Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Volume 12, Issue 2

Volume 12, Issue 2, Autumn 2012, Page 198-385


Modified Psychological Scale for Pros-thodontic Patients

Nadira A Hatim; Monia MN Kandil; Jamas; Elham Kh Al

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 198-205

To aid the dentist in a more precise method for psychological and neurotic assessment of his patients, especially the edentulous; and to isolates those who may refuse the complete denture wearing for psychological reasons. Materials and methods: The study was conducted to include one hundred members, who agreed to participate in it. They were collected randomly from Dental College of Mosul University, and a Dental Health Center at Mosul City. Members were asked to answer these question-naires: Eysenck Personality Inventory; Hamilton Anxiety Scale; and Mental Health Questionnaires. Statistical analysis of questioner was done according to percentage, and prevalence . Results: The data collected from these scales undergone statistical and correlation analysis to show the frequency and prevalence for each question and the most effectible components to introduce new psychological case–sheet, briefed what most important psychological factors that could investigated by the dentist. Conclusions: A modified psychological scale was accomplished for edentulous patients. The results also revealed that the general somatic sensory symptoms, autonomic nervous symptoms, insomnia and gastro–intestinal symptoms; represented the most effective factors on the stress development, especially in the geriatrics

Linear Dimensional Change and Accu-racy of Fit of Positive Pressure Thermo–Formed Prosthodontic Materials

Zeina M Ahmad; Ahmed A Al; Ali; Omar A Sheet

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 206-217

To determine the dimensional accuracy of thermoformed dental base plates. Materials and methods: Six different types of thermoformed materials were used. The circumference of the triangle formed between the index marks on standard maxillary edentulous metal model and measurements of the surface area of the gap between the posterior margin of base plate and the metal model were cap-tured with digital camera and measured with AutoCAD program. Measurements were made after 1 day after processing and then 2, 3 and 7 days. ANOVA and Duncan multiple range test were used to statistical analysis of the data. Results: The linear dimensional shrinkage and inaccuracy of fitness were significant for all of the thermoformed materials. The change after 7 days was not significantly different from that occurred after 1 day. Conclusions: All thermoformed materials exhibited dimen-sional instability, the Duran(hard material) and Durasoft(flexible material) were the most dimensional-ly stable and accurately fitted thermoformed materials.

Relapse Tendency among Different Types of Malocclusion

Afrah K Al-hamdany

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 218-228

The aim of this study is to evaluate the post-treatment changes in the dental parameters measured at study models in group of Iraqi patients with different Angle's classes of malocclusions. Materials and Methods: 113 Iraqi patients (42 males and 71 females) ,of 14-29 years old at beginning of treatment, were randomly selected and longitudinally assessed in respect to relapse of their orthodontically treated dentitions. Stone study models were taken before treatment, after orthodontic treatment and a third set was obtained approximately 1 month out of retention. Study models were photographed using a digital camera which is mounted on a height-adjustable tripod; with standard camera to object distance. Indirect computer digitization is used; in which the photographs are entered to memory of Pentium IV computer and analyzed using View Box version 3 software allowing data to be directly digitized in the computer and analyzed with the SPSS program.10 variables are digitized :labial seg-ment ,buccal segment, vertical canine, vertical molar, diagonal arch length, inter canine width, inter-molar width, inter molar width, over bite and over jet. Changes in measurements on study models from (before treatment) to (after treatment) were calculated and Paired Student's t- tests were employed to test the changes in means from (after treatment) to (after retention); at P=<0.05 Results: The pooled sample was divided according to Angle's classifications into groups, the results indicate that the changes are varied and ranged from statistically non significant for some variables to significant for the rest. While for Class I crowding patients; the changes are small and statistically non significant for most variables. For Class I spacing patients; a tendency for relapse for most variables were observed. In Class II. D1 crowding, Class II. D1 spacing, Class II. D1 without crowding or spacing, CII. D2 and Class III crowding patients some variables showed significant changes, and no significant difference for rest of variables. Conclusion: Relapse (post-treatment changes) in the dental parameters measured at study models varied among different Angle's classes of malocclusions at the 1-month follow-up. Class I crowding and CII.D1 without crowding or spacing subjects were relatively stable after treatment. Class II.D2; Class I spacing and Class II.D1 spacing subjects were relatively prone to relapse post treatment.

