Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Volume 13, Issue 3

Volume 13, Issue 3, Summer and Autumn 2013

Evaluation of Experimental Modelling Wax Manipulation Used in Constructing Maxillary Completely Edentulous Record Base

Nadira A Hatim; Ahmad W Alubaidi; Amer A Taqa

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 372-379
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2013.165320

Aims: The aims of this study were to evaluate the manipulation , and accuracy of the prepared experi-mental modeling waxes from hard paraffin wax, by adding some natural products (natural beeswax, starch, and amaranth) materials and compared with the control ( Polywax and Major wax) by con-structing maxillary completely edentulous record base. Materials and Methods: The manipulation of 36 samples of the two experimental modeling waxes and control (Polywax and Major wax ) were evaluated by preparing a special mold of maxillary arch made of die stone according to the form of manufacturing trademarks of base plate wax (Major wax). All samples (maxillary arch record base) were prepared and measured after 1hr, 24hr, and 48hr. by using Dimax program. Results: the results of all new experimental modeling waxes showed easy manipulation, except the sample with additives { experimental modeling wax No. 2 (90% beeswax + 10% starch)} which showed less dimensional changes (0.17%) from others. Conclusions: the experimental modeling wax No. 1 (80% hard paraffin + 20% beeswax) and experimental modeling wax No. 2 (90% beeswax + 10% starch) were closest in properties to control and ADA specification No. 24 than other waxes.

Satisfaction of Patient with Stud, Bar and Magnet Attachment Systems for Mandibular Two-Implant Over Dentures

Nadira A Hatim; Ali M Al-Sheakh; Salim H Saeed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 380-387
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165356

Aims: Evaluation patient satisfaction treated with new dentures using ball-socket, bar with and without cantilever, and magnetic attachments within two implant-supported mandibular overdentures (ISMOD) ) in relation to conventional denture (baseline) for 2-years by using questionnaire Al-Makki. Materials and methods: Twenty two edentulous patients were scheduled for evaluation of their oral function, two years they participated in this study. They received two mandibular implants and a new denture with different attachments {ball-socket, bar (Straight and curved) with or without cantilever, and magnetic types}. After 2 years of delivery of the overdentures, the oral situation was evaluated by using questionnaire. Non-parametric two-related sample analysis tests were used. Results: Patient satisfaction improved significantly between baseline and the new prosthesis with each attachment types for all domains of satisfaction (p≤0.05) for usual wearing of prosthesis. Conclusions: Patients satisfaction highly improved after implant retained denture treatment for the lower jaw. The type of attachment systems highly effect patients satisfaction about wearing of denture for social occasions and shape and size of the denture. But attachment type had no effect on patients satisfaction for masticatory functions.

Physical, Chemical, and Antimicrobial Properties of Chlorhexidine Combine with Calcium Hydroxide as Intracanal Medicament.

Nawal A Al-Sabawi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 388-395
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165358

Aims: To compare and evaluate physicochemical (flow, solubility, pH, and setting time) and antimicrobial properties (against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans) of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) paste mixed with different concentrations (1%, 1.5%, 2%) of chlorhexidine gel (CHX). Materials and Methods: Ca(OH)2 paste was mixed with 3 different concentrations of CHX gel (1%, 1.5%, and 2%). physicochemical properties were evaluated according to ISO internationally. The flow of medicaments were evaluated by two plate method, solubility determined by using sample weight loss (%) after 24 hours, pH determine by pH meter, and setting time was measured with Gillmore needle. Antimicrobial properties against Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis were evaluated using agar diffusion test. The data were analyzed statistically using one way ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: CHX significantly had no effect on flow, solubility, pH, and setting time of Ca(OH)2. 2% CHX mixed group had antimicrobial effect significantly different from that of 1% and 1.5% of CHX combined groups, but significantly there was no difference between 1% and 1.5% of CHX groups mixed with Ca(OH)2. Conclusions: CHX at (1%, 1.5%, 2%) and in combination with calcium hydroxide had satisfactory physicochemical and antimicrobial properties to be used as intracanal medicament. CHX at 2% produce better antimicrobial effect among other concentrations

Evaluation the Castability of Titanium Casting Alloy

Lamia T Rejab; Ibtehal H Hasan; Salwan F Al-Hamdani

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 396-402
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165360

