Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Volume 12, Issue 1

Volume 12, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2012, Page 1-197

The Effect of Laser Welding on the Tensile Strength and Radiographic Analysis of Co-Cr Repaired Joints

Nadira A Hatim; Nazar Gh Jameel; Abdullah J Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42619

Aims: To evaluate the effect of laser welding and arc welding on the ultimate tensile strength, radio-graphic appearance of the joints, and microscopic porosities in the fractographs. Four joining methods have been used, laser welding, and arc welding using three types of electrodes (iron, stainless steel, and brass). Effect of surface roughness on the aforementioned properties was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Three specimens as-cast control group, seventy two specimens were treated by polishing, laser, and sandblasting, and joined with the four joining methods. Joints examined by radiograph and porosities were measured by Dimax software program, their ultimate tensile strength, and strain was tested, and the microscopic porosities in the fractographs were measured using AutoCAD software program. Three cobalt chromium bars from the third group were joined to three stainless steel bars from the fourth group of the same diameter to test the ultimate tensile strength, and strain of the dissi-milar alloys. Results: Laser welded and brass soldered joints had significantly lower ultimate tensile strength and strain when compared to the control group, while the iron, and stainless steel soldered joints had insignificant differences in the ultimate tensile strength and strain when compared to the control group. Results shown that the iron and stainless steel soldered samples fractured in the heat affected zone while the brass soldered and laser welded samples fractured in the weld zone. The iron and stainless steel soldered joints had superior mechanical properties when compared with the control group. Laser welding of dissimilar alloys had the lowest mechanical properties among all techniques. Conclusions: revealed that laser welding was the most precise technique used in the current study. Weld fractures shown less tensile strength average and more brittle behavior. Radiographic properties had no influence on the mechanical properties of the joints.

Prospective Clinical Trial Comparing Lin-gualized Occlusion to Balanced Occlusion in Complete dentures: Case Report

Nadira A. Hatim; Ahmed A. Alubaid

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 14-23
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42620

Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare patient's satisfaction with two concepts of occlusion for complete denture construction (balanced and lingualized teeth arranging dentures) according to Denture patient satisfaction questionnaire (DPSQ). Materials And Methods: Three completely edentulous patients were selected with uncomfortable previous prosthesis. For each patient, two sets of complete dentures were constructed, one with balanced and the other with lingualized occlusion , then compare the effects and the result after two months which depended on (Denture patient satis-faction questionnaire (DPSQ). Follow up the patients was continued up to one year. Results: Patient satisfactions, speaking ability and jawing ability showed 66.667% of complete dentures with lingua-lized occlusion in relation to the other factors affecting clinical efficiency of complete dentures. Con-clusions: Case report concluded that the lingualized occlusion dentures have more satisfaction, chew-ing ability and comfort while the balanced occlusion dentures are more stable in their place and more esthetic.

Impact Strength of Maxillary Complete Dentures Fabricated From Different Heat Cured Acrylic Resin Denture Base Materials

Mohammed A Abdulla

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 24-31
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42622

AIMS: Evaluation of the impact strength of maxillary complete dentures fabricated from new type high impact heat-cured acrylic denture base material and comparison with other types of acrylic resin denture base materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three types of materials were used in this study, high impact heat-cured acrylic resin; cross-linked acrylic resin (no cadmium); and conventional heat-cured acrylic resin. Twenty four maxillary complete dentures were fabricated to be tested and divided into three groups. Group 1, Group 2, and Group3 for high impact acrylic resin, cross-linked acrylic resin, and conventional heat- cured resin, respectively. Before testing, all specimens were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 2 months. The impact strengths (J) of the dentures were measured with a falling-weight impact test. The impact strengths of both groups were compared by a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's Multiple Analysis Range Test to determine the signifi-cant difference among the tested groups at (p<0.001) level of significance. RESULTS: There is a sig-nificant difference of the mean values of impact strengths for high impact acrylic resin, cross linked acrylic resin and conventional acrylic resin denture base materials at crack initiation and complete frac-ture. The impact strength between crack initiation and complete fracture within each group was signifi-cantly different (p<0.001) for all the groups, and more energy was needed for complete fracture than that for crack initiation for the high impact strength acrylic resin. CONCLUSIONS: Maxillary com-plete dentures made from high impact acrylic resin denture base material have significantly higher im-pact strength than that of maxillary complete denture made from cross-linked and conventional acrylic resin denture base materials. Maxillary complete dentures made from cross-linked acrylic resin denture base material have significantly higher impact strength than that made from conventional acrylic resin denture base materials.