Adherence of Candida albicans to Flexi-ble Denture Base Material

Zeina M Ahmad; Eman A Mustafa; Inas A Jawad

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 229-235

Assessment of Candida albicans adherence to flexible denture base material (Valplast) and con-ventional heat polymerized acrylic resin in the presence and absence of saliva. Materials and Me-thods: A total of 28 square specimens (10 mm x10 mm x3mm) were constructed from Valplast and acrylic denture base materials according to manufacturers' instructions and kept without finishing or polishing. C. albicans was isolated from patients with denture stomatitis. Fourteen specimens (7 of each material) were not coated with human saliva (control), deposited in yeast suspension (107 ) yeast cells/ml, incubated for 1hr at room temperature and washed with phosphate buffer saline and then stained with crystal violet. The remaining 14 specimens (7 of each material) were coated with saliva and treated as previously described. Adherent yeast cells in 84 fields of view (0.25mm2/field) of mate-rials were enumerated. The results were expressed as yeast cells/mm2 of material. Results: In compari-son between the two denture base materials, Candida adherence to acrylic resin (170 yeast cells/mm2) is greater than Valplast (126 yeast cells/mm2). Both saliva uncoated and coated acrylic samples have higher means of Candida adherence (208, 132 cells/mm2) than saliva uncoated and coated Valplast samples (175, 77 cells/mm2) respectively. High significant reduction in yeast counts was seen in both materials after saliva coating. Conclusions: Great reductions in yeast counts were determined in Val-plast material specially in saliva coated specimens when compared with acrylic resin.

The clinical effectiveness of topical propo-lis in comparison with Acyclovir in pa-tients with recurrent herpes labialis

Abbas F Al-Taee; Wasan M Al-Omary; Jawnaa K Mamdoh

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 236-241

To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of ethanolic extract of propolis (viscous solution12.5%) compared with the effect of Acyclovir (ACV) cream 5% in patients with recurrent herpes labialis (RHL). Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with active lesions (intact vesicle and rupture lesions) were included in this clinical trial. Fifteen patients were treated with viscous solution of ethanolic propolis extract while the other fifteen patients were treated with Acyclovir cream 5%. Results: Com-plete resolution of prodromal symptoms ( itching, tingling or burning) and erythema were noticed in propolis group after two days of treatment compared with none in ACV group. Statistically very high-ly significant difference in RHL lesion size in ACV group was observed (P<0.000), compared with highly significant difference in propolis group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: ACV cream 5% appeared to be more effective topically in healing time than ethanolic extract of 12.5 % viscous solution of propo-lis.Topical propolis would alleviate symptoms and erythema of RHL completely after two days whe-reas this action was not seen in topical ACV cream 5%.

The Effect of Various Bur Types and Two Bonding Agents on Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Dentin

Wiaam M AL-Ashou

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 242-248

The aims of this in vitro study was to assess the effectiveness of various bur types and bonding agents on the shear bond strength of composite resin to dentin. Eighty non carious, extracted human molars were mounted in acrylic resin, the occlusal surface of all the teeth were grounded to obtain flat dentin surface. After that the teeth were randomly divided into four groups (n=20) according to the bur types that will be used to prepare the dentin surface. After preparation of dentin each group was divided into two subgroups (n=10) according to the type of adhesive systems used (Excite & I-Bond), the adhesive systems were applied to the dentin surface and light-cured according to manufacturers instructions. A 4mm high composite cylinder was incrementally built up. After that, specimens stored for one month at 37ºc in distilled water and thermo cycled for 500 cycles between (5ºc & 55ºc) and then tested in a universal testing machine. The results of this study demonstrated that the method of surface prepa-ration affected the shear bond strength of I-Bond and this is not true for Exit system, when the dentin surface prepared with fissure burs the shear bond strength greater than when the surface prepared with round burs. The results of this study also showed that the groups in which Excite bonding agent used have greater value of shear bond than the groups treated with I-Bond.

