Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Volume 11, Issue 3

Volume 11, Issue 3, Summer and Autumn 2011


Effect of microwave and ultrasonic disinfecting techniques on the color of artificial teeth : A comparative study

Omar A Sheet

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164422

Aims of the Study: To evaluate the influence of disinfection by
microwave and ultrasonic cleaning techniques on the color
parameters of different types of artificial teeth used in prosthodontic
treatment. MATERIALS & METHODS: Three types of artificial
teeth were used: Porcelain teeth, RMH acrylic teeth (double cross
linked) and Seif acrylic teeth (cross linked). Samples were
immersed in distilled water for 48 hours at 37ºC before taking
measurements. The color parameters (hue, chroma and value) of
study samples were measured by Easy shade device before
treatment, after disinfection by microwave (800 watt for 6 minutes),
and lastly after cycle in ultrasonic cleaner (15minutes with
effervescent tablet). Data were statistically analyzed by Analysis of
Variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan Multiple Analysis Range
Test to determine the level of significance. RESULTS: Color of
acrylic teeth was affected more than that of porcelain teeth. Results
showed significant differences (P<0.05) in chroma and value color
parameters before and after disinfection for Acrylic teeth but not for
hue parameter. CONCLUSIONS: Seif teeth colors changed during
disinfection more than RMH teeth, while Porcelain teeth the least.
Microwave disinfection technique do not affect significantly the
color of denture teeth

An extra oral prosthesis for extensive maxillofacial defect :A clinical report

Mohammed A. Abdulla; Bashar A. Tawfeeq; Basem Al- Shekhely

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 12-16
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164430

AIMS: Prosthetic rehabilitation of the patient by extraoral
appliance, restoring the losing eye, part of the nose, cheek, roof
of the palate (left side), and improving esthetic, phonetic and
mastication of the patient. METHODS: Impression and making
of the working cast, Sculpture of the wax pattern, artificial eye
made from acrylic resin, body of prosthesis made from acrylic
resin lined with soft lining material, silicon elastomers of
maxillofacial applied to the prosthesis for life like skin
appearance, and delivery of the prosthesis to the patient.
CONCLUSIONS: Many methods of retaining the maxillofacial
prosthesis have been used like tissue under cuts,magnets, medical
adhesives, osseointegrated implants or combination of them. The
prognosis was poor for the prosthetic treatment because of the
extensive defect size, radiation applied all around the defect area
make a challenge to get benefit from implant fixed in the
surrounding bony area to enhance the retention of the prosthesis,
and little bony support. For the case which describe in this report,
retention obtained from hard and soft tissue under cut.

Antifungal Activity of Some Natural Oils on Heat Cured Acrylic and Tissue Conditioning Material

Reem N. Al-Irhayim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 17-24
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164431

Aims of the Study: The current study aims to evaluate the effect
of some natural products (olive oil, thymus oil,and grap seed oil)
in relation to Protifex on disinfection of acrylic resin denture base
and tissue conditioning materials (Heat Cured and GC extra soft
denture liner). Materials and method: The total number of
samples were 30 specimens , their dimensions were
(10x10x2mm). 15 specimens were prepared from heat cured
acrylic resin and 15 were prepared from GC extrasoft tissue
conditioing material, for each group they were immersed for 8hrs
in these oils after they had been infected with Candida albicans
and incubated for 48hrs. This study compared antifungal
efficiency of distilled water (Negative Control), effervescent
Protifex tablet as a positive control, olive oil, thymus oil, and
grape seed oil. The statistical tests used were one way analysis of
variance test, Duncan multiple range test to compare the groups.
Results: The results demonstrated that there were significant
differences between all tested oils and D.W in relation to
antifungal activity at (P=0.05). Conclusions: All the tested natural
oils were effective as fungicidal agents and there is no significant
difference among them

The effect of addition of chlorohexidine gluconate (powder) on properties of heat cured acrylic resin

Amer A. Taqa; Nada Z. Mohammed; Aliaa Alomari

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 25-34
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164432

Aims of the Study: The current study aims to evaluate the effect of the
addition of chlorohexidine gluconate (CHX) (powder) on some
physical , mechanical properties and antimicrobial effect. Materials
and Methods: In this study two hundred and forty samples of heat
cured acrylic resin (Major base-2) were prepared and divided into:
control group( without the addition of CHX) and experimental
groups(with the addition of CHX(powder) at (1%, 2%, 3%)) to evaluate
transverse strength, tensile strength, , surface hardness, dimensional
accuracy, deflection , residual monomer in addition to antimicrobial
effect for heat cured acrylic resin before and after the addition of
CHX(powder). Results: Results showed a statistically significant
difference at (p0.05) between control and experimental groups. The
addition of CHX (powder) into heat cured acrylic resin increases its
flexibility in addition to it's antimicrobial effect. Group of 1% CHX has
the highest value of transverse strength, tensile strength ,surface
hardness and dimensional accuracy after control group. Conclusions:
In addition to its antimicrobial effect, CHX increases the flexibility of
heat cured acrylic resin. As the concentration of added CHX increased,
the flexibility of heat cured acrylic resin specimens will be increased.