A Cephalometric Comparison of Pharynx and Soft Palate in Iraqi Adolescents and Adults Population

Nada M Al-Sayagh

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 32-42
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42623

Aims: This paper aims to estimate and compare the pharynx and soft palatal dimensions of Iraqi ado-lescent and adults with class I normal occlusion at Mosul City and to identify any gender dimorphism within each group. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 160 normal Iraqis what were separated into two groups (80 adolescents and 80 adults). Each group was additionallydi-vided into two subgroups according to gender (40 of each gender). Twelve linear measurements were made in all subjects; gender dimorphism and comparison between two age groups were analysed by students t test.Results:No gender differences in all variables except in retropalatal airway space (U-MPW) in the adolescents group. While, in the adults the only significant gender differences were found in the thickness of posterior nasopharyngeal wall (ad1-Ba)and in the vertical airway space (Pm-Eb).The adults had significantly larger values for superior nasopharyngeal(pm-ad2) and inferior naso-pharyngeal depth (pm-ad1) than adolescents .While ,adolescents had larger value for superior nasopha-ryngeal thickness (ad2-s) and posterior nasopharyngeal thickness(ad1-Ba) than adults in both genders .The adult male had a higher value for (Pm-Eb) than adolescent male .While ,adolescent female had a higher value for soft palate thickness (SPT) than adult female. Conclusions: Data derived from this study should be a useful reference for assessment of sleep apnea and other conditions in the Iraqi popu-lation.Developmental changes were found in all nasopharyngeal parameters except the Pm-ba(sagittal depth of the bony nasopharynx).

Evaluation of Canine Tipping During its Retraction with Sliding Mechanics.(An in Vitro Study)

Nada M Al-Sayagh; Afnan J Ismael

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 43-51
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42625

Aims: The present study concerned with the evaluation of the effects of using different bracket,s types (material and design), different arch wire types (shape and size) and different methods of retraction (elastic chain and closed coil spring) on the degree of tipping of canine during its retraction along an arch wire using typodont simulation system (Ormco). Materials and methods: The standardization criteria were all typodont teeth situated in well aligned position, covered and immobilized by the acryl-ic bite except canine, elastic chain and nickel – titanium closed coil spring exerting 180 gm of force on canine measured carefully by tension gauge., the angle between bite plane extension,s bar and canine,s extension bar was (90°) measured by protractor directly on photographs that were taken for typodont using digital camera from both vertical and horizontal direction. Results: The present study showed that sliding the canine on large rectangular arch wire (0.019x0.025 inch) gave rise to a significant de-crease in the degrees of tipping when compared with 0.018 inch and 0.018x0.022 inch arch wires were used. Also, sliding the canine using ceramic brackets (0.022) inch gave rise to the significant decrease in the degree of tipping than when using stainless steel brackets. Another finding of the present study showed that when using elastic chain as a method of retraction gave rise to a a significant decrease in the degree of tipping as compared with nickel – titanium closed coil spring and lastly the attachment of the method of retraction around the bracket tie wing rather than hook gave rise to the high degree of tipping . Conclusion: It was concluded that the canine retraction with 0.019x0.025 inch wire on stan-dard ceramic bracket(0.022)inch by elastic chain retraction method could be regarded as the best com-bination variables that produced less degrees of tipping While the opposite is true for canine retraction with 0.018 inch wire on Roth stain less steel bracket by closed coil spring.

Changes in Body Weight, Serum (Sodium, Potassium) and Serum Albumin after Intermaxillary Fixation in Traumatized and Obese Patients (Comparative Study)

Wael Sheet; Mohmmed K Hassouni

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 52-56
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42627

Aims of the study: to evaluate the effects of intermaxillary fixation (IMF) on body weight, serum electrolytes ( Na+ and K+ ) and serum Albumin in traumatized and obese patients and to compare the changes between these two groups. Materials and Methods: A non randomized prospective study was done. The anthropometric measurement included 4 sites of skin fold thickness (triceps, biceps, subsca-pular and suprailiac skin folds), upper arm circumference, body mass index and laboratory investiga-tions to assess serum(Na+ and K+) levels and serum albumin level. The patients were divided in to 2 groups, the first group included 25 traumatized patients and the second group included 7 volunteer ob-ese patients and IMF was placed for those patients as one of the treatment lines for their body weight reduction and were considered as the control group. The parameters were recorded for each patient in the 2 groups preoperatively, one week, three weeks and six weeks postoperatively. Paired and un paired T tests were used in the statistical analysis, a P value < 0.05 was considered highly significant. Results: The changes of the anthropometric measurements, body mass index, serum K+ and serum albumin were statistically highly significant in traumatized patients with body weight loss ranging be-tween (5-8) Kg in this group. The changes of the anthropometric measurements and body mass index in the obese patients group were also statistically highly significant with a loss of (5-6) Kg in body weight in this group. The changes of anthropometric measurements and body mass index were statisti-cally highly significant in traumatized patients than in obese patients, while the changes in serum (Na+ and K+ ) and serum Albumin level were statistically not significant between the two groups. Conclu-sion: IMF compromises the nutritional status of the patients leading to loss of water, fat and protein in both traumatized and obese patients but the effect more pronounced in traumatized patient due to the metabolic and hormonal response to trauma together with the limited oral intake.