Effect of Different Techniques of Imme-diate and Delayed Post Space Preparation on Apical Seal

Nawal A. Al-Sabawi; Sabah A. Ismail; Raghad A. Al-Askary

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 249-256

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different post space preparation techniques and times on the apical seal of two types of gutta-percha obturation techniques. Materials and methods: Two hundred extracted human lower premolars were selected for this study. All teeth were decoronated to adjust the working length at 14 mm. The canals were instrumented with ProTaper rotary instruments to size F3. The (200) root canals were randomly divided into two groups (100) of each according to the obturating method. Then each group was sub divided into (10) sub groups (10) of each (2 control groups and 8 experimental groups). Nine mm segment of gutta-percha was removed from the roots in each of the experimental groups either immediately after obturation or 7 days later using either heated pluggers, or Gates-Glidden drills or ProTaper rotary instruments or peeso reamers. The roots in the control groups were left without any post space preparation. The canal orifice of the roots in the experimental groups was sealed with amalgam. The extend of linear dye leakage was measured in mm with a stereomicroscope at (X 20). One-way ANOVA and sheffe statistical analysis were performed to the data collected. Results: The groups with ProTaper rotary instrument prepared the post space immediately after obturation( gps 3,11), showed the lowest mean leakage, but the difference was not statistically significant than the other experimental groups. T-test represented no significant differences existed at either two time interval studied and the type of obturation techniques. Sheffe-test for the post space preparation techniques revealed that there were a significant differences occurred with the use of ProTaper rotary instruments regardless the time interval and the obturation techniques. Conclusions: ProTaper rotary instrument provided less microleakage comparing to the other instruments used to prepare the post space. The post space preparation did not affect the apical seal in comparison with that of the intact filling.

The Influence of Er: YAG Laser, Alumi-num oxide and diamond bur on surface treatment of Aged Composite Resin to Repair Restoration

Nadia H Hasan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 257-265

Aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Er: YAG Laser, the sand blasted with aluminum oxide and wearing with diamond bur as a surface treatment to the bond strength of repaired composite resin after aged. Materials and Methods: Sixty Teflon mold (4mm×2mm), of Tetric® Ceram prepared. The specimens were randomly separated into six groups and undergo the following surface treatments: G1 no treatment (control), G2-G4 treated with a different amount of laser energy (40, 60, 80 mJ Er: YAG laser respectively) under a 2Hz frequency, G5 wearing with diamond bur, and G6 sandblasted with 50μm aluminum oxide. All 6 groups divided into two subgroups,1st control,2ed etched with 37% phosphoric acid. Bonding material was applied and the second split of Teflon mold (4mm×1mm) placed onto the prepared specimen, filled with Tetric N-Ceram. The shear test was done using the Uni-versal testing machine. Results: Significant differences of all variables, laser 60,40mj surface treatment displayed superior shear strength (45.24, 45.03 MPa respectively), aluminum oxide showed low shear value (32.48 MPa). Phosphoric acid showed the highest shear value (40.47 MPa) in compare to the control one (31.62 MPa). Conclusions: Using of Er:YAG laser improve the shear value of repaired composite in comparing with a diamond bur and aluminum oxide. Conditioning aged composite surface with a phosphoric acid enhancing its adhesive result.

Effects of 6– Mercaptopurine on Salivary Glands in Rabbit

Moula; Alhan D Al; Fayhaa A Al-Mashhadane; a K Mammdoh; Jawna

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 266-273

To study the effect of 6 – Mercaptopurine on salivary glands of rabbits. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 6 young rabbits of both sexes, aged 2 – 3 months, and weighing 1.250-1.350 Kg. They were divided into control group (4 rabbits) which received no any treatment, and treatment group (4 rabbits) that were treated by 6 –MP in dose of 9 mg/Kg for duration of 2 weeks,the drug was administered orally by cavage needle. All animals were dissected and salivary glands (parotid and submandibular glands) were removed from right and left sides, then slides were made and morphometric analysis were made using filar micrometer, a photographs were done and t –test analysis was used to compare two groups. Results: There was loss of architecture of both parotid and submandibular salivary glands with disarrangement of acini. Acinar cells become smaller in diameter that was associated with increase in the interstitial spaces. There was atrophy and shrinkage of striated ducts and all these changes were significant compared to control group except that for parotid gland which showed no significant differences in height of intercalated duct cells compared to control group. Conclusions: Daily administrations of 6 MP for rabbits produced severe degenerative changes in the salivary glands.