The knowledge and professional attitudes toward denture adhesives in Mosul

Nadira A Hatim; Hala K Ali; Hydar M Shindala

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 35-43
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164433

Aims: The aims of the present study is evaluate the dentist knowledge
and believes toward denture adhesive through generation of discussion
among dentist (in ministry of health and ministry of higher education) in
Mosul city. Materials and Methods: In a dental meeting that held on
April 2009 in College of Dentistry ,university of Mosul ,a questionnaire
paper was given to 264 dentist which consist of two: part the first one
evaluate dentist knowledge about denture adhesive, the second one
evaluate the dentist attitude toward denture adhesive. Result: The
findings of the present study showed that (9.8%, 67.8% and 22.4%) of
dentists had respectively weak, moderate and good knowledge toward
denture adhesive while( 3.1%, 80.4% and 16.6%) had respectively
negative, moderate and positive attitude toward denture adhesive
materials. The 2 test showed non significant statistical relation between
dentist knowledge about denture adhesives and their previous years of
experience, place of work, sex and their degree of education. Statistical
analysis methods used to analyze and asses the result of this study were
SPSS version 13.0. Conclusions: The findings of the present study
showed that dentist knowledge and attitude toward denture adhesive
materials was moderate. Their information about denture adhesive
indications, contraindications, advantages and disadvantages were very
poor therefore prosthodontic specialist in College of Dentistry,
University of Mosul should insist on denture adhesive in student's
curriculum with increasing the credit hours.

An Enveloped Auricular Prosthesis for Ear Defect: A Clinical Report

Nadira A. Hatim.; Salem Hazem; Mohammed A. Abdulla

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 44-48
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164434

AIMS: Prosthetic rehabilitation of the patient by extraoral
auricular appliance. Restoring defect part of the ear.
Improving esthetic of the patient. METHODS:
Impression taking and making of the working cast.
Sculpture of the wax pattern. Try-in step for the wax
pattern. Enveloped auricular prosthesis made from
maxillofacial silicon elastomers. Delivery of the
prosthesis to the patient. CONCLUSIONS: To make
maxillofacial prosthesis, the shape, volume, position,
texture and transparency of the patient's features tried to
be respected. One of the greatest challenges faced is to
reproduce the patient's exact skin color and provide
adequate esthetics

Determination the flow of experimental modeling waxes by using vicat apparatus

Nadira A. Hatim; Amer A. Taqa; Ahmad W. Alubaidi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 49-57
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164435

Aim of the study: measuring the flow of new experimental
modeling waxes. Materials and methods: preparation of
one hundred twenty (120) samples of different
experimental modeling waxes by mixing of different
percentages of Iraqi natural waxes ( hard paraffin, soft
paraffin and beeswax) and additives (starch, gum Arabic,
rosin and Na-carboxymethylcellulose) using mold made
from brass according to ADA specification and measure
the flow of them by using vicat apparatus after making
modification on it. Results: The experimental modeling
wax (80% hard paraffin + 20% soft paraffin) and (80%
beeswax + 20% soft paraffin) had the most nearest
properties to control (Polywax) at 40c°and 45c° and
experimental modeling wax (90% beeswax + 10% starch)
to control (Major) at 40c° and experimental modeling
waxes (80% beeswax + 20% hard paraffin), (80% hard
paraffin + 15% soft paraffin + 5% beeswax), (70% hard
paraffin + 20% soft paraffin + 10% beeswax) and (90%
beeswax + 10% starch) to control (Major) at 45c°.
Conclusions: The flow of waxes increased with increasing
heating temperature from 40°C to 45°C.

Evaluation of Physical and ChemicalProperties of Saliva on Retention of Complete Denture (In Vitro Study)

Amer A. Taqa; Tarik Y. K Bashi; Manar N Y Nazhat

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 58-66
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164436

Aims of this research to study the effect of surface area on retention
of complete denture. Materials and methods: Oral examination
clinically, some of physical and biochemical analysis of human
unstimulated whole saliva have been studied. They constituted in
three groups (25 in each the first and the third group) and (50 in the
second group). The first group was healthy and aged (20-30) years,
the second group was healthy and aged (50-70) years, also the third
group aged (50-70) years but with systemic diseases.The following
parameters were studied: flow rate, pH, total protein, density, surface
tension, viscosity and film thickness. Total protein concentration was
responsible for physical and chemical changes specially viscosity.
There was a direct positive correlation between total protein and
surface tension, viscosity, density and film thickness, while there was
a negative correlation between total protein and with flow rate and
pH. The measurement of force due to surface tension of these
samples have been done by preparing two pairs of circular discs of
(PMMA) of (5.2,6.5) cm in diameter and compare of force between
these groups, also compare these physical analysis with mathematic
analysis. Results: indicated that in both the first and the third groups,
the physical and mathematic analysis for retention showed non
significant changes while in the second group showed significant
changes. Conclusions :there was a positive correlation between force
and wetted area and this force was due to wettability and not to
water sorption.