Aims: is to evaluate the castability of titanium alloy and compare it with that of nickel-chromium and cobalt-chromium alloys by measuring castability and porosity values. Materials and methods: A total of 30 samples were prepared for castability and porosity tests. Castability was measured by castability test according to Hinman method by measuring the numerical number of the reproduced segments of casting samples . Porosity value was measured by determined the porosity percentage according to (Archimedes) method . ANOVA and Duncun, s multiple range test were carried out to determine the significant difference at p ≤ 0.05% . Results: the results showed that titanium alloy has a lowest value of castability and the highest value of porosity percentage, While cobalt-chromium alloys has intermediate values. Nickel-chromium alloy has highest value of castability and the lowest value of porosity. Conclusion: there is a significant differences between the castabilty and porosity values among different casting alloys used. The differences between the catability values are related to variance between the melting temperature of the different casting alloys, the higher the melting temperature the less castability value

The Effect of Thermal Cycling on The Fitness of Modified Heat Cured Acrylic Resin Maxillary Denture Base

Nada Z Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 403-412
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165363

Aims: To determine the effect of thermal cycling on the fitness accuracy of modified heat cured acrylic resin maxillary denture base. Materials and Methods: One hundred samples of heat cured acrylic resin maxillary denture base (Major base 2) were prepared and divided into two groups; Thermal cycling group and without thermal cycling group, each group contain; Control samples (10 samples of heat cured acrylic resin without additives) and modified samples (40 samples of heat cured acrylic resin with additives: 1% Chlorohexidine gluconate , 1.5% Nigella oil , 1.5% Thyme oil and 20% Plasticizer& caramel ). The thermal cycling employed in this study was 10 cycle per day at (5-55C°). The fitness accuracy measured after 70,300,900,1800 cycle at immersion periods of (1 week, 1,3,6 months) respectively. For fitness accuracy measurement , the surface area of the gap occurred between the posterior border of the maxillary denture base and the posterior margin of the stone cast were recorded by digital camera and measured with AutoCAD program . The collected data of fitness accuracy were subjected to the descriptive analysis(mean and standard deviation) , one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), 2 sample t-test and Duncan Multiple range test. Results: The fitness accuracy of thermal cycling group was less than that of without thermal cycling. For thermal cycling group, the highest value of fitness was achieved after 6 month of immersion for modified samples, while for control samples the highest value was achieved before immersion. Conclusion: Thermal cycling adversely affect the fitness accuracy of control and modified samples. The fitness accuracy of modified samples was better than that of control samples either with or without thermal cycling

Evaluation The Accuracy Of Modified Closed Tray Impression Technique For Multiple Angled Implants Using Condensation-Silicone Impression Material

Osama A Hammoodi; Lamia T Rejab; Wael T Alwattar

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 413-422
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165367

Aims: is to evaluate the linear distance accuracy of new modified closed tray impression technique of 6 angled implants and compared with open tray technique using condensation silicone impression material. Materials and Methods: : standard master model was prepared with six angled implants analogues (25 degree) buccaly and labial deviated .Two impression techniques were performed (open tray and new modified splinted closed tray) using condensation silicone impression material , then poured with die type IV stone. Capturing of the standard model and stone casts produced from both impression techniques. To perfume the measurement, first determine and label the reference points and reference line on standard model then measure the linear distances and angles with Matalab software program ( The entire measurements of the stone models were done by coordination way of implants analogues in sequence .Total number of impressions was ten, five impression for each technique. Statistically one sample t-test and two sample t-tests were performed to determine the significance differenc at p ≤ 0.05. Results: appeared there is no significance difference of the linear distances and angles of standard model and stone casts for open tray and a new modified closed splinted techniques. Conclusion: A new modified closed splinted technique is an accurate impression technique for multiple angled (6) implants as same as the open tray technique with condensation silicon, so a new technique is an accurate and easier technique to be carried out with multiple angled non- parallel implants.

Histological Study of Socket Healing after Tooth Extraction in Rabbits Treated with Short Term Diclofenac Sodium (Expermintal Study)

Sahar G Alkazaz

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 423-431
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165369

Aims: The aim of the present study is to investigate if short term therapy with diclofenac sodium of interferes with the time course of alveolar wound healing in rabbits. Materials and Methods: The sample included twelve rabbits; 6 rabbits received interamuscular injections of diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg/day), one day before extraction, at a day of extraction and 4 days after extraction of the right mandibular incisors and 6 rabbits received interamuscular injections of normal saline. The animals were sacrificed in each group at 7, 14 and 21 days after tooth extraction. Results: The present results showed that the effect of diclofenac treatment caused no signifcant decrease in bone formation of socket healing. Conclusion: Histological study of short term therapy with diclofenac sodium after tooth extraction caused non-significant decrease in bone formation of extraction sockets healing in rabbits.