The Orientation Effect of Osstell Men-tor's Transducer on Measuring Implant Stability

Abdurrahman Alsamman; Mohammad S Suleiman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 274-280

To evaluate the direction dependence of osstell's transducer during the assessment of dental implant stability by wireless resonance frequency analyzer. Materials and Methods: Thirty tapered-SLA dental implants (Super line®) were installed in ten ribs of freshly slaughtered oxen of 2 - 2.5 years old. Three implants were installed in each rib using the fit-sized drilling protocol without countersinking. The stability was assessed by wireless resonance frequency analyzer and five records were taken for each implant by holding the Osstell's tip in different directions in respect to the long axis of the "smart peg". These directions were: (S=superior) parallel to long axis of the " smart peg" and superior to it. (A=anterior) perpendicular to long axis of the " smart peg" and anterior to it. (P=posterior) perpendicular to long axis of the " smart peg" and posterior to it. (M=mesial) perpendicular to long axis of the " smart peg" and mesial to it. (D=distal) perpendicular to long axis of the " smart peg" and distal to it. Results: The implant stability quotient values (ISQ) were almost identical in anterior and posterior directions of Osstell's tip and also closely comparable in mesial and distal directions. Although the ISQ values that recorded in superior directions were slightly higher than in other directions, no significant difference was found among the different directions of probe orientation (ANOVA P> 0.05). Conclusion: Any direction of osstell's transducer will be suitable to assess implant primary stability.

Effect of Storage Time on the Degree of Conversion of Light Cured Dental Materials

Sabah A Ismail; Shaymaa SH Hassan; Nayif A Jado

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 281-288

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of storage time (immediately after polymerization and after one month of artificial saliva storage) on the degree of conversion (DC) of restorative type of light cured dental materials. Materials and Methods: Sixty samples of polyethylene molds were prepared. The samples were divided into three groups each of 20. The first group was filled with Composite resin, second group was filled with Compomer and the third group was filled with Resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC). Each group was subdivided into two subgroups; each of ten according to storage time: The DC was tested for the first subgroup immediately after polymerization, while the DC of the second subgroup was tested after one month of storage in artificial saliva. The DC was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results: ANOVA test was used for statistical analysis. The results showed that there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in DC between the subgroups tested immediately after polymerization and the subgroups tested after one month of artificial saliva storage for Composite resin and Compomer. While RMGIC showed no significant difference (p>0.05) in DC between the subgroup tested immediately after polymerization and the subgroups tested after one month of artificial saliva storage. Conclusions: One month storage time has an effect on the DC of Composite and Compomer, but it has no effect on the DC of RMGIC.

Evaluation of Chemo-mechanical Caries Removal (CarisolvTM Gel) on Primary Teeth: A Microhardness Study

Baydaa A Al-Rawi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 289-294

the purpose of this study was to compare the Vickers hardness of sound dentin after carious tissue removal using the chemo–mechanical method and the conventional rotary method. Materials and Methods: The carious dentin of thirty extracted human primary lower second molars was removed using Carisolv™ and conventional rotary methods. The Vickers hardness number (VHN) of the cavity floor was determined and the adjacent sound dentin of each tooth was used as a control reference. Results: The results indicated no statistical difference in the microhardness of the dentin in the cavity floor after treatment with Carisolv™ gel and conventional rotary method and no statistical difference in the microhardness of the dentin of both types of caries removal compared with the adjacent control areas. Conclusions: The Carisolv™ gel does not cause a significant change in the microhardness of dentin that remains after being submitted to carious tissue removal.

