Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Volume 14, Issue 1

Volume 14, Issue 1, Spring 2014, Page 1-160


Histological Evaluation of Tissues Using a Bone Inducing Substance in Cases of Micro-Screw Implant "An Experimental In Vivo Study"

Tahani A Alsandook; Mustafa M Al-Sultan; Sabah H Alzubaidi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.89247

To evaluate the effects of systemically administered Alendronate sodium on osteoclastic activity and osteoblast accumulation. Materials and Methods: Fourty eight micro-screw implant, twelve adult rabbits were used in this study, the rabbits divided into two main groups, treated and control group, which further subdivided into three subgroups according to the healing periods after 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 6 weeks. All animal were treated with alendronate sodium. Eight micro-screw implants instilled in tibiaes of each tested subgroup and six instilled in tibiaes of control subgroups, the tissue facing the micro-screw implant subjected to histological evaluation for the tested subgroups and control sub-groups including the number of active osteoblast and osteoclast. Results: A significant differences be-tween subgroups 0WT, 2WT and 4WT, were more prominent for 2WT and 4WT subgroups from 0WT subgroups which showed score (+++), further no significant difference for control subgroups were all showed score (+++) for osteoblastic activity. For the active osteoclast a significant differences detected between subgroups of experimental and control sample, were score (+) noticed in the 0WT subgroups, score (+) in 2 readings and (++) in 6 readings of4WT subgroups and score (+++) for 4WT subgroups with no significant difference between experimental and control samples in 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 6 weeks healing periods .Conclusions: According to the result of histological evaluation, no estimated differences in the bone remodeling process had been detected between treated and the control group, which may need longer period of drug administration to probably induce effect on bone.

Patient's Satisfaction and Durability of Vertex Line Maxillary or Mandibular Complete Dentures

Nadira A Hatim; Mohammad A Mohi Al–Deen

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 9-18
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.89248

The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of lining maxillary or mandibular complete denture with different length of flange periphery with or without heat cured denture base material on the Patient's Satisfaction and Durability of VertexP®P Line materials. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients (11 Females, and 9 Males), age range 45-73 years with sever resorption completely edentulous arch (8 Patients) or arches (12 Patients) attend prosthodontic department clinic, College of Dentistry University of Mosul with complain of uncomfortable, soreness with previous prosthesis. All the participants were with history of extraction (8±2) years ago. Sixty four complete maxillary and mandibular dentures were constructed, (32) complete denture was done in conventional method and the other half maxillary and mandibular dentures were lined with VertexP®P (Heat cured liner), 2±0.5mm. of flange periphery without hard denture base material, and the other with 4±0.5mm. Each patient answers the Arabic version of (PDSQ) before and after insertion of the prosthesis and after 6months, and 12 months with follow up to 24months. Statistical analysis was done by using Mann-Whitney Test. Results: the results showed that a significant difference between gender, and significant differences between maxillary and mandibular denture for comfort. Durability factor showed significant differences with low percentage of patient comfort after 12 months (p≤0.05). Percentage of cracks in hard denture base flange materials was higher in mandibular denture with 4mm. vertex lined materials. Conclusions: Complete denture lined with VertexP®P heat cured material was more comfortable than conventional denture; Durability of this material was not more than 12 months. Vertex flange periphery should not more than 2±0.5mm

The Effect of Newly Prepared Cleansing Agent on The Surface Roughness and Ten-sile Strength of Highly Impact Acrylic Den-ture Base Material

Hasan Kh Mohialdeen; Ammar Kh Alnori; Amer A Taqa

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 19-31
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.89249