evaluation of the effect of temperature and time on the conversion factor of acrylic resin denture base material

Nadira A. Hatim; Amer A. Taqa; Saja Amjad Abdul Razzak

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 67-79
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164437

The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of change
in time ,temperature (increase or decrease) on the degree of
conversion and residual monomer release of the vertex heat
cured acrylic resin. Materials and methods: The total number
of samples (176) were divided into three main groups cured
according to ADA and three curing cycles with modifications
in time and temperature, degree of conversion and residual
monomer properties were measured for all the samples.
Results were analyzed statistically by (Descriptive statistics,
ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range test) and showed that
both changes in time and temperature showed significant
changes in the degree of conversion, residual monomer.
Conclusion is that the rapid simplified and regular
manufacturer’s instruction curing cycles showed the best
results regarding the degree of conversion, residual monomer.

Evaluation of the Effect of Implant-numbers, Position and Complete Over Denture on Alveolar Bone Resorption.

Nadira A. Hatim; Ali M. Al- Sheakh

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 80-92
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164438

The aims: The aims of this study were to evaluate the alveolar bone resorption
every 2.5mm distal to the implant over denture to the retromolar pad in the
mandibular arch, and to the maxillary tuberosity in the maxillary arch in edentulous
patient according to number between two and four, and position of implants
between canine and 2nd premolar. Materials and Methods: Eight patients (age
range 45-60 years) were selected from the department of Prosthodontics/ College of
Dentistry/Mosul University, who had at least one edentulous arch. All patients
complaining from poorly retention conventional acrylic complete denture due to the
residual ridge resoption, but the alveolar ridge height need at least 10mm implant
length.After completing the surgical steps of 26 implants (two or four implant
screw type titanium), over denture type with one step surgery for all implant types
were constructed in conventional method after one month healing period. The
prosthesis was delivered to the patients after one months of making the period
elapsed. Dentures were delivered without socket attachment(six months). For
assessment of alveolar bone height, for each patient panoramic exposure of OPG
was recorded – three times [base line(at time of placement) , 6 months and 12
months]. Results: Results of this study showed, that mean difference of bone
resoption range between [-0.2 –(-0.6)mm], and there was a significant difference of
bone resoption between base line and 12 months to p0.05 according to number and
position of implants. Conclusions: The conclusion of this study showed that, there
was no significant different of alveolar ridge bone resoption between implants
number in two or four implants over denture or implant position.

The Fungicidal action of Some Natural Products (Denture cleansers ) on Acrylic Denture Base Material

Nadira A. Hatim; Rana Rabee AL-sumaidae

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 93-99
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164439

Aim: To evaluate some natural products (soda+ vinegar, soda +
thymol , saturated salt solution) compared with the commercial denture
cleanser (Protifex), for disinfection of acrylic denture base material
from C. albicans (in vitro ). Materials And Methods: Thirty five
samples, (10 x 10 x 2 mm length, width, and thickness respectively),
were prepared from heat cured acrylic resin denture base material
(Major heat cured acrylic resin ), using MacFarland Standard
Bacteriologica Solution technique, tube No.2., using a light microscope
with camera connected to computer for testing anti fungal efficiency of
these natural denture cleansers (soda, vinegar, thymol, saturated salt
solution). This procedure was done after 1hour, 4hours, and 8 hours of
immersion. in comparison with samples immersed in distilled water,
(Control). Results: The results demonstrated that at P=0.05 there were
significant differences between all prepared solutions and control. The
best prepared natural solution was saturated salt solution. There were
significant differences between all times of immersion, the best was
8hrs. Conclusions: All the prepared natural denture cleansers were
considered as fungicidal disinfectants, and a proper disinfection of the
acrylic denture base material requires 8hrs of immersion in the
prepared disinfectant solutions. The best prepared natural solution was
saturated salt solution.

Denture Disinfection by Microwave at Different Times and Powers

Alaa Al-Saraj; Munther N. Kazanji; Ghada Y. Abdul-Rahman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 100-106
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164440

Aims: To evaluate the best microwave power and the proper
time that disinfect acrylic resin denture base material.
Methodology: Fifty five samples were prepared from heat
cured acrylic resin(10mmx10mmx2mm) then immersed in
glass flask containing brain heart broth and inculated with
swabs from patients wearing complete denture divided into:
negative control group (untreated), positive control group
immersed in 0.02% sodium hypochlorite for 8 hours, and nine
groups of different microwave disinfection settings (different
powers and times),then immersed in sterile BHI broth
individually and diluted up to 10-4 and 0.01ml plated in blood
agar and Sabouraud's dextrose agar and CFU/ml were
collected. Results: analysis of the data showed a significant
difference between tested groups. Conclusions: microwave
disinfection at 900W and 540W for 3minutes showed both
antifungal and antibacterial effect.