Antifungal Action of Some Natural Oils on Acrylic Resin Denture Base Materials

Rana R AL- Sumaidae

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 295-300

Aims: The study aims to evaluate the antifungal action of some natural oils (sun flower oil, sesame oil, nigella sativa, flax oil and ginger oil) in relation to nystatin suspension on acrylic resin denture base materials. Materials and method: The total number of specimens were seventy, they were (10×10×2mm). Half of the specimens were prepared from heat cured acrylic resin and the other half prepared from cold cured acrylic resin denture base materials, for each group they were immersed for 8hr in these oils after they had been infected with Candida albicans and incubated for 48hr. This study compared antifungal efficiency of sun flower oil, sesame oil, nigella sativa, flax oil and ginger oil. The statistical tests used were one way analysis of variance test, Dunnett t-test. Results: There were signifi-cant differences between all tested oils and distilled water in relation to antifungal action at (P=0.05). Conclusions: All the tested natural oils were effective antifungal agent.

Effect of Artificial Salvia on Force Values of Two Types of Nickel Titanium Ortho-dontic Arch Wires

Afrah K Al -Hamadani; Enas T Al-Jwary

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 301-308

Aims: To study the effect of artificial saliva and time interval on the amount of force values of nitinol and superelastic NiTi wires. Materials and Methods: Two types of orthodontic wires chosen for the study nitinol and superelastic NiTi wires of a guage of 0.016 inch in diameter (Dentaurum, Germany). Specimens of the wires were divided in to two groups ;the control group(dry condition) contained the wires as - received condition and experimental groups for the study of the force value of wires which subjected to artificial saliva for three time incubation periods (3 days, 7 days, 28 days) . At end of each incubation periods ,the wire specimens were tested for the effect of artificial saliva on force values of the wire. The measurement of force values of arch wires done with a universal tensile testing ma-chine ,the force values of specimens were evaluated with the help of three point bending test. The re-sults were subjected to the descriptive statistics and to the ANOVA and Duncan’s Multiple Range Analysis Tests to detect the amount of changes among these groups . Result: The findings of the present study showed that the control group of nitinol wires had the highest rate of force value with significant difference (P≤ 0.05) with experimental groups, while the experimental group after 28 days gave rise to the lowest one with significant difference (P≤ 0.05) from other groups. For the superelastic nickel titanium the result showed that the control group had the highest rate of force value while the experimental group after 28 days gave rise to the lowest one with significant difference (P≤ 0.05) from control and non significant difference (P> 0.05) with the experimental groups after 3 days and 7 days. Conclusion: The nitinol wires showed a continuous change in force values with increase time in ar-tificial saliva, so this required reactivating or changing the wire at a certain interval of use. While force values of the superelastic nickel titanium wires decreased after 3 days interval and remained constant after that .

Evaluation of Some Physical Properties of Die Stone Made From Local Raw Gypsum Material

Lamia T Rejab; Salwan F Al-Hamdani; Mohammed Y

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 309-315

Aim: The aim of this study was to prepare die stone material by dehydration of the local natural raw gypsum in boiling with 30% calcium chloride solution , and then evaluated some physical properties of this prepared die stone. Materials and methods : The values of some physical properties of the pre-pared die stone in boiling with 30% calcium chloride solution which are water/powder ratio, setting time, and compressive strength were compared with that of three types of gypsum products commer-cial die stone, Elite type III dental stone and Iraqi plaster. The data were collected , mean and standard deviation were determined. Statistically, (ANOVA) and Dunnett Pairwise Multiple Comparison test were carried out to determine the significant differences at p≤ 0.05 Results: Results showed that there were no significant differences between the locally prepared die stone and the commercial one at p≤ 0.05 in water/powder ratio and setting time values, but it was significant difference in compressive strength. But there are a significant difference between the physical properties of the locally prepared die stone and Elite type III dental stone and Iraqi plaster. Conclusions: The results showed the physical properties of the locally prepared die stone approach the physical properties of the commercial product according to the recommendation of ADA for gypsum products.

The Effect of Sodium Hypochlorite on Shear Bond between Composite and Porcelain Specimens

Ashraf S Qassim; Sabah A Ismail; Emad F Alkhalidi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 316-320

