Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Volume 14, Issue 2

Volume 14, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2014, Page 161-328

Assessment of Anterior Alveolar Bone Dimensions in Adolescents and Adults with Class I Normal Occlusion

Manar Y Abdul-Qadir

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 161-172
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.160887

Aims: To investigate alveolar bone dimensions in the anterior segment of maxilla and mandible in 2 age group samples; adolescents and adults. Materials and Methods: Cephalometric radiographs of 60 adolescent (30 males and 30 females) and 60 adult subjects (30 males and 30 females) with Class I normal occlusion were included in this study. The anterior alveolar segment was assessed using several parameters that measure the thickness (labial and lingual) and height of alveolar bone surrounding upper and lower incisors. Upper and lower incisor inclination and palatomandibular plane (PMP) angle were also measured. Independent samples t– test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. Results: Sexual dimorphism was noticed in labial and palatal alveolar bone thickness of maxilla for both adolescent and adult subjects. Adult males also demonstrated significantly higher values for lower alveolar height and symphysis width than females. The comparison between 2 age groups revealed no significant difference for most variables and the most evident finding was the significantly higher values reported for upper and lower alveolar heights and symphysis width in adult males compared to adolescent males. The results of correlation analysis showed that upper incisor inclination has positive correlation with upper labial alveolar width and negative correlation with palatal alveolar width indicating that thinner palatal bone thickness is associated with more proclined upper incisors. Labial alveolar bone thickness at apical level of maxilla and mandible showed negative correlation with upper and lower alveolar heights in both age groups and with PMP angle in adults only. While, symphysis width showed positive correlation with the width of lingual alveolar bone and with alveolar heights. Conclusions: No significant differences were found between the 2 age groups, however in both adolescents and adults anterior alveolar dimensions showed sexual dimorphism and correlations with other cephalometric parameters.

Visible Light Cure Fiber Frame Work Reinforcement of Acrylic Resin Denture Base Material. A Comparative Study.

Aliaa W AL-Omari

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 173-181
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.160898

Aims: Heat cured acrylic resin is the material of choice for construction of complete dentures due to its desirable properties, although it has some disadvantages as its susceptibility to fracture. Several methods and materials are used to reinforce acrylic resin denture base. One of these methods is reinforcement by using fibers. In this study, visible light cure fiber frame work is used as reinforcement material and compared with reinforcement with glass fiber. Materials and methods: in this study, 128 samples were prepared for evaluation of transverse strength, impact strength, surface hardness, and residual monomer tests. The samples were divided into four groups 8 sample for each group; control group without reinforcement, reinforcement by using visible light cure fiber frame work, random glass fiber reinforcement, and mesh glass fiber reinforcement. Results: the results of this study showed that visible light cure fiber frame work system significantly increase the transverse strength and impact strength of the heat cured acrylic resin, and it didn’t affect the surface hardness and amount of residual monomer of heat cured acrylic resin. Conclusions: visible light cure fiber frame work system increase acrylic resin denture base resistance to fracture.

Evaluation of Nickel Ion Release from Orthodontic Wires in Different Types of Artificial Saliva

Amer. A. Taqa; Wafaa Gh. Fathi; Ruba J. Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 182-188
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.160888

Aims: To evaluate the amount of nickel ion release from stainless steel orthodontic wires in different artificial saliva and in different time periods. Materials and Methods: This study included six different commercial stainless steel orthodontic wires with different diameters. They were immersed in deionized water (control) and three different artificial saliva, the immersion periods included 7, 14, and 30 days. A graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) was used to determine the amount of nickel ions release. Results: The statistical analysis showed that there is a highly significance in the release of nickel ions for all types of wire except wires 0.18, and 0.16 x 0.22 which gave non-significant 2.45 and 1.37 respectively, and the time period of immersion had no significant effect in all types of wire. Conclusions: The release of nickel ions was influenced by the types of wire and the surface areas that in contact with immersion in solution, in addition to the composition of the orthodontic wires, but this were not proportional to the content of metal in the wire.