Evaluation of the Bond Strength of Three Soft Lining Materials to Acrylic Resin Denture Base

Munther N Kazanji; Asmaa A Abid Al-Kadder

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 57-65
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42630

Aims: The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments and different periods of water storage on tensile bond strength of three soft lining materials. Materials and me-thods: Two hundred sixty four (264) specimens have been prepared. Surface treatments used for bond-ing Molloplast – B liner included roughening acrylic surface with bur, and treatment with primo adhe-sive. For bonding Bony plus liner, roughening acrylic surface with bur, treatment with liner’s liquid and combination of both treatments have been evaluated. For GC Reline liner, roughening acrylic sur-face with bur has been evaluated.Befor tensile bond testing of molloplast-B liner’s specimens they were stored for(1 day or 1 month or 4 months), while Bony plus and GC Reline liners’specimenes were stored for(1 day or 1 week or 1 month) and then tested. Results: The results showed that roughening acrylic surface had an insignificant effect on (TBS) of GC Reline liner and Bony plus liner (although these materials showed cohesive failure). Bony plus liner’s liquid treatments had significant improve-ment in (TBS) of this liner. Different periods of water storage had insignificant effect on (TBS) of Mol-loplast-B liner and GC Reline liner, but (TBS) of Bony plus liner showed significant increasing after 1-month water storage. Conclusion: From the results of this study we can concluded that surface treat-ment to acrylic base improved tensile bond strength of soft lining material ,and the effect of water sto-rage on bond strength differed with different types of soft lining materials.

Effect of Stress on the Composition and Flow Rate of Saliva

Karama M T Al-Nuaimy; Isra H Al-Hamdani; Nahla O M Tawfik

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 66-70
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42633

Aims: To assess the effect of acute psychological stress on some salivary glands functions. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three undergraduate dental students participated in this study. They were asked to provide two samples of unstimulated whole saliva for 5 minutes, the first sample before amid- year oral academic examination and subsequently the second, one month later in a non stressful situation (after holiday break) as control group. Salivary flow in one minute was determined, in addition, total protein, albumin, uric acid and calcium levels in saliva were assessed using determination kits method from Biolabo (France). Results: The results showed a significant stress mediated decrease in the sali-vary calcium concentration (0.230.21 mmol/L) by -78.50% in comparison with non stressful condi-tion. Salivary flow level (0.62  0.28 ml /min) and albumin concentration (16.3913.69 mg/100ml) were decreased by (- 4.62% and -37.30% respectively), while uric acid (1.671.13 mmol/L) and total protein concentrations (1.030.69 g/100ml) were elevated by 9.56% and 10.60% respectively. Not all these changes were statically significant. Conclusions: These results suggest that the acute psychologi-cal stress exerts its influence on salivary composition and this will increase the value of saliva as dy-namic biological fluid in controlling the oral health.

A Comparative Study of Tooth Size and Dental Arch Dimensions between Iraqi Arabs and Kurds with Class I Normal Occlusion

Alaa D Mahmood

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 71-79
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42641

Aims: To search for any differences in tooth size and dental arch dimensions between Iraqi Arabs and Kurds. Materials and Methods: Upper and lower dental casts of 40 Kurdish and 40 Arabic subjects ranging in age between 14-18 years and equally divided between males and females, were measured for mesiodistal tooth size as well as for dental arch width, length and perimeter. Results: Kurdish males and females showed larger values for mesiodistal tooth size and dental arch width, perimeter and length than their Arabic counterpart. The majority of differences were significant. Males in both Arabic and Kurdish population had greater tooth and dental arch size than females. Conclusions: Data of tooth size and dental arch dimensions for Iraqi Arabs is not applied to Iraqi Kurdish subjects.