Aim of Study: This in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the shear bond strength of intra oral por-celain repair system using 10% sodium hypochlorite and different acid etch. Materials and methods: Forty specimens were prepared in form of metal disks (8mm in diameter, 15mm height) and porcelain was applied according to the manufacturer instructions.The specimens randomly divided into 4 equal groups. In Group I ,II the samples were treated with 9% hydrofluoric acid for one minute. While groups III, IV were treated with 37% phosphoric acid for one minute, after washing the specimens with water and dryness, groups II, III the surfaces treated with 10%sodium hypochlorite for one minute while group I and IV leaved untreated. After that, the surfaces of all samples were washed and dried and silane coupling agent (MonoBond-S Vivadent, Liechtenstein) was applied according to the manu-facturer instructions, then bonding agent (Excite) (Vivadent, Liechtenstein) and composite (tetric N–ceram) (Vivadent, Liechtenstein) were applied according to the manufacturer instructions. All the sam-ples were stored in normal physiological saline for 7 days. Then the samples were thermocycled ma-nually between two water baths After that Shear bond strength was tested using universal testing ma-chine. Results: using ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range tests. The result showed that there was highly significant difference between groups treated with 10%sodium hypochlorite with untreated one. There was significant difference between samples acid etched using hydrofluoric acid with those etched with phosphoric acid. Conclusions: Sodium hypochlorite and hydrofluoric acid significantly increase the shear bond strength between composite resin and porcelain fused to metal specimens

Oral and Rectal Sedation with Diazepam for Uncooperative Child during Dental Procedure

Tahani A Al-Sandook; Ziad H Delemi; Baydaa A Al-Rawi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 321-328

Aims: To identify the clinical picture and the association between dry socket and severe postoperative
development with one of the systemic risk factors (typhoid fever). Materials and Methods: Twenty
adult (both sexes) patients attended dental clinic searching for different dental treatments were studied.
The clinical picture of 6 months period study was evaluated by completing two case sheet forms. They
were diagnosed having dry sockets and severe postoperative pain. Blood samples were taken for bacteriological,
serological and hematological study to diagnose typhoid fever. These tests included WAT,
WFT, WBCs and blood culture. Results: Significant correlation existed between postoperative pain
and typhoid fever examined by BC and the highest percentage was with dry socket (61.5%) followed
by WFT (57.1%(, WAT (44.4%) using two tests for diagnosis showed that WFT and BC gave 97.9%
positive for dry socket and Kappa test was 88%, while WAT and WBCs or WFT and WAT gave the
least non significant correlation. Conclusion: There was a strong correlation between dry socket and
typhoid fever and the most sensitive tests for diagnosis was BC followed by WFT, WBCs and WAT

Salivary Zinc Level Determination in Patients with Benign Migratory Glossitis

Abbas F Al-Taee

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 329-336

Aims: To determine and compare the salivary zinc level concentration (SZLC) and salivary flow rate (SFR) in patient with benign migratory glossitis (BMG) and in control normal subjects, also to evaluate any relationship among these variables in each group. Materials and Methods: The study was con-ducted on 42 individuals who were allocated into two groups: patients group was comprised of 22 pa-tients who did have (BMG) and 20 healthy subjects. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected and both SFR and SZLC were determined. Zinc analysis was performed with an atomic absorption spectropho-tometer. Results: The mean SFR in patients and control groups were 0.5459(ml / min) and 0.6840(ml / min) respectively, whereas the mean SZLC for patients was 0.09764(ppm) and 0.13830 (ppm) for con-trol group. SFR was not differ significantly between both groups (p > 0.099), also SZLC was not sig-nificantly differ in both groups too (p > 0.169). Conclusions: This clinical study could not establish significant association between BMG and both SZLC and SFR.

Clinical Comparison between Diode Laser and Scalpel Incisions in Oral Soft Tissue Biopsy

Wael S Shalawe; Zaid A Ibrahim; Ali D Sulaiman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 337-343