Aesthetic replacement of malposed upper lateral incisor by implant supported ceramic crown

Saad Yasin Nori

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 107-112
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164441

Aims of the Study: To show the possibility of replacement of
malposed upper lateral incisor by implant supported ceramic
crown without raising a flap after extracting the tooth Materials
and methods: An Implant of Xive type made by Dentsply –
Friadent of diameter 3.4 and length 13 mm was implanted
immediately after extraction of the malposed upper lateral
incisor of a woman of 44 years old through the socket without
raising a flap .A removable upper single tooth partial denture
was inserted immediately after implant insertion. After 3 months
period exposure of the implant was done and a gingival former
was fixed for 2weeks period after which an impression by elastic
material was done after fixing transfer coping on the implant. A
cast was made and a ceramic crown was made on the implant
with proper shape and color and position which is fixed on the
implant in the patient mouth. Results:The ceramic crown which
is supported by the implant gave a better aesthetic result than the
malposed natural lateral incisor regarding shape and position in
relation to the adjacent teeth. Conclusions: Malposed upper
anterior tooth could be replaced by implant supported ceramic
crown successfully with out raising a flap giving better aesthetic
value than before.

Evaluation of propolis to modify soft denture lining materials, part 1

Ammar K. AL-Nori; Bassima A. Abdullah; Hamza S. AL-neema

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 113-123
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164442

Aims to evaluate some properties of temporary soft liner
(Bony plus) and permanent soft liner (vertex) before and
after adding propolis extracts to it. Materials and
methods ethanolic extracts of propolis(ethanolic extract
of propolis) was added to temporary soft liner (Bony
plus), and glycolic extract of propolis(glycolic extract of
propolis) was added to permanent soft liner (vertex), then
the volumetric dimensional changes, hardness, water
absorption and solubility were evaluate, the total samples
were (128). Results showed the presence of significant
diffrence in the Hardness, Water absorption and
Solubility of the modified soft liners (After adding
propolis to it), and there was no significant diffrence in
the volume of the soft liners before and after adding
propolis.Conclusions the volumetric changes of modified
and control group of permanent soft liner (vertex) was no
significantly different, The modification type (for both
permanent and temporary) of soft liner was significantly
softer than the control group along the period of storage
(1 month) and the modification type (for both permanent
and temporary) of soft liner was significantly have more
water absorption and solubility than the control group
along the period of storage (1 month).

laser versus conventional acid etching technique on bond strength of orthodontic brackets (An in vitro stydy)

Khidhair A. Al–Jumaili; Abdul– Rahman I Ali; Zaid A Ibrahim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 124-130
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164443

Aims: This in vitro study was undertaken to evaluate and
compare the effect of acid etching and/or diode laser (1064
nm) irradiation on shear bond strength of orthodontic
brackets. Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted
human premolars were included in this study. Laser
irradiation was done by using the new 1064 nm diode laser
with output power of 2.5 Watt in continues mode, also use
stainless steel orthodontic brackets (Roth, 22–slot size), and
use orthodontic flowable composite resin which needs no
bonding fluid. The 30 human teeth were divided into 3 groups
(each group consist of 10 teeth): Group A–use acid etching
(37% phosphoric acid) for 1 minute to bond bracket to tooth
surface (control group), group B–use laser irradiation for 30
seconds with Indian ink (coated on teeth). Group C–use laser
irradiation for 30 seconds with Indian ink after that use acid
etching for 1 minute. Shear bond strength measured by using
unconfined shear testing machine at a cross head speed of 5
mm/min. Results: The shear bond strength means were as
follows: Group A: 11.27 MPa, group B: 6.21 MPa, group C:
14.04 MPa. The acid etching after 1064 nm diode laser
irradiation (group C) has significantly higher bond strength (p
 0.05) than remaining groups. In group B, orthodontic
brackets had significantly lower shear bond strength (p  0.05)
than remaining groups. Conclusions: These results indicate
that acid etching after laser irradiation enhances and improves
the bonding of orthodontic composite resin to human enamel.
In the same time 1064 nm diode laser irradiation with ink
coating is not consider as a replacement to acid etching in
bonding of orthodontic brackets to human enamel.

success and failure rates of orthodontic microimplants (Aclinical study)

Ahmad A Abdulmawjood; Mahmood Kh Ahmad; Zaid S Tawfiq

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 131-135
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164444

Aims: To evaluate the rates of success and failure regarding
the mobility of orthodontic microimplants in patients
undergoing fixed orthodontic appliance treatment. Materials
and Methods: The sample consisted of 36 titanium
microimplants (AbsoAnchor®, Dentos inc. Korea) inserted in
15 female patients. The mean age for the patients was 25.53
years. Microimplants of 1.2 mm in diameter and 6–10 mm in
length were used. A self–drilling method was used. A small
vertical stab incision and the microimplants inserted with a
screwdriver. The patients were seen periodically every 3–4
weeks. A microimplant with complete absence of a clinically
detectable mobility was considered as a successful one.
Whereas failure was defined as a microimplant mobility
within 8 months. Results and Discussion: The total success
rate for microimplants for both jaws was (86.1%). Whereas a
(91.7%) success rate was recorded in the upper jaw and in the
lower jaw it was (75%).Despite of higher failure rates in the
mandible, which may be attributed to the occlusal force, yet
they remain non significantly different from those in maxilla.
Conclusions: The relatively high success rates of
microimplants make them an appropriate solution for
providing absolute anchorage whenever being needed in
orthodontic therapy. 