Histological Study on the Effect o fMethotrexate on the Oral Tissues of Aadult Male Rabbits

Alhan D Al-Moula; Mareb H Ahmed; Makarem H Ahmed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 432-441
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165371

ABSTRACT Aims: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of oral methotrexate on the oral tissues of rabbits. Materials and Methods: In the present study nine adults' male rabbits, aged 3 months were used, and divided into three main groups. Group 1: served as a control and received normal saline only. Group II: given a single dose of 0.5mg/kg per week methotrexate orally by cavage needle for 8 weeks. Group III: given 0.5mg/kg of methotrexate orally twice/weekly for 8 weeks. The animals were scarified and the floor of the mouth, check and tongue, were excised and processed for histological study. Results: The epithelium of oral mucosa in the treated groups is thinner than that of the control group with vacuolation in the cytoplasm, fewer and shorter slender papillae ,congestion of the blood vessels in the lamina propria , fatty infiltration and distortion of attachments of mucosa to underlying muscle .The minor salivary glands show loss of normal architecture ,inflammatory cellular infiltration, disarrangements of acini, and vacuolation in the acinar cells .The dorsal surface of the tongue showed an epithelial atrophy, with loss of the lingual papillae . The lamina propria showed short papillae, inflammatory cellular infiltration and congestion of blood vessels, as well as considerable distortion of arrangements in the musculature of the tongue. Conclusion: weekly administrations of methotrexate produce dramatize histological changes in the oral tissues.

Comparison of Two Different Intrusion Techniques (An in Vitro Study)

Khudair A Al-Jumaili; Saif Al-Soufy

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 442-449
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165373

Aims: This study was aimed to compare the effects of two different techniques on the position of maxillary incisors during the intrusive movement. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of two groups, the utility intrusion arch and continuous intrusion arch groups. Upper typodont arch of class II division I was used and the arches were activated to deliver 60 gram of force. Pre and postoperative digital images were taken and analyzed using Autodesk AutoCAD software™. For each group six parameters were measured and compared. A significance value of 0.05 was predetermined. Results: Significant difference was found in vertical change of estimated midpoint of root position, axial inclination, anteroposterior position of incisal edge, relative contribution of torque and protrusion to the change in inclination and insignificant difference in vertical change of incisal edge position. Conclusions: Maxillary incisors intrusion with a minimal protrusion could be achieved with the continuous intrusion arch technique

Evaluation the Effect of Chemical and Irradiation Disinfectants on Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Flexible Denture Base Material

Ammar K AL-Noori; Ali S Khazaal

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 450-460
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165374

Aims: To evaluate the effect of two methods of disinfections (chemical and irradiation) on (indentation hardness, tensile strength, torsional strength and water sorption) of flexible denture base material by using artificial saliva cycle. Also, to evaluate the effect of immersion cycle (one week, one month and two months) . Materials and methods: Total specimens of this research was 318 specimens, it was divided into 5 groups according to type of disinfectants, they were prepared from flexible resin. They were incubated in a distilled water at 37±1°C for two days for conditioning ,6 specimens for each properties were evaluated as a control. The immersion cycle used was as follows, the specimens were immersed in artificial saliva at 37 ±1°C for 15,5 hr. Then, they were immersed in disinfections solutions for 30 minutes at 45±1°C, for microwave cycle about 6 minutes daily, then they were immersed in distilled water at 21±2°C for 8 hr at night. This cycle was repeated every day for two months. At the end of each period time, the specimens were tested to evaluate the indentation hardness, tensile strength, torsional strength and water sorption properties. The results of the present study were analyzed statistically by (Mean ± standard deviation, ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range test).Results: They showed that, In comparison among disinfectants there was no statistically significant difference at p≤ 0.05 in tensile strength, torsional strength and water sorption properties while there was a significant in the indentation hardness properties. Also, there were no significant difference at p≤ 0.05 in the indentation hardness properties among different times of immersion cycle, while there was a significant difference in tensile strength, torsional strength and water sorption properties after one and two months of immersion cycle. Conclusions: Among disinfectants, microwave irradiation had lowest effect on the indentation hardness, while different immersion cycles in disinfectants had a significant effect on the tensile strength, torsional strength and water sorption properties after one and two months of immersion cycle.