Aims of the study: To compare the new diode laser (1064nm) incision with conventional blade inci-sion wounds after oral soft tissue biopsy in terms of haemostasis, local anesthetic required, duration of incision and post operative pain. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department at College of Dentistry/University of Mosul and Oral and Maxil-lofacial Surgery Department in Al-Salam Teaching Hospital between February 2010 and May 2010. Thirty patients were enrolled and divided into two groups, each consisted of fifteen patients. The first group included fifteen patients requiring biopsy (based on their indications for biopsy) in the oral cavi-ty, where the incision was done using surgical blade no.15. The second one included fifteen patients who needed biopsy in the oral cavity (based on their indications for biopsy), here the incision was made by using diode laser (FOXTM, A.R.C. laser, Germany) wavelength 1064nm with output power (3.5Watt) CW in contact with the tip of bare fiber (200micron). All biopsies in the two groups were excisional and done under local anesthesia using infiltration technique. Results: In comparison be-tween the two groups: the amount of local anesthetic required in the second group (diode laser wound group 0.73 ml) was less than that required by the first group (blade incision wound group 1.6 ml) and showed statistically high significance at p value < 0.05. The mean of the difference in the weight of the gauze before and after the operation in the second group(0.16 gm) was less than the difference in the weight of the gauze in the first group(0.96 gm) which showed statistically high significance at p value <0.05. The mean of the duration for incision was statistically not significant between the two groups and the mean of pain score at the first post-operative day was statistically significant in the second group in comparison to the first group but there was no statistical difference in the pain score level at the third postoperative day between the two groups. Conclusion: The use of Diode (1064nm) laser to perform oral biopsy has several advantages over the blade incisions wound including less amount of local anesthesia required, enhanced haemostasis (suturing after surgery was not necessary) , minimal postoperative pain.

The Relationship Between Incisor Crown Shape and Dental Crowding

Khawla M Awni

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 344-349

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate if there is a correlation between the shape of the crowns of the incisors and crowding. Materials and Methods: Plaster models of 100 individuals having class I molar relationship were chosen .By using the irregularity index, 51 individuals (22 males and 29 fe-males) were considered to be the crowding group(irregularity index >3mm),and 49 individuals (23 males and 26 females) were considered to be the normal group(irregularity index< 3mm).The casts were selected from the POP department at the college of dentistry in Mosul University. Repeated mea-surements of the maximum mesiodistal width of the incisal and cervical areas of the incisors were tak-en by means of a vernier caliper and a ratios of these measurements were calculated. Results:The mean value for the crowding group was significantly higher in the incisal area of lower incisors and upper central incisors than corresponding values in the normal group. A significant correlation was present between upper irregularity index and upper lateral incisor mesiodistal width ratio. Conclusions: The lower incisors were more triangulary shaped in the crowding group than those in the normal one.

Estimation of the Crown Widths of Un-erupted Canine and Premolars by Using Vistibulo-oral Crown Dimensions of Per-manent Teeth

Hind T Jarjees

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 350-355

Aims: To estimate multiple regression equation on (88) subjects (48 females and 40 males),for predict-ing the widths of crowns of unerupted canine and premolar for both jaws and both genders. The sub-jects had normal class I molar relationship with full permanent dentition. Materials and methods: Plas-ter models of (88) subjects (48 females and 40 males ).Mesiodistal diameter (MMD) and vestibulooral diameter (VOD) of the crown of cental incisor, lateral incisor,canine,premolars and first molar( I1,I2,C both P1 and P2, and M1) on both sides in both jaws were measured. Multiple regression equations and correlation coefficients between the predictors( central incisor,lateral incisor and first molar) and the criteria variables (canine and premolars) were calculated. The data were analyzed by computerized statistical program SPSS. Results: Gradual regression equations were derived on the basis of measure-ment result ,by using three to five predictors to predict the sums of width of crown of unerupted canine and premolars using separated equations for both jaws and both genders (i.e four multiple regression equations were prepared).The coefficients of multiple correlations regarding gender and jaws ranged between 0.70-0.79.Conclusions: Establish regression equations, which would give satisfactory correla-tion coefficient regarding the gender and the jaw varied from 0.70-0.79

A Clinical Evaluation of the Periodontal Ligament Injection

Rayan S Hamid

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 356-362

ABSTRACTAims The periodontal ligament injection in isolated areas of the mandible was clinically evaluated us-ing only a conventional dental cartridge syringe. Materials and Methods: One hundred subjects requir-ing extractions of either premolars or molars participated in the study. Results: A high percentage of success rate (85%) was achieved but with unfavorable comment from the patient in regard to a painful injection. Duration of surgical anesthesia following the injection proved to be adequate in almost all extractions performed. Conclusions: New devices for performing this injection appear to have some advantage over the conventional syringe technique. However, these devices were unfortunately unavail-able at the area of study. Further studies are recommended to further evaluate its success and also to determine the response of both the periodontal ligament and pulpal tissue in cases were restorative treatment of teeth is to be undertaken for example crowns, bridges and fillings