Anterior open bite :causative factors and diagnosis

Anfal A Al–Ani

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 136-143
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164445

The real difficulty behind the treatment of open bite is the
easy relapse, for it has a multifactorial nature. Aim: The aim
of this study is to compare the reliability of two differential
ways in the diagnosis of the open bites, looking out for the
causative factors, aiding in more specific treatment plan and
less relapse. Materials and Methods: A sample of 53 anterior
open bite cases, all in the post–pubertal and early adulthood
period (17–25 years), was assessed twice, clinically and
cephalometrically. Due to clinical assessments, the whole
sample was grouped as “Morphogenetic” and “Functional”
groups. The same sample was also cephalometrically assessed
and grouped as “Skeletal” and “Dento–alveolar” using
mandibular plane angle, suspected that the morphogenetic
group clinically matches the cephalometrically assessed
skeletal group in number; also the functional group clinically
matches the cephalometrically assessed Dento–alveolar group
in number. Student’s t–test indicated a weak agreement
between clinical judgment and cephalometric evaluation (p <
0.001). Results: Unexpectedly, the sample which assessed as
skeletal hyper–divergent cephalometrically, half of it in fact
was classified as functional cases clinically. This misdiagnosis
may lead to inadequate treatment plan, in which relapse
should be highly expected.
Conclusions: These findings highlighted that, it is not enough
to depend on “cephalometric evaluation” alone to design the
treatment plan for open bite cases. Clinical evaluation is also
important to point out the real causative factors for designing
an adequate treatment plan (i.e., rehabilitation of the soft
tissue bad habits, when needed) to reduce the prevalence of
relapse.

Evaluation of calcium hydroxide apexification in immature permanent incisors

Khidhair A Al–Jumaili; Baydaa AO Al–Rawi; Aisha A Qasim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 144-149
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164446

Aims of the Study: The aim of the present study is to identify
the effectiveness of tgpaste of calcium hydroxide with barium
sulfate in inducing a calcified apical barrier of an
incompletely formed root in necrotic permanent incisors of
children. Materials and Methods: Twenty children with
twenty teeth with pulpal necrotic and an incompletely formed
apex were included in this study. Working length
determination, instrumentation, irrigation and dryness were
carried out for the root canals then paste of non setting
calcium hydroxide injected inside the canal and after each 3
months the patients were recalled to check the calcified apical
barrier formation. Results: The average age of patients was 
years. The mean duration for apical barrier formation was
6.813+1.1 months (range 6–12 months). Discussion: The use
of calcium hydroxide in apical barrier formation has shown
promising results. Because of its enhanced success rate, easy
availability for clinician and affordability for patients, it has
gained widest acceptance all around the world. Conclusions:
It is generally agreed that calcium hydroxide is the major
ingredient responsible for stimulating the desired calcific
closure of the apical area of non–vital immature permanent
incisors.

Effect of chlorhexidine mouth wash and fluoridated mouth wash on mechanical properties of orthodontic arch wires (An in vitro study)

Hakam H Sabah; Hind T Jarjees; Khawla M Awni

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 150-159
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164447

Aims: The aims of the this study were to measure the effect of
chlorhexidine and fluoridated mouth wash on mechanical
properties of stainless steel and nickel titanium wires and to
study the effect of three time intervals (3, 7, and 10 days)
immersion on these mechanical properties. Materials and
Methods: Two types of orthodontic wires were taken which
included stainless steel and superelastic nickel titanium wires
(Dentaurum, Germany). The 0.016×0.016 inch wires were
selected. Each type of wires divided into seven groups; control
group and six experimental groups in which the wires
immersed in the chlorhexidine and fluoridated mouth wash for
3, 7, and 10 days and then the mechanical properties of wires
(yield stress, ultimate tensile stress, modulus of elasticity)
measured by using the universal tensile testing machine.
Results: The results of the present study showed that a
significant difference in the mechanical properties of both
stainless steel and nickel titanium wires between the control
group and experimental groups immersed in the fluoridated
mouth wash and this decreased in the mechanical properties as
immersion time increased. Also the results of the present
study showed that a non significant difference in the
mechanical properties of both stainless steel and nickel
titanium wires between the control group and experimental
groups immersed in the chlorhexidine mouth wash.
Conclusions: The results of the present study indicated that
the fluoridated mouth wash decreased the mechanical
properties of stainless steel and nickel titanium wires and this
degradation in mechanical properties could contributed to
prolong orthodontic treatment. While the chlorhexidine has no
effect on mechanical properties of stainless steel and nickel
titanium wires.