The Role of Anticardiolipin and Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Pregnants with Chronic Periodontitis

Mahmoud Y Taha; Heba F Hamodat

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 461-465
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165381

Aims: The aim of the study is to measure immunological and biochemical changes in blood and saliva of pregnant women with history of abortion and having chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of (50) pregnant women at different stages of pregnancy with ages between (17-40) years old with history of one or more consecutive unexplained abortion and having chronic periodontitis, while the control group consisted of (10) pregnant women of comparable age to the study group with no history of any abortion with healthy periodontal conditions. Oral examination and the following parameters were studied: plaque index (PI), periodontal pocket depth index (PPD), bleeding on probing index (BOP), and anticardiolipin value (IgG), antiphospholipid value (IgG), highly sensitivity CRP concentration, and peroxidase enzyme activity were evaluated. Results: The serological and biochemical changes showed that highly levels of ACLA (IgG) and APLA (IgG) in the study group compared to control group. hs- CRP concentration in study and control group was same, peroxidase enzyme activity was elevated in the study group compared to the control group. There was a positive correlation between serum ACLA, peroxidase enzyme activity and periodontal parameters, and also a positive correlation between hs-CRP and PI, while reverse correlation between hs-CRP and PPD and BOP. Conclusion: Detection of high level of anticardiolipin and antiphospholipid in the serum of study group with significant difference compared with control group. High level of hs-CRP found in both study and control group without significant difference. Detection of significantly high level of peroxidase enzyme activity with the study group compared to control group.

Evaluation of En Masse Retraction Using Microimplant versus Conventional Techniques: An in Vitro Study

Khudair A Al-Jumaili; Ahmed Gh Mohammed Sharif

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 466-472
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165382

Aims: The study aims to evaluate the effect of different techniques of en masse retraction on the vertical and sagittal position, axial inclination, rate of space closure, and type of movement of maxillary central incisor. Materials and methods: Three groups were used group 1(N=10, T−loop), group 2(N=10, Time−Saving loop), and group 3(N=10, Microimplant). Photographs were taken before and after retraction and measurements were made using Autodesk AutoCAD© 2010. Kruskal−Wallis one−way ANOVA and Mann−Whitney U test (p≤0.05) were used. Results: The rate of space closure showed no significant difference among the groups (p≤0.05). The type of tooth movement showed a significant difference among the groups (p≤0.05), where group 3 showed a more degree of controlled tipping than group 1 while group 2 showed an uncontrolled tipping movement. Conclusions: It is concluded that microimplant anchored sliding mechanics gives better control over the en masse retraction mechanics and greater retraction. Conventional techniques result in extrusion and move the teeth in less degree of translation.

The Effects of 2 Types of Cements and 2 Types of Surface Treatments on Shear Bond Strength of Zirconia

Maha A Al-Murad

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 473-481
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165383

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the interactive influence of different types of cement and surface treatments on bond strength of zirconia. Materials and Methods: Thirty cylindrical zirconia blocks (Diameter4mm& thickness4mm)were fabricated for the study. All the specimens were ground with 600 grit silicone carbide polishing paper. Zirconia specimens were randomly divided into three main groups. 1stcontrol (600grit) no surface treatment. 2ed the specimens were air-abrasion with 50um aluminum oxide particles (Al2O3). 3 rd the specimens were air-abrasion with 50um aluminum oxide particles (Al2O3)+ silane .Then ,each group was divided into two groups according to the luting cement used which are( Reinforcd glass ionomer cement and dual cure resin cement).The zirconia blocks bonded to the composite blocks using these types of cements. Then each pair of zirconia block and composite was applied to load of( 15 Kg) for 15 minutes in order to standardized the applied pressure for each type of cement . The resin cement was then light polymerized for 30s with LED light at 500mW/cm2 (Ledition, Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstien) at the distance of 1mm from each direction. The specimens were stored for 24 hours at 37℃. Shear bond strength was measured by using Universal Testing Machine, and mode of failure examined by a stereomicroscope. Results: All the zirconia blocks were bonded to the composite blocks by self adhesive resin cement revealed results more preferable than zirconia blocks were bonded to the composite blocks by Reinforced glass ionomer cement. The shear bond strength between Zirconia and self-adhesive resin cement for the surface were treated with Aluminum-oxide air abraded alone, and zirconia surface were treated with Aluminum-oxide air abraded + silane more preferable than shear bond strength cement between Zirconia and Rinforeced glass ionomer cement for the surface were treated with Aluminum-oxide air abraded alone, and zirconia surface were treated with Aluminum-oxide air abraded + silane. Conclusion: Zirconia was more durable with Self-adhesive resin cement than Reinforced glass ionomer cement. Zirconia Surface treatments were very critical for improvement bond strength with cement in addition to the properties of that cement .