To evaluate the effect of two prepared and commercial solution on surface roughness and tensile strength of highly impact acrylic denture base material. Materials and Methods: The total number of specimens were one hundred and fifty. They were prepared from highly impact acrylic and subdivided into five groups for each solution (EDTA, Soda+HR2ROR2R, Lacalut, Corega and distilled water). Two la-boratory tests were used for this research. Surface Roughness and tensile strength test. The surface roughness test specimens were constructed with dimensions (10×10×2±0.03mm) (length, width, and thickness respectively). According to ADA specification no.12 the tensile test specimens were con-structed with dimensions 90×10×3±0.03mm (length, width, and thickness respectively). The immersion periods in this research are (2day, 7 day and one month). ANOVA and Duncan multiple range test were used. The statistical results were considered significant at p ≤ 0.05. Results: the results showed that (soda+HR2ROR2R) has no significant change on the surface roughness and tensile strength of highly impact acrylic denture base material in (2day, 7 day, and 1month). Conclusion: (soda+HR2ROR2R) has the lowest effect on the surface roughness and tensile strength of highly impact acrylic denture base material in (2day, 7 day, and 1month

Study the FTIR of Hydroxyapatite Additive to Heat Cured Acrylic Resin

Zena J Hassan; Nadira A Hatim; Amer A Taqa

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 32-36
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.89250

To evaluate the FTIR of Hydroxyapatite additives 2 %, and 5 % of dry (HAP) prepared from
egg shells to the polymer. Materials and Methods: Thirty six specimens of heat cured acrylic resin
and other specimens of heat cured acrylic resin with 2 % and or 5 % prepared then immersed in distilled
water for 48 hours then dried for 24 hours then scratched with sharp knife and measured by FTIR
spectra. Results: The result showed when adding 2% &/or 5% hydroxy apatite to heat cured acrylic
resin denture base material resulting a homogenous mixture, without chemical reaction in between and
without changes of acrylic resin properties. Conclusion: they can be used together in patients with
bone hydroxy apatite deficiency

Comparison Among Three Fixed Palatal Expander Appliances: An in Vitro Study

Hussain A Obaidi; Mahmoud R Al-Mallah

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 37-46
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.89251

To evaluate the effect of three different palatal expanders (Hyrax, Quad-Helix and W-Arch) on maxillary 1st premolar, 2nd premolar and 1st molar width changes. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of three groups, the Hyrax (N=10), the Quad-Helix (N=10) and the W-Arch (N=10). Images were taken before and after expansion; analysis were made using Autodesk AutoCAD© pro-gram. One-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range tests were used (P ≤ 0.05). Results: Significant difference was found in the maxillary 1st premolar, 2nd premolar and 1st molar width changes between the Hyrax and the other two expanders, while there was no significant difference between the Quad-Helix and the W-Arch expanders. Conclusion: Maxillary arch width increases more consistently with the Hyrax expanders.

The Relation between Type of Ligature and Force Delivered by Orthodontic Arch Wire

Eman G Mohi-aldin; Saad S Gasgoos

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 47-51
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.89252

This in vitro study aims to compare the deactivation force, delivered as a result of releasing
superelastic arch wire from 4 mm to 2.5 mm in horizontal direction at the area of right maxillary canine
on standard model of teeth, by using three different methods to ligate the wire to the brackets.
MATERIALES AND METHODS: Materials of this study include three sets of Synergy brackets
0.022P Px 0.028 inch, molar buccal tubes, thirty arch wire , 0.016 inch round preformed arch superelastic
nickel-titanium wires, were divided to three groups according to ligation method, the first group was
ligated with preformed steel wire ligatures ,the second group with elastic ligatures as o configuration
and in third group with elastic ligature as c configuration. The measurements were completed at room
temperature of 27±5 in dry media by machine designed by college of mechanics engineering /Mosul
university and the results were compared among the three methods of ligation. RESULTS: Significant
difference in deactivation forces (p < 0.05) were observed. C configuration elastic ligatures had the
higher mean of deactivation force (332 gm) than either o configuration or steel wire ligatures (268.5
gm), (267.9 gm) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Decreasing the ligation force by using C configuration
elastic ligatures to ligate the wire to Synergy bracket is potentially adequate to use at the beginning
of leveling and aligning stage of orthodontics that allow the arch wire to generate its force without
more missing due to high friction, as occurred by the use of stainless steel wire ligatures or o configuration
elastic ligatures.