Comparison of Lateral Cephalometric Analysis among the Conventional, Digital and Hardcopy Cephalographs

Khudair A Salman; Ruba J Muhammad

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 80-88
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42643

Aims: To evaluate the reliability of landmarks identification and their effect on the accuracy of the linear and angular measurements among the conventional, hardcopy and direct digital cephalographs. Materials and Methods: The conventional cephalometric radiographs and their digital, hardcopies counterparts are taken for110 males and females between 1825 years of age for students of dental col-lege of Mosul University and from the patients who are attending College of Dentistry Teaching Hos-pital. Seventeen cephalometeric landmarks are selected on original radiographs and their digital, hard-copies cephalographes to evaluate the accuracy of 5 angular and linear measurements derived from the landmarks identified in conventional, hardcopy and direct digital cephalographs and to determine which is the most accurate method to be used in the cephalometric analyses nowadays. Results: The SNA, SNB, ANB showed no significant differences among the three analyses techniques. Total ante-rior facial height skeletal dimension showed more accurate measurements within digital techniques rather than within conventional and hardcopy techniques. Inter-incial angle showed no significant dif-ference in its measurements between conventional and digital methods; although it showed more accu-racy in its measurements within digital method rather than in conventional and hardcopy techniques. Conclusions: This study has shown that most of cephalometric landmarks have been identified with more precision and reliability within the digital techniques rather than with conventional and hardcopy techniques. However, there was significant difference in some measurements both linear and skeletal, but it can be considered clinically accepted.

Bond Strength of Aluminum Oxide Surface Treatment on Sandwich Restoration

Nadia H Hasan; Sawsan H Al–Jubori; Maha A AL-Murad

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 89-95
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42646

Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of aluminum oxide as a surface treatment on shear bond strength of etched and non-etched GIC for sandwich restoration with different types of tooth co-lored restorations .In addition, failure type was assessed. Materials and Methods: Sixty Teflon molds (5mm diameter and 4mm height) of a chemically cured GIC were prepared. They were divided into two main groups 1st control, 2 ed air-abraded with 50μm aluminum oxide particles. Both groups were sub divided into two subgroups 1st control, 2 ed etched with 37%phosphoric acid. Bonding material was applied to the treated surface of all groups and cured. The second split of Teflon mold (3mm di-ameter and 4mm height)was placed onto the prepared specimenEach subgroups (1st control, 2 nd etched with phosphoric acid) were farther subdivided into three subgroups which entrain filled as fal-low: 1st split filled with a tg microhybrid, in 2 ed split filled with tg fine glass, and in 3 rd split filled with Ceram X. Shear bond strength was measured by using Universal Testing Machine, and mode of failure examined by a stereomicroscope. Results: Anova test showed that there was a highly significant difference for all variables except acid etching effect. Aluminum oxide surface treatment displays supe-rior shear (2.280MPa). tg micro hybrid composite and Ceram X showed highest shear bond strength. Conclusions: Phosphoric acid etching did not improve shear value of sandwich restorations, while uses of aluminum oxide surface treatment, tg micro hybrid and Ceram X filling material gave an improve-ment on it. The failures were mainly cohesive within the GIC except tg fine glass was cohesive in fill-ing material itself.

The Use of Single Versus Multiple Doses Cefotaxime as a Prophylactic Antibiotic in Maxillofacial Fractures

Atalla Rejab; Mohmmed K Hassouni

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 96-101
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42648

Aim: The study aims to test the efficacy of using a single dose of cefotaxime antibiotic intravenously compared to the same drug when used for five days in the prevention of surgical site infection follow-ing maxillofacial fracture operations. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 78 pa-tients of different social and educational levels who have sustained maxillofacial fractures. All patients were planned to undergo operative procedures under general anesthesia to treat their fractures. Patients were randomized preoperatively into two groups ( Group A and Group B). Each patient in group A received a single dose of cefotaxime sodium (claforan) 40mg/kg body weight given intravenously at the induction of general anesthesia. No further dose of any antibiotic was given subsequently. Each patient in group B received cefotaxime sodium intravenously 20mg/kg twice daily for five days, start-ing the first dose of cefotaxime sodium at the induction of general anesthesia. During hospitalization postoperatively, patients were examined for signs and symptoms of surgical site infection. After dis-charge, the patients were recalled to the clinic for post-operative examination at 1, 2 , 3 and 4 weeks. Results: Only one patient out of 43 patients in the first group showed signs and symptoms of infection which was confirmed by culture and sensitivity test. Two cases of postoperative infection out of 35 patients developed infection in the second group. Conclusions: Using a single dose of cefotaxime was found to be comparable or even better than the use of the same drug for five days as a prophylactic antibiotic.