Evaluation of Chitosan as Dressing for Skin Wound. Histopathological Experimental Study in Rabbit

Alyaa I Alneamy; Mohammed Kh Hasouni

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 482-492
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165384

Aims: To evaluate the effect of medical chitosan on wound healing. Materials and Methods: An experimental open skin wounds were made on the dorsal side of fifteen domestic rabbits. A 0.04gm of medical chitosan (degree of acetylation=90.0%) was applied. Each individual animal given intramuscular dose of kitamin hydrochloride (anesthetic and analgesic) 4mg/kg and xylazin base (anesthetic and muscle relaxant) 5mg/kg injected into rabbit’s thigh muscle. After 10-15 minutes, anesthetic integrity was checked by testing loss of ear pinch reflex. Four skin incisions were made in the dorsal site of the animal skin. Each incision was about 1cm in length. These incisions were divided into 4 groups according to placement of the material and suturing (Ca: control incision left without suturing or placement of material, Cs: control suturing of the incision only, Cha: chitosan placement only, Chs: chitosan placement and suturing of the incision). Post operatively single dose of 5mg/kg oxytetracycline antibiotic intramuscular injection was given immediately. The animals were randomly subdivided into three groups (G1, G2, G3) with five rabbits in each group and specimen obtained from each rabbit for histopathological study according to the time of sacrifices 3, 7, 14 days after surgery respectively. Biopsies took from each site of operation and examined by four histopathologists and the overall readings taken and processed statistically using SPSS version 18.0. Results: There was a significant variation in inflammatory response to chitosan when applied as powder dressing at all periods of healing. P-values were found to be 0.005, 0.022, 0.002 between four groups at 3, 7, 14 days respectively. While there was no significance in reepithelializeation between four groups at all periods of healing according to Pvalues of Friedman test. Conclusion: Medical chitosan appeared good healing accelerator by decreasing rate of inflammation and prevent infection.

The Effect of Different Beverage Solutions on the Hardness of Different Acrylic Denture Teeth

Ahmad W Alubaidi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 493-500
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165385

Aims: To determine the effect of different beverage solutions on the hardness of different acrylic denture teeth which are commercially available. Materials and Methods: Sixty samples were prepared from three brands of artificial teeth in this study. The posterior teeth of each brand were placed in auto polymerizing acrylic resin and the occlusal surfaces were ground flat, then immersed in distilled water (control), Pepsi, coffee and tea solutions for 30 days and then the hardness were tested using Vickers microhardness tester. Results: The RMH denture teeth materials showed the highest hardness than other denture teeth materials. Pepsi was more effective than tea and coffee in reducing the hardness of different acrylic teeth materials. Conclusions: Pepsi reduced the hardness of different acrylic teeth materials during the 30 days immersion. The hardness of RMH denture teeth materials was less affective by the different beverage solutions.

Cranial Parameters Assessment of Open Bite with Short Upper Anterior Facial Height

Hussian A Obaidi; Huda A Al-Sarraf

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 501-507
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165386

Aims: The aims of this study are planned to evaluate the cranial base parameters of the short upper anterior facial height of open bite occlusion and compare them with the normal occlusion. Materials and Methods: The total sample of this study was 48 cases, divided into 12 case for each male and female of the normal class 1 molar occlusion and short upper facial height with open bite cases. The age of the patients was ranged between 13-15 years. A lateral cephalometric radiograph film was taken. All the cephalometric x-rays were analyzed to evaluate the cranial parameters and the upper anterior facial height. The data subjected to statistical analysis by using student t-test to distinguish the significant differences at 0.05 level for the short upper anterior facial height and to record the cranial parameters of the sample. Results: The comparison of the cranial parameters between the normal and open bite occlusions , the male expressed no significant difference ( at 0.05 level ) in the parameters except the liner (S-Ar) and the angular (N-S-Ba, N-S-Po and N-S-Co).While the female displayed no significant difference (at 0.05 level) in parameters except (N-S-Ba and N-S-Po angles). Conclusions: The short upper anterior facial height with anterior open bite case has influences on the cranial base development especially on (S-Ar, N-S-Ba, N-S-Po and N-S-Co).

