=10): first group was retrofilled with Biodentine, second with MTA, third group with GIC, and positive (n=2) and negative (n=2) control groups. Nail varnish was applied to all root surfaces except the tip of the root. Following immersion in basic fuchsine 1% , the roots were sectioned longitudinally and depth of dye penetration was evaluated by stereomicro-scope at 40X magnification. Data were analyzed using one way ANOVA and Duncan›s multiple range test at P< 0.05. Results: In this study, biodentine was determined to be superior than MTA and GIC prevention apical microleakage when used as root-end filling. No statistical significant difference was observed between MTA and GIC. Conclusions: under the conditions of this in vitro study, despite some variation, Biodentine provides a better seal than MTA and GIC when used as retro filling, but along term in vivo study is required to prove it

Effect of Incorporation of Calcium And Fluoride Salts on Transverse Strength of Acrylic Resin

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 362-368

Aims: The aims of this investigation were to determine the effect of incorporation of CaCO3 from egg shell and Fluoride salt NaF in different concentrations on transverse strength of RESPAL® NF(VEIN 24) heat cured acrylic resin denture base. Materials and Methods: 21 samples of heat cured acrylic resin were prepared, divided it’s into 7 groups; the 1st group Control HCAR , the 2nd group HCAR mixed with 2.5% CaCO3, the 3rd group HCAR mixed with 5% CaCO3, the 4th group HCAR mixed with 10% CaCO3 and the 5th group HCAR mixed with 2.5% NaF, the 6th group HCAR mixed with 5% NaF, the 7th group HCAR mixed with 10% NaF . The samples were tested after 48 hours from preparation for transverse strength test. Results: One way ANOVA and Duncan Multiple Analysis rang test were used and showed significant differences in the transverse strength between the two groups (CaCo3 and NaF), and significant differences between control and CaCo3 while no significance between control and NaF groups. Conclusions: It was concluded that adding NaF to HCAR led to an increase in strength of denture base and significant decrease in strength when adding CaCO3 to HCAR .This was within acceptable range of American Dental Association specification no.12 ,1975.

Comparison of the Onset of Diclofenac Potassium Sachet(Voltfast) and EntericCoated Diclofenac Potassium(Cataflam) in Treatment of Pain Following Tooth Extraction

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 369-373

Aims: This study was undertaken to compare the analgesic onset of voltfast and diclofenac potassium in patients after extraction of teeth. Materials and methods: One hundred fifty patients were enrolled in this study and randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 received sachets of oral diclofenac potassium (Voltfast) and group 2 received entric coated of diclofenac sodium (Cataflam) after extraction of teeth. The patients reported their pain relief in a questionnaire after the tooth extraction. The patient was instructed to take the drug as prescribed as the effect of local anesthesia begin to wear off and pain start. To evaluate the onset of the two drugs, the patients were asked to report if they had any problem using the drug. Results: seventy five patients received voltfast and cataflam seventy five patients received for relief of pain. The pain relief in both groups was efficient with statistically significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions: Oral diclofenac is an effective treatment for moderate to severe postoperative pain. Significantly more participants experienced a faster onset of pain relief with voltfast than with cataflam.

The Effect of Some Disinfectants on Some Mechanical Properties of Nylon (Valplast) Denture Base Material

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 374-380

Aims: To evaluate the effect of two disinfecting solutions (povidone iodine 10%, ethanol alcohol 100%) on the surface roughness and surface hardness of nylon denture base material. Materials and Method: 40 sample of valplast material were constructed with dimensions of (65mm,10mm,2.5mm) length ,width and thickness respectively. (10) samples were used to measure the surface roughness before and after soaking in (ethanol material 100%) for 5 min., (10) samples were used to measure the surface hardness before and after soaking in (ethanol alcohol 100%) for 5 min., other 20 samples have been used in the same way as the 1st 20 but with iodine disinfectant. Results: Descriptive statistics for indentation hardness of valplast in ethanol and iodine indicate there is no significant difference for each one (P=0.3, P=0.7 respectively).T-test indicate there is no significant difference between them (P=0.3).Descriptive statistics for surface roughness in ethanol indicate there is an increase but it is not significant (P=0.2), while for iodine there is a decrease also it is not significant (P=0.1).T-test indicate no significant difference between them(P=0.07). Conclusion: Hardness of nylon denture base material increased by immersing in each of the ethanol and iodine but their increase is not significant (within 5 min.). Surface Roughness of nylon denture base material increases by immersing in ethanol alcohol while it decreases by immersing in iodine, this increase or decrease is not significant (within 5 min.).