Dentoskeletal Parameters Comparison of Different Types of Overbite in Class I Occlusion (Lateral Cephalomtric Study)

Fadhil Jassim; Khawla M Awni

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 52-59
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.89253

This study is intended to evaluate the skeletofacial and dental parameters in different types of overbite and to compare among them. Materials and Methods: It was carried out on a sample of 150 Iraqi adolescents (65 males and 85 females), aged (12-15) years with class I malocclusion have different overbite (open, normal and deep bites).The sample were selected according to certain criteria among the students of intermediate schools in the center of Mosul city. Lateral cephalometric radiograph was taken for each subject. Twenty-one cephalometric measurements (nine angular and twelve linear) and five ratios had been determined. Results: There are significant differences among the three types of overbite concerning total anterior facial height, upper anterior facial height and lower anterior facial height variables. Also, upper posterior dental height and lower posterior dental height show a significant difference between them. Anterior cranial base to mandibular plane angle, palato mandibular plane angle, occluso-mandibular plane angle, gonial angle and summation of posterior angles are significantly different among the different types of overbite in both sexes and the total sample. All skeletal and dental ratios are significantly different among the three types of overbite in both sexes and total sample. Conclusions: The study concludes that open bite group possesses significant higher values of total and lower anterior facial height, upper and lower posterior dental height, while deep bite group possesses significant higher value of upper anterior facial height.

Effect of Bracket’s Slot Size on Canine Position and Space Closure Rate (A Typodont Study)

Khudair A Al-Jumaili; Abdulrahman I Ali; Hydar M Shindala

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 60-69
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.89254

This study aimed to determine the effect of newly introduced 0.020” slot size brackets on di-mensional positions and space closure ratio of mandibular canine. Material and Methods: The study includes six groups according to slot sizes (0.018”, 0.020” and 0.022”) and materials of canine retrac-tion (elastomeric power chain and closed coil spring). A 200 gm of retraction force was used on 0.017” X 0.025” stainless steel wire ligated to brackets by elastomeric ligatures along 13 mm available space. After immersion of the typodont in water bath with (50-55) C for 5 minutes, the rate of space closure were measured in millimeter using vernier (from the distal wings of canine bracket and the mesial wings of the second premolar), In both vertical and horizontal directions, digital images were taken by camera and the angle between canine extension bar )C B) and bite plane extension bar (BPB) was measured by protractor to determine tipping and rotation.
Results: The results showed that 0.022” slot bracket groups had highest amount of rate of space clo-sure tipping and rotation, while 0.020” slot brackets groups had higher space closure rate than 0.018” slot brackets groups. Conclusions: bracket slot 0.022” groups showed higher tipping, rotation and space closure rate, while 0.020” slot brackets groups had higher rate of space closure with same or bet-ter rotation and tipping control in comparison with 0.018” slot bracket groups

Effect of Low Level Laser Therapy, Dex-amethasone, and Lornoxicam on Post-Operative Pain after Periapical surgery: A comparative clinical study

Waqass S Thanoon; Omer W Majid

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 70-75
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.89255

To compare the effect of low level laser therapy ( LLLT), submucosal lornoxicam, and submucosal
dexamethasone to control postoperative pain after periapical surgery of upper anterior teeth.
Materials and Methods: This randomized, double- blind, controlled trial was performed on patients
who required surgical endodontics of single upper anterior tooth under local anesthesia. A case form
was used. Standardized surgical procedure was followed. Patients were categorized into 6 groups;
LLLT, lornoxicam, LLLT+ lornoxicam , dexamethasone, placebo, and control groups. Measurements
of pain were undertaken at days 1-7. Results: : Pain on Visual Analog Scale (VAS) also reached it's
peak on 6 hours and faded away by day 7. With respect to pain (on VAS), dexamethasone treated
group continued to be the best at all intervals (P<0.05) followed by LLLT+lornoxicam group, Placebo
group, lornoxicam group, LLLT group, and control group in a descending order. There were significant
differences for all treated groups on (6 hours) post operatively as compared with control group. Laser
treated group showed significant reduction in pain at 6 hours, lornoxicam group showed significant
reduction in pain at day 2 as compared with other tereated groups. Dexamethasone and placebo groups
showed significant reduction in pain at day 3 as compared with other tereated groups. Up to the end of
follow up period, no cases of wound infection were reported. No side effects of drugs and treatments
used in the trial were demonstrated. Conclusion: Submucosal dexamethasone 4mg injection is an effective
therapy for reducing postoperative pain after periapical surgery. The treatment offers a simple,
safe, painless, noninvasive and cost therapeutic option for moderate and severe cases. LLLT and submucosal
lornoxicam seem to have little effect in this regard and found to be associated with some discomfort
and inconvenience in many cases.