Prosthetic Application of Newly Experimental Modeling Wax with some Additives( Medical Grass Extract)

Nadira A Hatim Department of; Amer A Taqa; Ahmad W Alubaidi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 363-370

Aims of the study: preparation of a new experimental modeling wax from hard paraffin, beeswax, starch, and medical Grass Extract (olive oil) and study the linear thermal expansion and melting point properties of the prepared wax. Materials and Methods : The samples were prepared ( 30 samples) by mixing Iraqi natural waxes (hard paraffin and beeswax) with additives (starch and olive oil) using spe-cial percentages proportions determined according to this study and using mold prepared according to ADA specification No.24, and the melting range and thermal expansion of these samples measured then compared with commercial modeling wax (SHANGCHI). Results: The new experimental model-ing wax 1 ( 80% hard paraffin + 15% beeswax + 5% olive oil) have minimum and maximum melting point mean value (59.8 – 63.6 °c) near to control (commercial modeling wax) (58 -63.4 °c) and the new experimental modeling wax 2 (90% beeswax + 5% starch + 5% olive oil) have linear thermal expan-sion mean value (0.186%) near to control (SHANGCHI) (commercial modeling wax) (0.204%). Con-clusions : The addition of olive oil to new experimental modeling wax 1(80% hard paraffin + 15% beeswax + 5% olive oil) lead to increase the linear thermal expansion and reduce the melting point, and the addition of olive oil to new experimental modeling wax 2 (90% beeswax + 5% starch + 5% olive oil) lead to decrease thermal expansion and reduce melting point.

Prevalence of "White Spots" Around Orthodontic Brackets: A Clinical Study

Ahmad A Abdulmawjood; Mahmood Kh Ahmed; am R. Al- Saleem

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 371-377

Aim: To determine the prevalence of white spot lesions in orthodontic patients treated with fixed or-thodontic appliances at different treatment periods and to reveal the teeth most commonly affected by white spot lesions. Materials and Methods: Forty eight patients (31 females and 17 males) treated with fixed orthodontic appliance were included in this study. The patients were examined for the pres-ence of white spot before insertion of the appliance and after its removal using visual examination. Results: This study showed that there was a significant increase in the formation of white spot lesions along with the increase in treatment duration in male group, while females showed no significant dif-ference in white spots at different durations. The first molars were the most affected teeth by white spots followed by canines and second premolars. Conclusion: This clinical study showed that the teeth in buccal segment were affected by white spots more than incisors and the prevalence of white spots increased when the duration of treatment increased.

Evaluation of Microleakage of Soft Liners to Highly Impact Acrylic Resin

Ammar Kh Al- Noori; Hala M Al-Kateb

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 378-385

Aims: To evaluat the microleakage of four types of soft Liners materials(Vertex, Molloplast B, Bony plus and Silicon promedica) with different surface treatment: acetone, monomer, and laser at different period of storage to highly impact acrylic resin. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty spe-cimens for microleakage have been prepared , each specimens consists of two parts: acrylic resin den-ture base part (30mm) diameter , ( 2mm) thickness of acrylic resin and (30mm) diameter, (2mm) thik-ness of soft liners. Soft denture liners bonded to three different groups of surface treatment: acetone, monomer, laser treated to denture base resin. Microleakage specimens underwent three aging proce-dures: storage at one week, one month without thermocyling and one month with thermocyling inside 2% methylen blue dye in 600 cycles. Results: The results showed that microleakage of Vertex and Molloplast_B in one week and in one month without thermocyling were the lowest value from the oth-er types , in one month with thermocyling the vertex was the lowest of microleakage than oth-ers.Treating the surface of denture bases with acetone and monomer had the highest value of microlea-kage from other types of surface treatment in one week ,while in one month without thermocyling and one month with thermocycle, there were no significant difference in microleakage among the the dif-ferent types of surface treatment of acrylic resin Conclusions: Permanent soft liner of acrylic type (ver-tex) had the lowest values of microleakage after different periods of storage and thermocyling .