correlations of the maxillary sinus with the craniofacial dimensions in different age groups( A study on digital lateral cephalometric radiographs of males in Mosul city)

Khudair A. Al–Jumaili; Mustafa M. Hamed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 160-168
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164448

Aims: This study aimed to detect if there are a correlation
between the maxillary sinus measurements ( height and depth)
with the cranial and facial structures that probably could
estimate a functional matrix rule of the maxillary sinus in the
growth of these structure add to estimate the percent of
increase from age group to another. Materials and Methods:
A digital lateral cephalometric radiographs of 113 males with
class I malocclusion from Mosul city were divided into three
age groups: 14 patients Preadolescent (6-9 years), 70 patients
adolescent (11-15 years) and 29 patients adult (17-42 years)
with measurements taken involving the maxillary sinus height
and depth, maxillary length, mandibular lengths, anterior
facial height(upper and lower parts), posterior facial height
(upper and lower part), cranial base dimensions then a
correlation have been down between the maxillary sinus
height and depth with the related dimensions of the
craniofacial complex. Results: The correlation between the
MSH and the related craniofacial dimensions in the three age
groups showed a significantly positive correlations in nearly
all of the measurement specially at adolescences and adults
with just two significant positive correlations for MRL and
TPFH in preadolescence, on the other hand correlating the
MSH with the related measurement in general in single group
showed a positive significant correlation for all measurement.
While correlating the MSD with the related craniofacial
dimensions showed a significantly positive correlation with
MBL, TML and Nba in adult. For MBL and TML in
preadolescence, but no significant correlation showed in
adolescence, with a significant correlation for MSD with
nearly all the related craniofacial dimensions in all age group
in general. In all measurement the percentage of increase from
preadolescence to adolescence more than that from
adolescence to adult. Conclusions: we could concluded that
in the three age groups the growth of the maxillary sinus
probably may influence the related craniofacial structures as a
functional matrix role in the growth mechanism.

The form of upper Dental arch for Mosuli Adults (Acomputerized study)

Ne’am F Al–Obaidi; Khidhair A Al– Jumaili

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 169-177
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164449

Aims: To find out the most frequent dental arch form in
Mosuli adults. Establishment of the normative values of the
upper dental arch dimensions. Materials and Methods: The
sample of this study involved students from Mosul University,
95 students (58 females, 37 males) were selected. The age of
the sample ranged between 18–25 years old. They were
normal healthy individuals of Mosul origin. Full complement
of permanent dentition, bilateral Class I molar and canine
occlusion. The data recorded in this research were subjected to
computerized statistical analysis using SPSS programs,
including descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation,
minimum, maximum), Student’s t–test was applied to test the
significant differences between the genders. Results: There
were highly significant differences between males and
females of the vertical measurements, that males had larger
arch length than females. Also, males had larger arch width
with a highly significant difference at p < 0.01 in all width
dimensions in maxillary arches. It could be noticed that the
most prevalent arch form among the sample was the Mid form
followed by the Narrow and Wide then flat & pointed forms.
Conclusions: The mid arch form is the most frequent arch
form followed by other types. All the measured dimensions
(width and length) have significantly greater mean value in
males than in females with significant difference for linear
measurements. no significant difference in ratio between
genders.

Evaluation of the effect of different points of orthodontic force application (A typodont study)

Omar KhM Thiab; Ahmed Abdul– Mawjood; Ahmed Gh Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 178-183
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164450

Aims: To determine the effect of different points of force
application on dimensional positions and the ratio of space
closure of maxillary canine using sliding mechanics. Mater–
ials and Methods: The study included eight groups which
were categorized according to the differences in the points
from which the retraction force was applied. A 180 gm was
applied by short elastic chain to retract the right maxillary
canine on 0.0180.025'' rectangular stainless steel (SS) wire
and along 13mm available space. In both vertical and
horizontal direction, photographs were taken by digital camera
and the angle between canine extension bar and bite plane
extension bar was measured by protractor to determine tipping
and rotation whereas rate of space closure was measured by
digital vernia. Results: The results showed that the maximum
rate of space closure was achieved when elastic chain was
attached between molar hook to canine hook and the
minimum degree of tipping was achieved when elastic chain
attached between premolar bracket to canine hook while
minimum rotation occurred when the attachment was between
premolar hook to canine hook. Conclusions: Changing the
distance between the points of force application significantly
affects the rate of space closure, tipping and rotation. The use
of hook significantly increases the rate of space closure and
decreases tipping and rotation.

dental caries experience, prevalence and severity in 13–15 years old students in Mosul city center

Khidhair A Al–Jumaili; Rayia J Al–Naimi; Karam H Jazrawi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 184-192
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164451