The Effect of Two Denture Adhesives on Maxillary Complete Denture Dislodgement. A Pilot Study

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 381-386

Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two denture adhesives on incisal bite force until denture dislodgement without and with the adhesive. This in-practice study assessed also patients’ perception regarding the use of adhesive. Materials and Methods: A total of 6 patients )2 men, 4 women( who wore complete maxillary and mandibular dentures were tested for denture performance both without and with denture adhesive. A locally constructed digital biting force device was used to measure the incisal bite force. Two adhesives pastes )Kin oro and Bony plus( were used in the study. Patients were asked to bite on the digital biting force device and the readings of incisal bite force were recorded. Patient perceptions )instant perception and delayed perception( after 1 week of using the denture adhesive were also assessed by a questionnaire and analyzed for denture performance on chewing and mastication, retention and fitness, confidence, comfort, and speaking. Results: The result showed that denture adhesives improved the incisal bite force of complete denture wearers significantly. The incisal bite force )in kg( )mean : without adhesive 1.78, with Kin oro 3.04, and with Bony plus 3.21(. There was an improvement in chewing and mastication, retention and fitness, confidence, comfort, and speaking after using both types of denture adhesives. Conclusions: The use of denture adhesive was found to be significantly effective in improving the incisal bite force of complete dentures until the dislodgement of upper denture. Bony plus paste adhesive was found to be more effective than Kin oro paste. Subjectively, the patients reported an improved perception of denture performance and that the use of adhesive provided greater confidence when using the prosthesis

The Effects of Topical Ketamine Gel on Saliva and Serum Level of Interlukin-6 in Patients with Recurrent Aphthous Ulceration

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 387-392

Aims: To evaluate the effect of topical application of ketamine gel )0.5%( and gel alone)without ketamine( on salivary and serum level of human interlukin-6)IL-6 (in patient with recurrent aphthous ulceration )RAU( and compare the results with control group having no RAU. Materials and methods: The investigation was carried out on)36( subjects with mean ± SD ages )25.11±6.31(years and different sex )20 males,16 females(. These subjects were divided into three groups. Group1: The study group consisted of )12(patients having minor RAU received topical ketamine gel )0.5%( applied on the lesion. Group2: The placebo group consisted of )12(patients having minor RAU received topical gel alone. Group3: The control group consisted of )12( healthy subjects having no RAU.Peripheral venous blood and saliva samples were collected from all subjects before treatment, and four days after treatment from group1and group2 only, to assess the levels of serum and salivary )IL-6( by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assays )ELISA( method. Patients were subjectively assessed for the intensity of pain which was recorded pre and four days post treatment in group1 and 2 by using Verbal Pain Scale )VPS(. Data were analyzed using paired t-test, One way ANOVA and Willcoxon Signed Ranks test. Results: The results showed that the mean of serum IL-6 concentrations were high in the study and placebo groups )18.49±5.4pg/ml( and )18.97± 7,47 pg/ml( respectively before treatment comparing with mean of serum IL-6 concentration of control group )9.63±2.77pg/ml(, and the mean of salivary IL-6 concentrations were high in the study and placebo groups )63.03±47.28pg/ml( and )62.25±45.14pg/ml( respectively before treatment comparing with mean of saliva IL-6 concentration of control group )13.1±5.08pg/ml(.

Assessment of Cortical Bone Density for Orthodontic Implants Placement: Computerized tomography study

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 393-398

Aims: The aims of this study were to investigate the bone density in the buccal surface of the maxilla and mandible and to assess the gender difference. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted using computed tomography images for the 46 subjects (25 males and 21 females). Based on computed tomography data, the mean bone density values in Hounsfield units were recorded at 4 different locations from the crest of alveolar bone. Results: The bone density ranged from 795.72- 975.16 Hounsfield units in the maxilla and 837.58- 1339.28 Hounsfield units in the mandible for male and from 742.93- 992.14 and 769.67- 1342.31 Hounsfield units in the maxilla and mandible for female respectively. It was found that the mandibular posterior bone had the highest cortical bone in both sexes, followed by, mandibular anterior, maxillary posterior and maxillary anterior areas in male. In female, the sequence of bone density from highest to lowest was maxillary posterior bone, maxillary anterior and mandibular anterior areas. There was significant difference between males and females in some locations with higher bone densities in males (p<0.05). Conclusions: Bone densities in the buccal maxillary and mandibular areas were presented. They were ranged between 742.93- 1342.31 Hounsfield units in various areas. These data can be used in dental implant treatment planning to avoid associated risk factors