Preoperative Alterations of Interleukin-6 levels During Surgical Removal of Impacted Lower Third Molar

Harith D Qadawi; Atalla F. Rejab; Mahmoud YM Taha

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 76-81
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.89256

The aim of the study is to assess the blood levels of (interleukin-6) at different intervals of time after surgical removal of impacted lower third molars.. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 26 patients with impacted lower third molars .All extractions were performed under local anaesthesia using the inferior alveolar nerve block together with vestibular infiltration. A buccal full thickness two sided mucoperiosteal flap was raised. Sterile low-speed straight hand pieces and sterile distilled water were used for ostectomy. After tooth removal the wound was closed with 3-0 black silk suture. Three blood samples were drawn from each patient; one before the operation, the second 2hr. post operation and the third 24hr. post operation. The blood samples were collected through venipunc-ture, serum separated and stored in at -20ºC. Analysis was performed using the Enzyme linked Im-munosourbant assay ( ELISA). Results: The level of IL-6, in this study, showed an increase following surgery, in comparison with the level before operation. This increase in the level of Interleukin-6 re-mained high until 24hr after operation. Conclusion: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is higher after surgical extrac-tion of lower third molars and remained with high levels to 24hr. after operation

The Effect of Digital Image Size on the Accuracy of Linear Cephalometric Measurements

Khudair A Al-Jumaili; Ruba J Mohammad; Wafa Gh Fathi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 82-89
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.89257

This study compared the accuracy of linear cephalometric measurements between the com-pressed and non-compressed digital cephalometric images. Materials and Methods: The adult sample consisted of (60) Iraqi subjects (30 females and 30 males) with age ranged 18 – 25 years old, the sam-ples satisfied the criteria of this study. Eight linear cephalometric measurements were recorded from lateral digital cephalometric radiographs, the ACDsee photo manger software used to compress and resaved the original images in 80% and 60% from their original size. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistic and ANOVA & Duncan test. Results: No significant differences were found be-tween the accuracy of the compressed and non-compressed digital cephalometric measurements. Con-clusions: The results of this study indicated that image compression up to 60% of their original size will not effect on the accuracy of routine cephalometric analysis and reduce the size of image storage and facilitates the easier and faster image transmission.

Effects of Combination of Platelet Rich Plasma and OSTEON Material in Rabbits Bone Healing (A comparative study)

Fidaa S Abdo; Mohammed kh Hasouni

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 90-100
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.89258

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of OSTEON, PRP and the combination of both of them on the healing of experimentally induced bone defects in rabbits. Materials and Meth-ods: Fifteen domestic rabbits were used in this study; four bone defects were made in the tibia of each rabbit. The defects were filled with OSTEON, PRP, OSTEON / PRP and the other left unfilled as con-trol. Specimens were collected at one, two and four weeks after surgery. Radiographical and histologi-cal examinations were used to evaluate healing depending of the amount of new bone formed. Results: It was found that the OSTEON / PRP combination led to a significant healing compared to other groups at first week only. On the other hand PRP alone showed better result than OSTEON alone in the three periods. Conclusion: It was concluded that PRP plasma exert a beneficial effect on healing pro-cess when added to bone substitute material OSTEON.