Comparative Study of Two Maxillary Molar Distalization Appliances Using Different Anchorage Systems (An in Vitro Study)

Hussain A Obaidi; Saba N Yaseen

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 508-514
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165387

Aims: This study aimed to compare the effects of two different anchorage systems for molar distalization. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of two groups, Buccal Coil spring with Nance button as anchorage and Buccal Coil spring with simulated Screw as anchorage. Upper typodont arch of class II division I was used and the appliances were activated to deliver 200 gram of distalization force. Pre and postoperative digital images were taken and analyzed using Autodesk AutoCAD software™. For each group seven parameters were measured and compared. A significance value of 0.05 was predetermined. Results: Significant difference was found between the two groups in the vertical change, tipping change of the first molar, vertical change, mesial movement of the first premolar. Insignificant difference in first molar rotation, molar distalization rate and premolar tipping change. Conclusions: Maxillary molar distalization with minimal effects on anchoring teeth, molar tipping and vertical position change could be achieved with Buccal Coil spring with Screw distalization appliance.

Histopathological Effects of Histoacryl on Oral Secondary Wound Healing: A Comparative Experimental Study

Huda A Salim; Bara S Munawah

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 515-523
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165388

Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the histopathological findings of healing phases in secondary wound defect on rabbit´s tongue, dressed with N-butyl -2- Cyanoacrylate (Histoacryl) tissue adhesive. Materials and Methods: Twenty domestic male rabbits had been selected. Two defects were done on each half of the tongue, 5mm oval shape, the right one left without covering, the left one covered by a thin layer of Histoacryl. Animals could be divided into four groups, each group contain five rabbits, according to sacrificing date into 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, and 30 days. Tongue specimen were collected after sacrificing the rabbit immediately, then divided into two halves, the right half was control one and the left half was the study one, giving off further two subdivisions for each group. The specimen were placed in formaldehyde and sent for histopathological examination regarding inflammatory and reepithelialization scoring. Results: The histopathological findings of this study revealed that there was a significant difference of inflammation between the two groups at 3 days, one week, one month, of tongue at p-value < 0.05, while there was no significant difference at two weeks period. In reepithelialization of the tongue a significant difference at 3 days at p-value < 0.05, and no significance at one week, two week, and one month. Conclusion: This study concluded that histoacryl tissue adhesive accelerate healing by decreasing inflammation, and inducing reepithelialization of mucosal secondary wound defects.

Frictional Resistance in Self-ligating Orthodontic Brackets and Conventionally Ligated Brackets (An In Vitro Study)

Fadhil Y Jasim; Lara R Al-Banaa

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 524-529
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165389

Aims: This study was aimed to compare static frictional forces generated by 3 types of brackets (conventional, active self-ligating and passive self-ligating) combined with 3 different sizes of stainless steel wire. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of three types of brackets (Equilibrium 2, Empower, discovery sl) with a slot size 0.022 inch were coupled with 0.020, 0.018×0.025 and 0.019×0.025 inches stainless steel wires, The testing model consists of 6 brackets used to represent lower anterior teeth. Ten tests were carried out for each group of bracket-wire combination in dry state, frictional force were measured by tensile testing machine. A significant P value of 0.05 was predetermined. Results: self-ligating brackets produced significantly lower value (P ≤0.05) of mean of static friction than elastomerically tied conventional bracket. The frictional force increased proportionally to the wire size. Conclusions: The method of ligation appears to be the primary variable responsible for the frictional resistance generated by these types of brackets.

The Effect of Vit D3 (1,25 dihydroxy cholicalciferol) on Serum Level of Human Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF α) Following Apicoectomy

Faris E Mohammad; Tahani A Alsondook; Attalla F Rejab

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 530-536
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165412

Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of Vit D3 on serum level of human TNF α in patients with chronic periapical lesion that intended to undergo apicoectomy and compare the results with a group of placebo control. Materials and Methods: The investigation was carried out on 50 subjects of different age(16- 45) and sex(27 male,23 female) complain of chronic periapical lesion were divided into two groups ) study and placebo group). Study group consist of 25 subject received Vit D3 ampoule(300000 IU) orally 24 hrs before apicoectomy procedure and placebo group consist of 25 subject received distal water ampoule orally 24 hrs before apicoectomy procedure. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected preoperatively , 3hrs postoperatively and 24 hrs postoperatively from each subject of both group to evaluate serum TNF α level by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) device. Patients subjectively assessed the strength the post operative pain by using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Data were analyzed using paired t-test and A NOVA test. Results: The results showed that the serum TNF α levels were decreased significantly in the study group after 3hrs of surgical procedure to (22.62 ± 4.58 Pg/ml) following Vit D3 treatment comparing with TNF α level pretreatment (28.33 ± 10.16 Pg/ml) whereas the TNF α level were increased from (33.38 ± 23.92 Pg/ml) preoperative to (51.11 ± 9.05 Pg/ml) 3hrs postoperative in placebo group. Serum TNF α level after 24hrs of surgical procedure in study group decreased significantly to( 28.24± 7.35Pg/ml) pg/ml) comparing with the postoperative 24 hrs TNF α of placebo group (66.15 ± 13.02 pg/ml),this indicated that the level of TNF α were increased in placebo group after 3hrs and 24hrs postoperatively in comparison to the same time of operation in study group. The number of analgesic tablet (acetaminophen) significantly decreased in study group to (1.24 ± 1.01 ) comparing with placebo group (2.24 ± 1.23). Duration of analgesia post operatively increase significantly to (308.20± 144.43) min in study group compared with placebo group (228.44 ±123.02) min. The intensity of postoperative pain decrease significantly after 8hrs (VAS1), 12 hrs (VAS2) of surgical operation in study group (1.16 ± 2.27), (0.44 ± 0.96) compared with placebo group (2.92 ± 1.87), ( 1.52 ± 1.78) respectively. Conclusion: data indicated that Vit D3 have anti inflammatory effect that can decrease level of TNF α so reduced pain and inflammation after apicoectomy .