Effect of at Home Dental Bleaching and the Use of Antioxidant on Microleakege of Fissure Sealant : An in Vitro Study

Rayia J Al-Naimi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 102-108
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42649

Aim of the study: To evaluate in vitro the microleakage of fissure sealant, the effect of using home bleaching agent containing 18% carbamide peroxide and the effect of ethanol as an antioxidant agent on microleakage. Materials and Methods: Twenty four extracted sound human third molars were randomly assigned to 3 groups. After sealant placement, the teeth were thermocycled (125 cycles; 5- 55°C), isolated, immersed in 0.2% methylene blue dye for 24 hours, included in acrylic resin and sec-tioned longitudinally in a buccolingual direction. The sections were analyzed for leakage using an ste-reomicroscope, and a 4-criteria ranked scale was used to score dye penetration. Results: Microleakage scores increased with significant difference between control and bleached group when home bleach was used for fourteen days, also leakage scores decreased with significant difference when ethanol was used after bleaching to reverse the oxidation process, no significant difference was observed between control versus ethanol group. Conclusions: Microleakage scores increased after bleaching because of reduction in enamel bond strength of sealant when the bonding procedure was carried out immediately after bleaching, use of ethanol or other types of antioxidant reduced the amount of microleakage sig-nificantly.

Relation of the Mandibular Canal to the Root Apices of Different Types of Impacted Lower 3rd Molar

Shahrazad S Saad; Asmaa B Al –Saffar; Bara S Minwah

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 109-114
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42650

Aims: The study aims to determine the radiographic relationship of the inferior dental canal to the roots of impacted lower third molars. Materials and Methods: Sixty one patients were examined radio graphically by using conventional orthopantomograph (OPG) for detecting the relationship of the root apices of different types of impacted lower third molars to the inferior dental canal. Results: The sam-ple enrolled included 61 patients (30 males and 31 females) with a total of 100 impacted lower third molars. Age of patients included in the study ranged from 17 to 48 years within an average age of (32.5 %). Bilateral impaction was noticed in 39 patients (63.9 %), whereas unilateral impaction was observed in 22 patients (36.1 %). The greater number of impacted lower 3rd molar were of mesioangular angula-tions and were accounted in 40 impacted teeth (40 %) of the sample ,followed by vertical impaction 29 %, and horizontal impaction 23 %, while the inverted and distoangular angulations represented 4 % each. Seventy three roots (38 mesial and 35 distal roots) were categorized as "adjacent" relationship and 63 roots (32 mesial and 31 distal roots) categorized as "notching" and 53 roots (26 mesial and 27 distal roots) were categorized as "super imposition" with only one root ,mesial root categorized as "grooving". The remaining 10 roots (3 mesial and 7 distal roots) could not be placed under any of these categories. Therefore, they were placed in the category X or none. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the mesioangular impaction is the most problematic type of impaction and "adjacent" relationship of mandibular third molar to inferior dental canal is most common type.

The Effect of Hyaluronic Acid and Platelet - Rich Plasma on Soft Tissue Wound Healing: An Experimental Study on Rabbits

Wafaa K Fathi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 115-125
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42652

Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the benefits of using platelet– rich plasma and hyaluronic acid when used alone or in combination with each other on wound healing. Materials and methods: The study performed on 15 adult male rabbits divided into three group according to healing periods (3,7,14 days), each group containing 5 animals. Four longitudinal incisions were made on the back of each rabbit, 2 in the right and 2 in the left. A distance of about 1.5 cm was left between one incision and another. The defects were filled with platelet–rich plasma, hyaluronic acid, or mixture of both, and the last incision served as control. Animals were sacrificed at 3rd, 7th, and 14th day after intervention, and biopsy were taken. Histopathological analyses were performed to evaluate the effect of these materials on acceleration of wound healing of skin. Statistical analyses was performed with Analysis of Variance and Duncan's Multiple Range Analysis Test, using a significant level of p ≤ 0.01. Results: Histopatho-logical analysis revealed significant improvement of wound healing when treated with PRP, and with mixed application of PRP and HA compared with control and HA groups in 3rd and 7th day postope-ratively, while there was no significant differences in wound healing between all groups at the end of the second week. Conclusions: The use of PRP alone or in combination with HA will accelerate wound healing , while the use of low concentration of HA alone presents no improvement of wound healing in comparison with normal one.