Antibacterial Effect of Local Propolis Extracts and Pastes Against Enterococcus Faecalis

Jumana A. AL-Jawadi; Ghada Y. Abdul Rahman; Makdad N. Chakmakchi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 189-195
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.160899

AIMS:The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts and pastes of propolis against Enterococcus faecalis and compare it with that of calcium hydroxide (intracanal medicament) (in vivo and ex vivo). MATERIALS AND METHODS:The antibacterial effect of the 30%,40% ethanolic and aqueous extract of propolis as well as of calcium hydroxide were detected by the turbidity method. The turbidity of the bacterial cultures was measured by light absorption in spectrophotometer and the antibacterial effect of propolis pastes prepared from ethanolic extract as well as that prepared from aqueous extract was examined on teeth and compared with that of calcium hydroxide by colony counting method. The result were analyzed by ANOVA test and Post Hoc tests.

The Effect of Two Dentin Bonding Agents on Microleakage of Ceramic Crown

Nadia M. Al-Shakir

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 196-204
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.160889

Aims: The study aims to compare and investigate the effect of two bonding systems (total-etch and self-etch) bonding agents preceding the use of luting cement Variolink II Refill (Ivoclar Vivadent Schaan Liechtenstein) on the microleakage of ceramic crowns. The bonding systems compared are Excite (Ivoclar Vivadent Schaan Liechtenstein) (total-etch) and G bond (GC corporation, Tokyo, Japan) (self-etch) bonding agents. Materials and Methods: Thirty recently extracted caries-free wisdom teeth were used in this study. The teeth were cleaned and stored in distilled water until use. The molars were assigned randomly into three groups (n=10). Crown restorations were constructed by means of an indirect laboratory technique by a specialist. In group A the crown were cemented with Variolink II Refill resin luting cement alone. In group B, crowns were luted with Excite bonding agent +Variolink II Refill. In group C, G bond bonding agent+Variolink II Refill was applied prior to cementation. Results: The results showed that the higher value of microleakage with Variolink II Refill cement alone. While the least value was for the G bond+Variolink II Refill group. The results of this study revealed that the use of adhesives prior to Variolink II Refill significantly different from the use of Variolink II Refill alone in cementation of ceramic crown at (p< 0.05). Conclusions:` The analysis of results revealed statistical difference in microleakage between the first group (Variolink II Refill) cement and second ,third groups (Excite +Variolink II Refill) and (G bond + Variolink II Refill) respectively. This may indicate that, the use of adhesives prior to cementation with Variolink II Refill luting cement may decrease but not prevent microleakage.

Histological Evaluation for the Use of β-Tricalcium Phosphate as a Bone Substitute in Accelerating Bone Healing: An Experimental Study on Rabbits

Atalla Rejab; Bara S Minwah; Yahya A Ameen

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 205-211
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.160900

Aims: The present study designed to assess the effects of a bone substitute consisting of β-Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP) on acceleration of bone healing of surgically created defects. Materials and Methods: Ten rabbits were included in the study. Before the operation, each rabbit was weighed and given anesthesia accordingly. Surgery was performed under aseptic conditions. The left and right mandibles were exposed through a sub-mandibular incision. Two rectangular full thickness defects (10×5 mm) were created in each side. The anterior defect was left untreated to serve as a control while the posterior one was filled with β-TCP in each side. Five rabbits were sacrificed one week after surgery and the other five rabbits were sacrificed one month after surgery. The bony mandibles were dissected from the heads and immediately immersed in 10% formalin solution and sent for histological analyses. Results: Microscopic examination of the experimental section of one week group showed more organization, lesser degree of inflammatory cell infiltrate, and more granulation tissue formation than the control group. Similarly, microscopic sections from the experimental osseous defects taken at 1 month interval showed more pronounced callus formation than the control group. Conclusions: βtricalcium phosphate accelerate bony healing at both one week and one month interval which is especially important in dental implants and in oral and maxillofacial reconstruction, for both the functional and psychological aspect.