The Antibacterial Effect of QMix, a Novel Root Canal Irrigant (Ex vivo Study)

Abdul Khaliq Q Al-Sheik Abidal; Ghada Y Abdul-Rahman; Ali W Tawfeeq

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 537-546
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165415

Aims: To evaluate the antibacterial effect of a novel root canal irrigant, QMix, by evaluating its effect against E. faecalis and comparing it to 17% EDTA and 2% Chlorhexidine digluconate. Materials and Methods: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and direct exposure test were the techniques used. In the MIC and MBC technique, the irrigants (QMix, 17% EDTA, 2% CHX) were serially diluted in BHI broth and 0.2 mL of the tested bacterial suspensions was added. Results were obtained on the basis of turbidity and growth on agar plates. In the direct exposure test, Enterococcus faecalis were exposed to QMix, 2% Chlorhexidinedigluconate and 17% EDTA for 5 seconds, 30 seconds and 3 minutes. Following exposure, samples were taken and serially diluted and incubated anaerobically on E. faecalis selective media for 24 hours to count the resistance of the bacteria. Results: In the MIC and MBC technique, CHX showed to be more effective against E. faecalis than both QMix and EDTA, as lower dilutions were required to inhibit growth of both bacteria. Ethylene diamine tetra acid (EDTA) was the least effective. In the direct exposure test, QMix was more effective than CHX and EDTA as it was the only solution to be able to kill all bacteria. Few E. faecalis cells remained even after exposure of bacteria to 3 minutes of EDTA and CHX. There was significant difference between QMix and both EDTA and CHX in killing of E. feacalis at 5 seconds exposure (p<0.05). QMix killed more than 95% of bacteria, whereas CHX and EDTA killed fewer than 20% (p<0.05). There was no statistical significance between the irrigant solutions at 3 minutes of exposure. Conclusions: In the MIC and MBC techniques, Chlorhexidinedigluconate was found superior to both QMix and EDTA. In the Direct Exposure Test, QMix showed the best performance as it was the only irrigant solution to kill all E. faecalis cells, as well as killing more than 95% of all bacteria at 5 seconds exposure.

Influence of Adhesive Systems on Microleakage Pattern of Composite Resin Restorations

Eman A Abdulkadir; Maan M Nayif

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 547-554
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165417

AIMS: Microleakage is important for assessing the success of adhesive restorative materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of resin composite restorations bonded with three types of adhesive systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty four sound human third molars were used. Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surface by a diamond cylinder bur No. (1543M). Samples was assigned randomly to three groups (N = 8): Group Ι: Cavities were treated with total etch adhesive system (Adper Single Bond 2Adhesive, 3M ESPE, USA). Group II: Cavities are treated with one step self-etch adhesive system (OptiBond All In One, kerr, USA). Group III: Cavities were treated with two step self-etch adhesive system (CLEARFIL SE BOND, kurary, Japan). Cavities were restored in bulk technique withresin composite (Ceram X, DENTSPLY, USA). Restorations were polished and after storage in water for 24 hours at 37°C the samples were thermocycled between 5-50°C for 300 cycles in water baths then immersed in methylene blue solution for 24 hours. Dye leakage was assessed by examining longitudinal sections in a stereomicroscope at X10magnification. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test at 5%significant level. RESULTS: A significant differences in microleakage were observed among restorations (p < 0.05).One step adhesive bonded restorations demonstrate significantly higher leakage value than two step. No significant differences were observed between total etch adhesive and self-etch adhesive (p>0.05).CONCLUSIONS: The microleakage of resin composite restoration was influenced by adhesive type. One step self-etch bonded restoration was more prone to leakage than total etch and two step bonded restoration