The Effect of Various Surface Treatment Adhesives and Composite Materials on Repair Strength of Composite Resin

Nadia H Hasan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 126-134
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42653

Aimsof the study:The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a flowable composite and total etch adhesive on shear bond strength of repaired composite with a different types of tooth colored res-torations (microhybrid, nanohybrid, and ormocer). Materials and Methods Ninety Teflon mold (4 mm ×2mm), of Tetric® Ceram prepared then divided into two main groups 1st control ( without etch-ing ), 2 ed etched with 37 phosphoric acid. Both groups were divided into three subgroups according to a type of adhesiveapplied, 1st control, 2 ed the Excite® and in 3ed the tgflow appliedThe second split of Teflon mold (4mm×1mm)placed onto the prepared specimenEach subgroup (1st control, 2 ed the Excite® and in 3rd the tgflow) were farther divided into three subgroups which entrain filled as fallow: 1st split filled with a Tetric® Ceram, in 2 ed split filled with Tetric NCeram, and in 3 rd. split filled with Admira. Shear bond strength was measured by using Universal Testing Machine, and mode of failure examined by a stereomicroscope. Results: No significant difference in the surface treatment groups. For the adhesive, Tgflow showed superior shear value (3248 MPa) comparing to other adhe-sives while for the composite materials, The Tetric NCeram composite showed superior value of shear strength (2821MPa) comparing to other materialsConclusions: Phosphoric acid has no effect on shear value of repaired composite while Tgflow and Tetric NCeram give an improvement in its shear valueAll composites exhibited cohesive and adhesive type of failure.

Cephalometric Characteristics of Bimaxillary Protrusion in Adolescents

Afnan J Ismael

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 135-141
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42654

Aims:The purpose of this study was to identify the cephalometric features of bimaxillary protrusion in adolescents. Materials and Methods: Ninty four students were selected aged (12-15) years from secondary schools in Mosul City.Fourty four with class I biprotrusion which were chosen to have an inte-rincisal angle less than 110o, and 50 with class I normal occlusion. Astandardized lateral cephalometric radiograph was taken for each student, sixteen variables, (9 angular and 7 linear) were used in this study. Results: Significant differences were seen in the majority of the linear and angular measure-ments used in this study, the total anterior facial height, lower anterior facial height, upper anterior den-tal height , lower anterior dental height, the angle defines the anteroposterior position of maxilla in re-lation to anterior cranial base, the angle indicates the anteroposterior position of the mandible in rela-tion to the anterior cranial base, mandibular plane angle, palatomandibular plane angle, gonial angle, the angulation of upper central incisor to anterior cranial base and the angulation of lower central inci-sor to mandibular plane were significantly higher in bimaxillary protrusion than normal occlusion in both sexes and total sample.No significant differences were seen in other measurements : upper ante-rior facial height, posterior facial height, ramus height and the angle of palatal plane inclination in rela-tion to anterior cranial base.Interincisal angle was significantly smaller in bimaxillary protrusion than normal occlusion. Conclusions: Most of the anterior facial measurements were significantly higher in bimaxillary protrusion than normal occlusion if compared to posterior facial height and ramus height due to the downward and backward rotation of the mandible in bimaxillary protrusion.

The Effect of Different Water Types on The Water Powder Ratio of Dental Gypsum Products

Amer A Taqa; Nada Z Mohammed; Aliaa Alomari

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 142-147
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42656

Aims: To evaluate the effect of different water types on the water powder ratio of dental gypsum products. Materials and Methods: In this study five types of water (distilled, tab, slurry, de-ionized and well water) were used to be mixed with two types of dental gypsum products (plaster and stone). Results: Results showed a statistically significant difference at p ≤ 0.05 in water powder ratio of gyp-sum products when mixed with different types of water that used in this study . Conclusions: Water requirement of gypsum product varies in respect to the type of water used to be mixed with. The most pronounce decrease in water requirement of dental gypsum products was achieved with slurry water

Comparison Between Laceback and Tie-back in Sliding Mechanics (An in vitro study)

Khawla M Awni

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 148-152
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42658

ABSTRACTAims: The current study aims to investigate the rate of space closure, tipping and rotation of canine during its retraction by laceback and tieback using standard ceramic brackets along 2 types of arch-wires using typodont simulation system (Ormco). Materials and Methods: The standardization crite-ria were all typodont teeth situated in well aligned position, covered and immobilized by the acrylic bite except canine, laceback and tieback were used to slide the canine. Results: The present study showed that when slide the canine on 0.017x 0.025 inch archwire gave rise to significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation as compared when sliding it on 0.020 inch archwire, also sliding the canine using laceback as a method of retraction gave rise to a significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation as compared with tieback. Conclusions: It was concluded that canine retraction using laceback retraction method along 0.017x0.025 inch archwire gave rise to a significant decrease in the rate of space closure, degree of tipping and rotation.