Fracture Resistance of Roots After Canal Preparation by Two Methods and Obturated by Different Techniques

Wiaam M.O. AL-Ashou

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 212-219
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.160890

Aims: The purposes of this in vitro study are to investigate the effect of instrumentation types ( hand and rotary instrumentations) and obturation techniques (Cold lateral, and Thermafil) on vertical root fracture. Materials and Methods: The crown of the 100 single rooted teeth were removed leaving 12mm of the roots length, then the root randomly divided into four groups. Control –ve Group(n=10), Hand Group(n=30), ProTaper Group(n=30) and Helix Group(n=30) according to the type of the instrument used to prepared the root canals. After that, the last three groups subdivided into subgroups according to the obturation technique either by using Cold Lateral condensation technique or Thermafil obturation technique. After the sealer set, the roots were embedded in acrylic moulds and subjected to compressive loading, the load at which the fracture occurred was recorded and statically analysis. Results: the fracture resistance of the root prepared by Helix and ProTaper files were significantly greater than that obtained for the root canals prepared with hand K-files. The results of this study also demonstrated that when root canals obturated with Thermafil the roots resist the fracture load greater than that of the canals obturated with Cold Lateral condensation obturation but the difference is not statistically significant between them. Conclusions: the use of rotary nickel titanium files in endodontic treatment provides higher fracture resistance for the roots, and the use of the Cold Lateral condensation obturation technique may weaken the roots, so that the roots become more susceptible to the vertical root fracture.

A Comparative Assessment of Space Closure Utilizing by Lingual and Conventional Brackets

Omar H. Alluazy; Hakam H. Sabah; Saba H. Al-zubaidi; Mustafa M. Al-Sultan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 220-227
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.160901

AIMS:To assess the effect of system type on the amount of space closure when equal force use on each system and to compare the amount of rotation and tipping generated by lingual and conventional brackets. Materials and Methods: A mandibular typodont system with Class I wax form and set of metal teeth were used in this study. After removing the second premolar bilaterally, each tooth of the anterior teeth and canines were bonded with two bracket systems , preadjusted Roth stainless steel 0.022x0.030 inch conventional (labial) brackets (CoBS group) and lingual brackets (LiBS group) except right first premolar were bonded with lingual bracket (LIBS group) and left first premolar were bonded with labial bracket (CoBS group). Bite plane extension bar (BPB) and canine extension bar (CB) were constructed bilaterally for the measurement of first premolars tipping and rotation. A 200gm. of force applied by close coil spring to retract the first premolars bilaterally . After immersion of the typodont in water bath with 50-550 C for 5 minutes, the rate of space closure , tipping and rotation of first premolars were measured. Results: A statistical analysis (independent-samples t-test) used in this study, there was a significant difference between the two system groups (CoBS group and LiBS group). The LiBS group had a significant higher amount of tooth movement, and higher degree of rotation. For the tipping, the CoBS group had the higher level of tipping with a non-significant difference with LiBS group. Conclusions: The outcomes of this study showed that the higher rate of space closure and rotation were associated with LiBS group, while there is a nonsignificant difference in the amount of tipping between the two groups. So, Lingual appliance was appeared to be very effective method for tooth sliding during fixed orthodontic treatment.

Evaluation of some physical properties of prepared molding wax in comparison to commercial available wax

Ibtehal H. Hassan; Nadia T. Jaffer; Mohammed M. Sadoon

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 228-235
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.160891

Aims: to evaluate the some physical properties (melting range, hardness and thermal expansion) of two prepared mixtures wax contain paraffin oil in comparison with commercial type wax. Materials and Methods: Two mixtures of experimental modeling wax were prepared, mixture No.1 (M1) and mixture No.2 (M2). These two mixtures underwent three physical tests in compare to commercial modeling wax which is a control group, these tests are: 1- Melting range test, 5 capillary tubes were sealed and filled with all type of wax and placed inside electro thermal melting point apparatus.The start of melting wax considered the beginning melting point and when the wax completely became fluid, it is considered the ending melting point. 2 Needle penetration test (hardness test), 5 cylindrical shape samples for each type of wax were prepared and tested for hardness by standard vicate apparatus. 3- Linear thermal expansion, for each type of wax, 5 samples were prepared in a mold , the samples were heated to 25 C° and 40 C° and the distance between reference marks at the lower temperature and the change in length on heating to higher temperature is determined by electronic digital caliper and thermal expansion is calculated as percentage of the total length of sample. Results: Statistical analysis of melting range test showed a significant difference between tested groups in both minimum and maximum melting point. M1 had the higher mean in minimum and maximum melting point. Hardness test analysis showed a significant difference between tested groups, higher mean of hardness was observed in M2, M1 and control group respectively. ANOVA of linear thermal expansion showed a significant difference between groups at 25 C° and at 40 C°. The control group of wax observed the highest mean of thermal expansion at 25 C° and 40 C° than the other two types of wax.Conclusion: The modification of dental wax improved some of the physical properties than commercial one.