Evaluation of the Sequelae of Untreated Dental Caries Using PUFA Index

Karam H Jazrawi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 101-110
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.89259

To evaluate (PUFA/pufa) index in assessing the prevalence and severity of oral conditions relat-ed to untreated caries in a group of primary school pupils in Mosul City. Materials and Methods: Dental examination was conducted on 756 school pupils aged 7–12 years old, divided into 3 groups according to age; 7–8, 9–10, and 11–12 years old. Caries was recorded in terms of decayed, missing and filled teeth for both primary teeth (dmft) and permanent teeth (DMFT). The PUFA/pufa index was also recorded for both dentitions regarding the presence of severely decayed teeth with visible pulpal involvement (P/p), ulceration caused by dislocated tooth fragments (U/u), fistula (F/f) and abscess (A/a). Results: Caries experience in the primary dentition was found to be 6.33, 4.75, 1.00, and 4.43 for the three age groups as well as the total sample, respectively. While for the permanent dentition, it was 0.59, 1.18, 3.67, and 1.58, respectively. The PUFA/pufa index recorded the following values for each age group as well as the total sample for permanent and primary teeth respectively; 0.03/2.35, 0/1.66, 0.42/0.58, and 0.12/1.66. The main component in this index for all age groups, and both denti-tions was found to be pulpal involvement. Conclusion: The PUFA index should be seen as a comple-mentary to the current caries assessment index (DMF), with relevant information for epidemiologists and health care planners.

Amlodipine and Oral Health

Nahla O Tawfik; Rana Kh Atarbashe

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 111-114
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.89260

To evaluate the oral side effect of amlodipine in patients with cardiovascular disease, also to study the effect of improving oral health on the possibility of development of gingival over growth. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 25 patients (pretreated group) with cardiovascular disease who had been prescribed amlodipine for the first time, aged ranged between 30-63 years. Clinical examinations (plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD) and gingival over growth scores) were conducted under standardized illumination with plain dental mirror and a periodontal probe. The screening was done twice, the 1st assessment was collected at base line (pretreatment) visit before the first dose of the amlodipine and they received non surgical periodontal therapy (scaling, root planning and home care instruction) to get them to base line, but the 2nd assessment was done at the end of trial period at 12 week assessments (post treated). Results: The result obtained showed that the mean values of PI and BOP in post group were significantly lower than pre group (p<0.05), While for the PPD, GO the mean values in the post group were higher than mean value in the pre group with significant difference for GO (p<0.05) and no significant difference for PPD (p>0.05).Conclusion: The study concluded that amlodipine therapy had got its influence on GO and that improvement in oral health represent a scientifically sound complementary intervention in reducing both the occurrence of GO and inflammatory levels in the systemic circulation.

The Impact of General and Local Fac-tors as Criterions of Assessment for the Difficult Lower Wisdom Tooth. A Ret-rospective Study

Wael Sh Shallawi; Ziad H Delemi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 115-122
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.89261

The aim of the study is to evaluate the relationship of the general and local factors which have an impact on the difficulty during the removal of impacted lower wisdom teeth. Several factors such as age , gender, mouth opening , chief complain, bone surrounding and radiographic appearance and sur-geon experience, will be included as factors which affect the difficulty during the removal of impacted lower wisdom teeth. Materials and methods: One hundred twenty medically fit patients were selected with an age range between 17–47 years of both sexes had impacted lower third molars and indicated for surgical extraction. Surgical removal performed by senior surgeon and junior, operation was per-formed under local anesthesia, all cases done between November 2008- June 2010, in oral and maxillo-facial surgery departmentdentistry college university of Mosul the collected data were analyzed statis-tically by using SPSS program. Results: the sample comprised of 62.5% female and 37.5% male with mean age 24.5 years, the mean of the mouth opening was 39mm, the chief complain distributed as fol-low( pain 65%, dental check up 25.8%, orthodontic reasons 6.7% and others 2.5%), according to Pell and Gregory classification the percentage were class І 44.2%, class ІІ 44.1%, class ІІІ 11.7%, while the angulations were horizontally 15.8%, mesioangular 44.2%, vertical 24.2%,distoangular 15.8%, levels position A 40%, position B 36%, position C 17%. The mean time for the experienced surgeon was 23.33 minutes while for the non experienced 53.11 minutes. There was statistically significant differ-ence between the time of the operation and the experience of the surgeon at P value =0.003. The rela-tion between the time of the operation and class, level and angulations of impaction was statistically not significant. To successfully evaluate the difficulty of lower third molar extraction prior to surgery, clinical, radiologic findings, local and general factors must be taken into account and there are special indexes used in the assessment of difficulty in lower wisdom tooth surgery with no one of them consid-ered the most reliable one because of the difference in the studies samples and in the local and general factors that had been used in the assessment of difficulty like age, gender, mouth opening , chief com-plain in addition to the clinical and radio graphical features. Conclusions: in regardless of type of diffi-culty index used in addition to local and general factors as a criteria for the assessment of lower molar

An Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Different Types of Composite Resins (An in Vitro Study)

Shaymaa SH. Hassan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 123-131
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.89262

The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties (compressive strength (CS), diametral tensile strength (DTS), flexural strength (FS) and modulus of elasticity (ME)) of different types of composite resins. Materials and Methods: Two flowable composites (tgflow, Tetric N-Flow) and two conventional composites (tgmicrohybrid, Tetric N-Ceram), were used in this study. For CS measurement, eight specimens of each material (3mm diameter x 6mm height) were prepared. For DTS measurement, eight specimens of each material (6mm diamerter x 3mm height) were prepared. For FS measurement, of each material eight bar shaped (2mm x 2mm x 25mm) specimens were prepared. The FS and ME were determined by three point bending method. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37˚C for 7 days, then tested on a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1mm/mint. Independent sample t-test and Duncan test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The CS, DTS and ME of flowable composites were significantly lower than that of the conventional composites, the FS of flowable (Tetric N-Flow) composite was significantly lower than that of the conventional (Tetric N-Ceram) composites but there was no significant difference between tgmicrohybrid composite and tgflow composite in FS. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the mechanical properties of two flowa-ble types composites were inferior than that of the two conventional types composites

Evaluation of Addition of Plant Fixed Oil Extracts (Ginger , Maramia, Eucalyptus) on Some Properties of Heat Cured Denture Base Material

Luma M Al-Nema; Reem N. Al-Irhayim; Halar Khuder Ali

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 132-138
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.89263

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three types of natural medicinal plants oils on the transverse strength, residual monomer and hardness of polymethylmethacrylate. Materials and methods: Total number of samples of (105) have been prepared in this study. Fifteen samples of heat cured ProBase acrylic resin were prepared without additives ( Control), and (90) samples were pre-pared with additives ( Ginger oil ,Meramia and Eucalyptus oil) in two concentrations (1.5 and 2.5) to evaluate transverse strength, indentation hardness and residual monomer. Results: The results showed a significant difference between control and addition groups in the transverse strength and hardness tests. The addition of oils decreased the transverse strength ,and increased the hardness.There was no significant difference between the residual monomer for control and addition groups, but the control group at the first day showed higher residual monomer release. Conclusion: The addition of eucalyptus , meramia and ginger oils to acrylic resin decreased the transverse strength , increased its hardness and showed no significant difference in residual monomer.

Antifungal Effect of Some Medicinal Plant Extracts On Candida Albicans Adherence on Acrylic Resin Denture Base Material. An In Vitro Study

Tarik Y. Kassab -Bashi; Ghada Y. Abdul –Rahman; Nagham Hazim kassab

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 139-144
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.89264

Evaluate the antifungal effect of some medicinal plant extracts (peppermint, rue, pomegranate and garlic) and their anti–adherent effect on C. albicans cells that attached on the fitting surface of acrylic resin denture base. Materials and Methods: This study evaluated the antifungal effect of plant extracts, using broth micro dilution method at two concentrations for each one. The visualization, in-spection and enumeration of adherent C. albicans cells and the detection of the anti–adherent effect of these plant extracts was achieved by using fluorescent microscope. For each plant extract, two concen-trations in addition to the time of immersion at three different intervals (1 h, 24 hrs and 48 hrs) were evaluated for the anti–adherent effect. Result: Antifungal effect of plant extracts on candida albicans cells, was measured by spectrophotometer which showed that both rue and pomegranate extracts had the best antifungal effect at first concentration, while in the second concentration, pomegranate and garlic extracts had the best antifungal effect . The mean number of remaining C. albicans cells which adhered on acrylic resin samples after treatment by immersion in the first concentration of plant ex-tracts for one hour was (3.1), (3.7), (3.7) and (4.7)] cells /mm2 respectively; while after treatment with second concentration of plant extracts for one hour was [ (4), (4.4), (4.4) and (4)] cells / mm2 respec-tively for the above mentioned plant Conclusion: All examined medicinal plant extracts were signifi-cantly effective in dislodging C. albicans cells from acrylic resin samples at their different concentra-tions and statistically there was no significant difference among the different times of immersion.