Histometric Evaluation of Atenolol Effect on Developing Rat Dentition: Experimental Study

Asmaa S Al-Douri

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 153-159
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42661

Aims: To investigate the histometric effect of atenolol drug on the developing dentition of rats. Mate-rials and Methods: The pregnant rats were divided into two main groups; control and atenolol treated groups. The control pregnant rats were given 1 ml distilled water orally from 12 – 18 day of gestation period, after delivery of these rats, thirty newborn rats from six mothers were sacrificed at ages 1, 5, 10 days postnataly (p.n). The experimental group were given 10 mg atenolol powder suspended in 1 ml distilled water orally, daily as a single dose from 12 – 18 day of gestation, thirty newborn rats from each six mothers were sacrificed at ages 1, 5, 10 days postnataly. The specimens were prepared for processing and staining with Hematoxyline and Eosin stains, and then examined by Motic microscope. Histometric measurements were under taken for these specimens by graticule lense. The histometric parameters used are the dentin thickness, mesiodistal dimension of molar teeth, pulp density (cellulari-ty) and eruption rate. Results: The results showed that atenolol affect on the developing rat dentition .This manifested by less dentin thickness, decreased mesiodistal dimension, increase in pulp cellularity and delay in eruption rate of lower incisor tooth in the atenolol treated groups in comparison to the con-trol groups. These observed changes are proceeded or continued as development process until last ex-premintal age 10 p.n. Conclusions: Atenolol drug delay the tooth development and affect it.

Effect of Maggot (larva) Secretions on Bacterial Growth

Wisam M Al-Saeed; Hind J Mahmood

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 160-164
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.42666

Aim: To evaluate the antimicrobial properties of maggots in- vitro. The secretions of maggots are known to have antibacterial properties. To quantify the bactericidal effect of secretions from larvae of L. sericata, an in vitro test model based on the modified European qualitative test. Material and me-thod: In this study, the activity of the maggots was demonstrated against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseu-domonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus group A and group B, and a clinical isolate of MRSA. The num-bers of bacterial colonies with and without maggot exposure were compared after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure. Results: Maggots applied in the center of the bacterial culture showed a clear zone of inhibi-tion of the bacterial growth in addition the maggot contained viable bacteria after 48 hrs of contact with the respective organisms. Thus, the maggot secretions regarded as an antiseptic against different types of bacteria. In addition, the maggots ability to ingest bacteria was also evaluated. These maggots also continued excreting bacteria. Therefore, maggots should be disposed after use, as they must be re-garded as medical wastes. Conclusions: Complete lyses of the bacteria in the area of maggots applica-tion indicated the antimicrobial properties of maggots.

The Clinical Effect of Phenytoin on Oral Wound

Fayhaa AM Al- Mashhadane

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 165-170
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.45450

Aims: To study the effect of oral phenytoin on healing of oral wound in buccal mucosa of rab-bits.Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on twenty healthy male rabbits weighing be-tween 1.0 – 1.5 Kg, they were divided into 2 groups; first group consisted of 10 untreated rabbits (con-trol) and second group consisted of 10 rabbits treated by phenytoin at dose of 60 mg/Kg orally along with 3 ml/Kg of sterile water using cavage needle for 10 days. All animals were anesthetized with amixture of xylazine hydrochloride and ketamine hydrochloride at 0.5, 50 mg/Kg intramuscular respec-tively, then a standard wound was made on buccal mucosa of each rabbit, all animals were kept under observation, and their wounds was measured every day with respect to surface area (length x width) in cm2, type of wound tissue and duration of healing. Results: t – test analysis was performed to test the differences in wound characteristics of both groups, it was found that there was significant differences between control and treatment groups (p< 0.001). Conclusions: Systemic use of phenytoin can delay oral wound healing of buccal mucosa.

The Success rate of Retrograde Filling Materials in Re-apicectomized Teeth using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and Zinc free Amalgam (A comparative clinical study).

Bara S Minwah; Wael Sh Hussain; Hani M Khlaif

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 171-176
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.45451

Aim of the study: To compare the success rate of root end filling material using MTA( mineral trioxide
aggregate) and zinc free amalgam in re-apicectomized teeth. Materials and methods: The study
sample consisted of 30 patients having previously failed surgical endodontic treatment. The sample
was divided into 2 groups, the 1st group treated with MTA root end filling, while the 2nd group treated
with amalgam root end filling. The patients were followed up after 6 months to assess the periapical
area both clinically and radiographically. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between
the success rate of MTA treated group and that of amalgam treated group, although MTA has a
higher success rate than amalgam treated group .the success rate of MTA treated group was (86.6 %)
while the failure rate of MTA treated group was (13.3%), the success rate of zinc free amalgam treated
group was ( 66.6%) and the rate of uncertain healing was (13.3%) while the rate of failure was (22%).
Conclusions: MTA can be a good alternative to amalgam as a retro grade filling material, but amalgam
is inexpensive, available ,and most of the dentist are familiar with the use of it.