Accuracy of Ultrasound in Detection of Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Rand Sh. Al-Ani; Ammar M. Mashlah; Mohammad I. Al. Hafar

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 236-243
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.160902

AIMS: This study was conducted to see whether the hilar echogenicity alone is a good criteria for detection of cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with OSCC ( 14 males and 6 females) , their age 40- 90 years , were examined sonographically, and the number of cervical lymph nodes studied was 112. Hilar echogenicity alone was used as a criteria to differentiate between benign and malignant cervical lymph nodes. Lymph nodes were evaluated for their echogenic hilus, number, size, site, shape , as well as for necrosis. The results of US evaluation were compared with histopathologic outcome using unpaired t-test and Fisher’s exact probability test. RESULTS: Ultrasound examination yielded a sensitivity as 84.09%, specificity 95.59%, accuracy 91.07%, positive predictive value (PPV) 92.5% , and negative predictive value (NPV) 90.28%. CONCLUSIONS. Sonographic examination have a high accuracy in detecting cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma, depending on hilar echogenicity as a diagnostic criteria .

Clinical and Radiographical Assessment of Topical Application of Collagen Fibrils on Tooth socket Healing

Israa A. Abdal-Hameed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 244-251
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.160892

Aims: To evaluate the effect of collagen fibers that placed immediately in alveolar bone socket after tooth extraction on homeostasis, quality and quantity of bone formation and their complications.Materials and Methods: The study group consists of 10 patients who attend to Oral and Maxillofacial Department in Dentistry College of Mosul University. The patients complained from chronic periapical lesions in badly carious two teeth in the same jaw (upper or lower jaw) that indicated for teeth extraction. Every patient underwent teeth extraction after receive local anesthesia with vasoconstriction, immediately after teeth extraction we put highly concentrated collagen material PARASORB® Dental Cones: 1 collagen cone contains 22.4 mg native equine collagen fibrils (RESORBA Wundversorgung GmbH & Co. KG, Germany) in one tooth socket (study site) and leave the other tooth socket to fill with blood clot (control group),Follow up the patients clinically and radiographically were done immediately after placement the material followed by different interval depending on the using test until six weeks. Results: The clinical assessment showed there is high significant difference (p-value ≤ 0.01) in the haemostatic condition between the study and control sites while there is no significant difference (p-value >0.05) in infection involvement of both study and control sites. The radiographical assessment of bone formation showed significant difference in bone density between study sites and control sites after two weeks (p-value ≤0.05), and high significant difference at fourth and sixth weeks (p-value ≤0.001). Conclusions: The collagen fibril play important role in control of hemorrhage following tooth extraction, prevent infection at the surgical site, promote granulation tissue formation and wound healing, reduce alveolar ridge resorption after tooth extraction (socket preservation) and enhance bone formation.

Effect Of Surface Treatment on Shear Bond Strength of Acrylic Resin to Cobalt-Chromium Alloy

Mohammed M. Sadoon

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 252-258
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.160903

Aims: to evaluate the effect of metal primer with acid etch, laser beam, and sand blasting on shear bond strength(SBS) or resin metal and surface roughness(SR). Materials and methods: fifty Co-Cr metal plate were prepared with 10X10X1 mm dimensions. These metal plates were divided in to 5 groups control (without treatment), acid etched with hydrochloric acid(10%) with metal primer(AP), laser beam with metal primer(LP), sand blasting with metal primer(SP), and metal primer alone(P). These groups were tested for shear bond strength of resin to metal and surface roughness. Results: there are a significant differences in shear bond strength of all treated groups in contrast to control groups, and the AP had the highest shear bond strength value. While surface roughness of tested samples shows the control group smoothest surface in relation to other groups and there is no significant difference with metal primer only and the AP group had higher surfaces roughness. Conclusion: metal primer improve bond strength between Co-Cr and chemical cured acrylic resin, the treating surface with HCL acid increase SBS and SR of metal plate. The roughening of metal surface by different treatment ( P, AP, LP, and SP) improve the SBS of metal bond to resin.