The Effect of Different Disinfectant Solutions on Shear Bond Strength of Acrylic Teeth to Flexible Denture Base Material

Ihssan F Al-Takai

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 145-152
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.89265

is to evaluate the effect of three different disinfectant solutions on shear bond strength of artificial acrylic teeth for retention to flexible denture base material at three different periods of time. Materials and Methods: The total number of samples was (60) divided into 4 groups according to the three chemical disinfectant solution which used and the control distilled water group: Group( I) vinegar group, Group( II) salt group , Group(III) Chlorohexidine group , Group (IV ) the control distilled water group, where each group was subdivided into three subgroups according to disinfection periods which are 1week, 1month and 3month where each group contain five samples. The samples of shear bond strength test were consist of acrylic teeth with T-shape design for retention attached to rod of valplast The test was performed using a Universal testing machine. ANOVA, DuncunP,Ps multiple range and Post Hoc Tests were carried out to determine the significant difference at p ≤ 0.01%. Results: The results appeared that control distilled water group has the highest value for the three periods of disinfection (1 week,1month,3months), while vinegar solution group has the least value. The results showed that there were significant differences between the four tested groups and also there were significant differences among all periods of time of disinfections. Conclusion: There was a significant difference of shear bond strength between artificial teeth and flexible denture base material after disinfection in the four disinfectant solutions for all periods of time of immersion. Vinegar group had highest effect on the bond strength while the distilled water group had the least effect after all periods of time of disinfections. Shear bond strength decreased with increasing the time immersion. The shear bond strength was lowest in chloherxidine group as the time of immersion increase when compared with the two other groups of disinfection solutions in this study.

Evaluation of Antibacterial Efficacy Against Enterococcus Faecalis of Newly Prepared Endodontic Irrigant Solution (an In vitro study)

Nawfal A.A. Zakarea; Talal Hameed Mohamad; Amer A Taqa

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 153-160
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.89266

To evaluate the efficacy of a newly prepared endodontic irrigant solution, against E. faecalis.
Materials and Methods: Sixty human extracted single rooted teeth samples were prepared by using
protaper NiTi rotary system. The apical foramen of each sample was sealed by acrylic resin on the
apical 3mm. Each root was embedded in silicon impression material block and autoclaved. A ten μl
(4X10P
5
P) of inoculated broth media (nutrient broth) with E. faecalis was injected gently inside the
canals of group A,B&C was incubated for 24hours at 37CP
o
P. Group D was left without inoculation to
serve as a control negative. The samples of group A,B and C were disinfected as fallow: Group A was
disinfected with MCP solution(mixture of 20% castor detergent and 4% papain). Group B was
disinfected with freshly diluted 2.5% NaOCl solution. Group C not treated with any solution control
positive. The disinfected solutions were left inside the canal for 5 min then each canal was dried with
sterilized paper point, then bacterial samples were taken from the samples of 4 groups using size 40
sterilized file which was inserted to full canal length and rotated 360 degrees in clock wise direction for
dentin engagement. The file was put inside the sterilized plastic tube containing 1ml of normal saline
then 200 μl was inoculated and spread on Enterococcus agar media and incubated at 37CP
o
P for 18hours,
the numbers of bacterial colonies were counted. Results: Both solutions (MCP and NaOCl) produce
complete eradication of E Faecalis within 5 minutes. Conclusion: Castor detergent 20% and papain
enzyme 4% (MCP) has ability to completely eradicate Enterococcus Faecalis bacteria from the
infected root canal in vitro in 5 min. It's antibacterial action is similar to the action of 2.5 % NaOCl