Evaluation of Lip Profile in Adolescent Subjects with Skeletal Class I Occlusion and Class III Malocclusion

Manar Y Abdul-Qadir; Saba H Al-Zubaidy; Raed Saeed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 177-184
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.45453

Aims: To examine the difference of anteroposterior lip position using lateral cephalometric radiograph in a sample of Class I and Class III malocclusion adolescents. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 80 adolescent subjects (40 males and 40 females) who were divided according to the type of occlusion into two groups; dental and skeletal Class I group (40 subjects) and the dental and skeletal Class III group (40 subjects). On lateral cephalometric radiograph, lip position was assessed using 7 linear and 2 angular measurements. The data were analyzed using independent samples t–test. Results: Significant differences were noticed between the two groups for most of the variables. The combined sample showed more retrusive position of the upper lip in Class III group in relation to Steiner, Burtone and Canuts lines. While significantly more retrusive position of the lower lip in Class III group was noticed in relation to Burstone and Harmony lines. In addition, Class III sample showed a significantly smaller H angle and greater Z angle than Class I group. When these reference lines were compared for sensitivity, H line and B line were found to have the greatest power to differentiate between the 2 groups. Sexual dimorphism was noticed in both groups. In Class I group, males showed more protru-sive lips in relation to Steiner line. While in the Class III lines group, males showed more protrusive upper lip in relation to Burton and Canuts lines and in both groups males showed significantly larger H angle and smaller Z angle than females. Conclusions: The skeletal Class III malocclusion tend to have lip profile that differs significantly from skeletal Class I occlusion and is characterized by retrusive upper lip, protrusive lower lip, smaller H angle and more obtuse Z angle. These findings emphasize the importance of integumental evaluation as an aid in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning of this type of malocclusion.

The Effectiveness of Using Pulpotec® in Treatment of Pulpitis by Pulpotomy of Vital Deciduous Molar and Vital Immature Permanent Molar

Khudhair A Al- Salman; Baydaa A Al-Rawi; Omar Rahawi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 185-190
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.45454

Aims: To evaluate the effect of two types of disinfectant solutions(2% alkaline glutaraldehyde, 1% sodium hypochlorite) in wettability of three types of elastomeric impression materials (light body) which are used in crown and bridge restorations at different times of immersion. Materials and me-thods: Three types of elastomeric impression materials (light body) were formed on a flat acrylic resin block and allowed to set(five specimens of each impression material was done for each immersion time(15,30 and60 minutes)of each disinfectant solution in addition to control groups). The wettability is indicated by measuring the contact angle of aqueous solution of CaSO4 on surface of cured impres-sion materials. Results: indicated no significant effect of immersion times on wettability of three types of impression materials. The hydrophilic type produce high wettability. Conclusions: The disinfectant solutions have different effects on each impression material. Sodium hypochlorite has the greatest beneficial effect on wettability

Evaluation of Dental Caries Prevalence among Children in Mosul City Center Using Significant Caries Index

Saher S Gasgoos; Ghada D Al-Sayagh; Karam Jazrawi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 191-197
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2012.45455

Aims of the study: To evaluate the prevalence of dental caries among children aged 9-10 years in Mo-sul City Center and to compare between traditional index and significant caries index of these students. Materials and Methods: The study sample was obtained from third and fourth class students from eight randomly selected primary schools in Mosul City Center. Sample size was 363 students, 225 fe-males and 138 males. Students' ages were 9 and 10 years. All primary and permanent teeth were ex-amined for the presence of decay, missing or filling teeth/surfaces. Mean DMFT, DMFS, dmft and dmfs were calculated for the students together and separately for each sex. The mean Significant Caries Index (SiC) was also calculated as the mean DMFT and DMFS of the one third of the students with the highest caries scores. Results: The SiC index was significantly higher in all comparisons with tradi-tional DMF index (p < 0.000). A comparison between the two indices indicated that there is a large children subgroup presented with a high caries rate. Conclusions: The mean DMF values did not accu-rately reflect the skewed distribution of dental caries leading to incorrect conclusions that the caries rate of the statewide population is under control. It is better to use SiC index instead of the traditional index.