Evaluation of Some Properties of Prepared Indomethacin Mouth Wash and Its Effect on Gingival Index Score

Mustafa Kh. Al-Nori; Ghada A. Taqa; Ziad H. Delemi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 259-265
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.160893

Aims: to prepare Indomethacin mouth wash and study some of its properties (IR, pH, Density, Viscosity, Surface tension). Also, the effect on gingival index score were evaluated. Indomethacin mouth wash was prepared in a concentration of (0.05%) distil water from pure Indomethacin powder. Methods: The study was carried out on 40 subjects aged (20-30) years old. They were divided into four groups ten for each, three groups complaining of gingivitis. The gingival index score for all were measured before and after treatment, treatment involved mechanical treatment by scaling and polishing at dental clinic and drug treatment in which the first group received Indomethacin mouth wash, second group received Chlorhexidine mouth wash and third group received distal water as a mouth wash three times daily for three days, while the fourth group consisted of 10 volunteer subjects without gingivitis. Data were analyzed using paired t-test, ANOVA test and Duncan's Multiple analysis range test. Results: The results showed that the gingival index score levels were decreased significantly in all treatment groups between pre and post treatment at the same group. Conclusions: Indomethacin mouth wash have anti inflammatory effect that can decrease gingival index level.

Metal Ion Release From Ni-Cr Alloy with Different Artificial Saliva Acidities

Amrah Y. Al-Jmmal

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 266-271
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.160904

AIMS: evaluate the effects of changes in salivary pH on ion release from the Ni – Cr alloy at different time and calculate the amount of nickel, chromium ions released from these alloyes.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourty eight specimens of Ni-Cr alloy were divided, four specimens immersed in each of four types of artificial saliva at different pH (7 as control,6,5 and 2.5), in three storage periods (12, 24 and 36days). All test tubes were incubated at 37°C. After the immersion time was finished the quantities of metallic ions released for Ni and Cr were measured for each test solutions after 12, 24and 36days of immersion by atomic absorption spectroscopy. RESULTS: The results of Nickel and Chromium ion release showed a statistically significant difference at p≤0.05 between three immersion solutions after (12, 24, 36) days, artificial saliva (pH2.5) showed higher rate of Ni and Cr release than artificial saliva (pH 7as control ,6,5) after various immersion times. It should mention the nickel ion release has been found to be more than chromium ion release. CONCLUSIONS: There is an evidence that the Ni and Cr ions release from Ni-Cr alloy at the presence of different acidity of artificial saliva. Chromium and nickel ion release in small amount in artificial saliva with pH(6,5), while in pH 2.5 release in large amount after (12, 24, 36) days of immersion. Nickel exhibited the highest level of ion release than Cr

Evaluation of Internal Adaptability of Different Core Materials (an in Vitro Study)

Qasim Abdul-Kareem; Rita R. Robeil; Maha M. Yahya

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 272-278
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2013.163248

Aims: The aim of This study was to compare the marginal and internal adaptation of cores which are
fabricated of different materials and systems. Methods: In this experimental study, one Ivorine
maxillary right first premolar (A -3 Z; Frasaco, Tettnang, Germany) was prepared for full coverage of
zirconium,Nickle chromium and ceramic cores. The tooth was prepared with 1 mm rounded shoulder
and 2-5 degrees tapering. Nickle chromium die was prepared for full coverage of upper first premolar,
and duplicated to produce fifteen resin stone dies.The specimens were devided in to three groups (n=5).
Cores were fabricated using NiCr, Empress ceramic, manual Zirconia frame works respectively.
Internal space replica technique was used to evaluate the marginal and internal adaptation of the cores
using Fit and Bite checker silicone material. The resulted replica of each core was sectioned and the
thickness of the black and white silicone layer was measured at marginal and internal points.Data was
calculated and compared statistically using Kruskal_Wallis test at p<0.05. Results: There was a
significant difference in the internal adaptation of different core materials . Copings fabricated of
zirconia material have shown minimum thickness and higher internal adaptability. Conclusions:
Zirconia copings have superior marginal adaptability when compared to NiCr and Empress Ceram

The effect of various pre-cured temperature of different resin materials on the degree of conversion and microhardness of cured composite resin

Manal A. Sultan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 279-287
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.160905