Evaluation Effect of Tramadol as Premedication on Ketamine in Mice

Ghada A Taqa; Omar M Shallal

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 555-559
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165419

Aims: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of different doses of tramadol as a premedication on ketamine anesthesia in mice. Materials and Methods: Tramadol used in different doses ( 0, 20, 30 ) mg/kg, I.P at 20 minute before treated with ketamine (50) mg/kg, I.P. Results: significantly increased in the duration of sleep and analgesia of ketamine without effect on the time of induction in all treated groups. The Numerical Sedation Score(NSS) was increased in all treated groups with tramadol pre treatment of ketamine but this NSS were stayed in long period in group treated with tramadol and ketamine in a dose depended manner in comparison with group treated with ketamine alone. Conclusion: Thus it can conclude that the possibility of using tramadol as a premedication with ketamine general anesthesia to improve anesthesia.

Comparison Study for the Quantity of Titanium Exist in Different Type of Dental Implant Alloy

Jameel MA Sulaiman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 560-565
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165423

Aims: The current study aims to compare alloys of dental implants and to find the ratio of titanium element (Ti) with different origins which are used by dentists in dental implant to restore the missing teeth. Materials and Methods: Three types of dental implants from Germany, Italy and Korea used in this study for statement the chemical structure of these alloys using (XRD: X-Ray Diffraction) (Model S1TurboSD LECE , BRUKER). Hardness, tensile strength, and flexibility coefficient tested by hardness measuring device Micro Hardness – AMSLER, Germany, 1978. The microstructure of samples obtained by Metrology Microscope (600X), ME-3125, UNION, 1978, Japan. Results: Different elements appeared in each alloy, and the titanium (Ti) ratio was the main one, where the Germany type (95.14%), Italy, (91.21%), while Korea type was the highest (95.21%). Tension Resistance in Germany model (755) N/(mm)2 , Italian (781) N/(mm)2 , and Germany (785) N/(mm)2 . Hardness Vickers (HV) in Germany (277), Italy (285) and for Korean type (287). Modulus of elasticity, in Germany (107) Gpa, in Italy (115) Gpa. and in Korean (107) Gpa. The classification according to the American Society for Testing and Materials found in Germany Ti 3-2.5, Italy Ti6-2-1-1, and in Korean Ti 3-2.5. Conclusions: The Korean sample is best for three reasons the quantity of Titanium, Hardness Vickers (VH) and Tension Resistance are more. The Italy type is found better for Modulus Elasticity, while the Germany type is better in Microstructure. In general, and since, the three types have more than (90%) of Titanium there for all the types of dental implant are good against corrosion from acid and Hydrofluoric (HF)

Gender Difference in the Prediction of Crown Widths of Unerupted Permanent Canines and Premolars with Crowded Teeth

Enas T Al-Jwarry

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2013, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 566-573
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165424

Aims: To determine whether the accuracy of the prediction of the summed widths of unerupted permanent canines and premolars depend on the patient's gender and to examine whether there are differences between sexes in the best combination of independent variables for predicting and to developing new predicting equations for crowding patient for both jaws and both sexes. Materials and methods: The sample consisted of eighty dental casts (40 males and 40 females). The age ranged between (14-22) years and all patients have anterior crowding. The mesiodistal crown diameters of the central incisors, the lateral incisors, the canines, the first premolar, the second premolar, and the first molars in the maxillary and mandibular arch were measured on dental casts. Basal arch lengths and intermolar distances for the upper arch and for the lower arch were also recorded. Predicted sum widths of permanent canines and premolars in both dental arches were calculated using backward multiple regression analysis by using statistical package for social science (SPSS). Results: In the male subject group, there were statistically significant correlations between central incisor and lateral incisor widths in the maxilla (r=0.456) and in the mandible between lower central and lateral incisor widths and lower basal arch length (r=0.682), and in the female subject group, there were statistically significant correlations between the central incisor and the lateral incisor widths, upper first molar, upper basal arch length and upper inter molar distance (r=0.742). For the mandible, lower central and lateral incisor and lower first molar widths (r=724). Also the correlation coefficients (r) and determination coefficients (R2 ) for female group are greater when compared with those for the male subject group. Conclusions: Four regression equations for crowding patients for both gender are establish and the best combination of independent variables for prediction was found to differ between sexes.