Aims: The aims of this in vitro study were to evaluate the effect of different temperatures of the pre- cured composite resin materials on the degree of conversion and knoop microhardness of cured composite resin. Materials and Methods : A forty five disc-shaped specimens were prepared from ( Ceram X, shade D2, Dentsply/ Caulk, USA) after stored for 24h in different temperatures ( 5,25,and 37°C) were light cured for 40s. The FTIR test was used to measure the degree of conversion for each specimen. The knoop microhardness was measured by the use of (WOLPERT-WERKE-GMBH Baujahr Testor, GERMANY) (Vickers hardness test) for each specimen. Data obtained was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's test at a 0.05 significance level.Results : The statistical analysis of the results (ANOVA) showed that there was statistically significant difference in the degree of conversion and in the microhardness of the prepared samples at the different temperature. As the temperature of the composite resin increase, there was an increase in the degree of conversion and increase in the micro hardness of the samples.Conclusions : The use of pre-warmed composite resin may help to improve the degree of conversion and the micro hardness of composite resin especially at the deeper areas of a restoration which could result in an increase in the expected life of a composite restoration.

An In vitro Comparative Study to Evaluate The Apical Seal of Root Canals Prepared by Rotary Versus Reciprocating Wave-One Nickel Titanium System

Rasha M. Al-Shamaa; Makdad N. Chakmakchi; Karam A. Thiab

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 288-293
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.160895

Aims: The aim of present study is to assess the apical seal of root canals prepare by two different preparation techniques (Rotary and reciprocating technique) . Materials and Methods: Forty extracted human, single-rooted lower premolar teeth were decoronated at the cement-enamel junction (CEJ). The working length was determined for each tooth. The samples were divided into 2 experimental groups, each one consisted of 20 prepared teeth: group 1, rotary conventional preparation by using Wave-One file. group2, reciprocate instrumentation with Wave-One file. After instrumentation was completed then the teeth obturated with Single-cone technique related to this systems. Zinc oxide euginol (ZOE) sealer was used as a root canal sealer in this study. A dye penetration method was used to evaluate the apical seal and the teeth were cleared then apical leakage was measured using a stereomicroscope at (x10 magnification). The statistical analysis performed by Independent t-test. Results: Wave-One file instrumented by Reciprocation instrumentation technique was significantly differ from Rotary instrumentation technique for root canal preparation . The Reciprocation group registered better apical seal than Rotary group. Conclusions: Apical seal with the Wave-One Reciprocation technique and conventional Wave-One rotary approach were significantly difference. The Wave-One Reciprocation technique was markedly registered better apical seal than Wave-One rotary technique.

Effect of Dry Pressure Heat Curing Technique on Water Sorption and Color of Heat Cured Acrylic Resin

Omar Z. AL-Tahho

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 294-301
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.160906

Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dry pressure curing technique after immersion in distilled water for 1 ,4 and 12 weeks on the water sorption, solubility, and color change of heat cured acrylic resin as compared with conventional curing technique, also to evaluate the effect of immersion period on these properties. Materials and methods: Sixty specimens of vertex regular heat cured acrylic resin denture base material were used in this study, curing by two different technique, conventional curing technique and dry pressure curing technique, then immersed in distilled water for 1,4, and 12 week . The water sorption and solubility test were measured by means of mass change in the materials after water saturation and dehydration. While the color change test was measured by the samples converted to digital images on computer by using digital scanner, then the digital images were prepared with dimension 760 pixels*960 pixels for each samples by software program Adob Photoshop 9.0, by MATLAB 2010 program the image was analyzed to the basic primary colors RGB, then converted to (CIE L*a*b*) system by Photoshop 9.0 program, the CIE L*a*b* color difference metric were used to perform color change test. Mean values were compared statistically with T-test, one way analysis of variance and by Duncan's multiple range test to determined the significant different among the groups at p 0.05 in different times immersion (1,4,and 12 weeks). In comparisons between immersion time that there was significant difference at p≤ 0.05 in water sorption, solubility, and color change test for both curing techniques. Conclusion: The dry pressure curing technique has an effect on the water sorption and solubility ratios but no effect on color change of heat cured acrylic resin, while the immersion period have an effect on the water sorption, solubility, and color change.

Evaluation of Candida Albicans Attachment with Two Types of Denture Base (Heat Cured Acrylic & Flexible Resin) Polished By Different Polishing Materials

Areej Sh. Ahmad; Amal A. Rashid; Rafah A. Ibrahim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 302-311
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2013.163249

Aims: This study aims to measure the effect of three different types of polishing materials (pumice,
pumice with soap solution and universal polisher paste) on the surface roughness and the growth of
Candida Alicans (C.A) on two types of denture base materials (heat cured acrylic and flexible
thermoplastic resin). Materials and Methods: Ninety (90) samples with dimensions (3cm length, 3cm
width & 1cm thickness) were prepared & divided into two main groups (45 samples in each) according
to the type of base material, heat cured & flexible. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups (15
samples in each) according to the type of polishing materials used in this study: Group1: Polished with
pumice (control group), Group 2: Polished with (pumice with soap solution), Group 3: Polished with
universal polisher paste. Roughness was measured to all samples by Profilometer Tester. After that the
samples were incubated in media containing C.A. for 72 hr. at 300 C to count and compare the value
of C.A. growth & adhesion.Results: the statistical analysis of roughness test between the heat cured &
flexible showed a highly significant differences between samples polished with pumice, t-test=10.594,
p<0.01, and significant differences for both groups polished by (pumice + soap solution) & (polishing
paste), t-test= 4.651 & 3.173 with p<0.05 respectively. And for both types (Heat cured & Flexible),
samples polished with pumice have the lowest number of viable cells count of C.A. (54, 67
respectively) Conclusions: The heat cured acrylic resin samples had a smoother surface than flexible
samples. (Pumice) produced smoother surface than (universal polishing paste) and (pumice +soap
solution), therefore, C.A. adhesion were higher than samples polished with pumice.

Microleakage Comparison among Three Orthodontic Brackets and Two Orthodontic adhesives

Mokhtar M. Al- Hamidi; Ali Rajih Al-Khatib

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 312-319
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2013.163250

AIMS:To evaluate and compare the microleakage occlusally and gingivally under bracket-composite
interface of sapphire ceramic, stainless steel and composite orthodontic brackets bonded with two
different generations of orthodontic adhesives.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-two freshly
extracted premolars were utilized in this study. Three types of orthodontic brackets were used as
follows: sapphire ceramic, composite and stainless steel. The samples were divided into two main
groups of 36 samples; one group was bonded with Resilience® adhesive, while the other was bonded
with Biofix adhesive. Each group was further subdivided into three subgroups of 12 samples according
to bracket types. After photopolymerization, the samples were thermocycled. Samples were sealed with
nail varnish, stained with 2% methylene blue dye then sectioned occlusogingivally, examined under a
stereomicroscope and measured for microleakage at the bracket-adhesive interface from both occlusal
and gingival margins, evaluated statistically with t- tests at p≤0.05 levels of significance. RESULTS:
All groups showed various degrees of microleakage, however, no significant differences either between
the two adhesives or among the three bracket types were recorded. Microleakage beneath sapphire
brackets was significantly higher under the Biofix adhesive at the gingival side.CONCLUSION: No
significant differences were recorded between the occlusal and gingival sites in all of the study
groups.However, the 5th generation adhesive showed higher microleakage with significant difference
under sapphire ceramic brackets at the gingival margin.

Prevalence of Anaerobic Bacteria in Periodontitis in Relation to Pocket Depth

Suhad Muwafaq Hamdoon; Ghada younis Abdul-Rahman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 320-328
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2014.160897

Aims: : The study evaluated the prevalence of anaerobic bacteria in the subgingival plaque in periodontitis in relation to pocket depth. Materials and Methods :The study was performed on 97 sub-gingival plague sample , pockets depth were measured , anaerobic bacteria were isolated and identified in relation to pockets depth. Results: In this study high prevalence of anaerobic bacteria in the periodontal pockets of patients suffering from periodontitis compared with the gingival sulcus of healthy subjects with marked shifting from mainly Gram positive facultative anaerobic bacteria in shallow pockets to mainly Gram-negative strict anaerobic bacteria in the deep pockets.Conclusion:. Anaerobic culture used in this study provided information about the susceptibility of the individuals to develop periodontal diseases. on bone.