The aims of the present study is to determine dental caries
experience, prevalence and severity in a group of 13–15 years
olds. Materials and Methods: A random sample of 516
intermediate school students were examined and dental caries
was recorded by DMFT values. Also, the significant caries
index, care and treatment need indices were used. Results:
Mean DMFT values for the total sample was 5.17 with a
statistically significant age difference, females tended to have
more caries than males with significant gender difference. The
significant caries index was 7.98, care index which shows the
restorative care was 10.39. Discussion: There has been an
increase in dental caries prevalence and severity in Mosul
compared with a previous study that was undertaken during
the United Nations’ sanctions on Iraq, due to the availability
and relative cheapness of sugars and confectionaries after
2003. Conclusions: To improve children’s oral health,
community school–based oral health educational programs
should be established starting from primary and extending to
intermediate schools, stressing on sugar restriction and oral
hygiene measures, fissure sealants and fluorides can also be
used effectively.

Comparison of stainless steel and nickel–titanium coil springs effects on the space closure rate (in vitro study)

Fadhil Y Jasim; Wafaa Gh Al–Shahery

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 193-198
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164452

Aim of the Study: To compare the effects of stainless steel
and nickel–titanium closed coil springs with the use of Roth
bracket type and different arch wires on the amount of space
closure during canine retraction in a Typodont simulation
system. Material and Methods: Typodont system with Class
II division 1 wax form and set of metal teeth, with Roth
stainless steel brackets (0.022×0.030 inch) slot dimension.
Eighty stainless steel readymade (Bonwill–Hawley arch form)
arch wires divided in to two groups according to the size
(0.019×0.025 inch and 0.020 inch), 40 for each size. Forty
stainless steel and 40 nickel–titanium closed coil springs with
force 200 gm. The distance between the distal wing of canine's
bracket and the mesial end of second molar's tube was
(31mm) which is the available space. Results: There was a
significant difference in the rate of space closure between the
two types of arch wires and between nickel titanium and
stainless steel closing coil springs. Discussion: The rate of
space closure significantly is greater with nickel–titanium
closed coil spring. Nickel–titanium closed coil spring produce
more sustained light continuous force. Conclusion: Nickel–
titanium closed coil spring is an efficient material for canine
retraction and space closure even with different wire sizes.

assessment of Köle analysis (Tuinzing modification) in mosul city( A cephalometric study)

Khudair A Al–Jumaili; Ahmad A Abdulmawjood; Younis MS Hasan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 199-206
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164453

Aims: The aim of this study is to assess Köle analysis
(Tuinzing modification) for determining the possible positions
of chin (soft and hard tissue) in skeletal Cl.I, Cl.II and Cl. III
type of malocclusion of adult age group and for both genders.
Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on the
lateral cephalometric radiograph of (118) subjects of adult age
group (18-25) years old; Cl I type (28 male and 19 female), Cl
II type (19 male and 17 female) and Cl III type (18 male and
female 17). SNA, SNB and ANB were used to estimate the
type of skeletal malocclusion. For the analysis, 2 lines
perpendicular to SN line are drawn touching the most anterior
point of the upper lip-Ls (upper lip plane) and one from the
infra orbital point-Or (orbital plane). The position of the chin
points (hard and soft tissue) were assessed via determining the
position of (Pog and Pg) respectively in relation to these two
vertical planes using five scores: Score 1: give to the chin
point that situated posterior to orbital plane. Score 2: give to
the chin point that situated in a touch with orbital plane. Score
3: give to the chin point that situated in between orbital plane
and upper lip plane. Score 4: give to the chin point that
situated in a touch with upper lip plane. Score 5: give to the
chin point that situated anterior to the upper lip plane.
Results: The positions of Pog and Pg: Cl I mainly at score (2
and 3) respectively, Cl II mainly at score (1and 2) respectively
and Cl III type Pog gave rise to slight increase of score (3 than
2) while Pg gave rise to slight increase of score (3 than 5) with
no significant difference between genders for all classes.
Conclusions: Köle analysis (Tuinzing modification) may be
valuable for determining chin (soft and hard tissues) of Cl I,
Cl II and Cl III types of malocclusion of adult age group and
for both genders.

Bacteriological and immunological study of aggressive periodontitis in mosul

Mahmoud Y.M. Taha; Alaa M. Altaei

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 207-214
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164454

Aims of the study: to isolate and identify microorganisms
causing aggressive periodontitis, and to estimate the changes
in the levels of IL-1, TNF- and CRP in serum as well as to
determine peroxidase activity in saliva of patients with
aggressive periodontitis. Materials and Methods: This study
was carried out on total number of 40 (35 patients with
aggressive periodontitis, 18 females and 17 males aged
between 16-35 years and 5 control group between 20-30 years
old). Samples were taken from the lesion for bacteriological
study. Serum and saliva were collected and ELISA test was
performed. Results: The bacteriological results showed that
A. actinomycetemcomitans was the most prevalent bacteria in
aggressive periodontitis, followed by facultative anaerobic.
The serological and biochemical studies showed that
interleukin-1 was significantly elevated in the study group
while tumor necrosis factor  was not, whereas peroxidase
enzyme activity and C-reactive protein were also highly
significant elevated in the study group. Conclusion:
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was the major
etiologic bacteria of this disease as well as significantly high
levels of, CRP, peroxidase activity and IL-1 could be
regarded as strong markers for more precise understanding the
immunological aspect of this disease.

antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extract of some plant leaves on aerobic and anaerobic pathogens

Ghada Y Abdul- Rahman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 215-219
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164455

Aims: To evaluate the antibacterial effect of ethanolic extracts
of three medicinal plants (Camellia sinensis,green and black
tea, and Ziziphus spp) on different aerobic and anaerobic
bacteria. Material and Methods: The leaves of black tea,
green tea, and ziziphus from local markets were collected and
extracted in ethanol, the antibacterial activity of 50 ,5, and
0.5% of the ethanol extracts against Escherechia coli,
Staphylococcus aureus, Actinobacilus
actinomycetemcomitans, viridians streptococci and black
pigmenting bacteria were investigated using paper disk
diffusion technique. Results: The results obtained showed that
ethanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activities against
Escherechia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Actinobacilus
actinomycetemcomitans, viridians streptococci and black
pigmenting bacteria. The extracts produced inhibition zones
ranging from 2 – 32 mm against the test bacteria compared
with chlorhexidin (12-15mm). Conclusions: The ethanolic
extracts of the examined plants were effective antibacterial
agents against the aerobic and anaerobic bacteria especially
the periodontopathogens so we suggest to use them in
treatment and prevention of gingivitis and periodontitis.

sensitivity of Treponema denticola isolated from infected periodontal pockets to some mouth rinses and common antibiotics

Summaya A. S. Muhammad; Amera M. M. Al-Rawi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 220-227
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164456

Aims: Treponema denticola is one of the most important
periodontal pathogens because of its high lytic enzymatic
activity leading to tooth lose and its ability to invade tissues
and spread via blood stream causing systemic infections, this
study coming to be the first local study concerning with this
anaerobic fastidious bacterium and looking at the possibility
of rely on the culturing methods in determining the most
preferred chemotherapeutic drugs for limiting of bacterial
activity and spread, as well as investigating the range of the
antimicrobial activity of some mouth rinses and number of
antibiotics. Materials and Methods: 139 samples were
collected from periodontal pockets with a depth of 3 mm
under supervision of specialist dentitist, then placed in a
reduced transport medium. The activity and effective
spectrum of different concentrations for three kinds of widely
used mouth rinses in the treatment of periodontal infections
including Biofresh K, Biofresh F and Zak towards this
bacterium was studied using sensitivity test methods,
furthermore, the minimum inhibitory cocentration of
antibiotics amoxillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin,
azithromycin and mitronidazole was determined using
antibiotic discs diffusion method. Results: The results
showed that Biofresh K is the best in the term of bacterial
killing as its inhibition activity continued to 1:16 dilution and
when the sensitivity of T.denticola isolates to some
antibiotics was tested, it was appeared that ciprofloxacin is the
best causing growth inhibition with the lowest minimum
inhibitory cocentration (0.0001mg), and when the synergistic
effect of the tested antibiotics was studied it is becoming clear
that the lowest antibiotic concentrations can cause growth
inhibition when the two antibiotics (mitronidazole +
ciprofloxacin) or (mitronidazole + amoxillin) are used in
combination. Conclusions: It is possible to depend on
culturing methods for determining the sensitivity of the
bacterium T.denticola to chemotherapeutic drugs. Biofresh K
is the best among the rinses under study and the antibiotic CIP
is the best one with the lowest MIC and the lowest
concentration of the antibiotics resulting in growth inhibition
can be achieved when they are used in combination.

Detection of Hepatitis B viral markers in saliva and serum of chronic carriers in Erbil Governorate

Mahmoud Y M Taha; Omer Surchi; Sazan Mwaffaq Abdulaziz

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 228-236
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164457

Introduction: Hepatitis B virus is a serious public health
problem worldwide and major cause of acute and chronic
hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The high
resistance of HBV to inactivation and its high concentration in
blood and other body fluids such as saliva, semen, vaginal
secretion, breast milk and tears accounts for its high
infectivity. It has been estimated that dental practitioners are
three to five times at a higher risk than the general population
through the exposure to the oral secretions and blood of
potentially infectious patients. Aims of the Study: The overall
aim of this study is to investigate the infectivity of saliva of
chronic HBV carriers through detection of HBV antigens and
their corresponding antibodies and HBV DNA. Materials and
Methods: Serum and saliva samples from 65 confirmed
chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers were examined for
the presence of HBV markers using enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction
(PCR). Results:Out of the 65 chronic HBV carriers, 17(26%)
were seropositive for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg+) and
48(74%) were seronegative for HBeAg and seropositive for
antibody to HBeAg (HBeAg−/anti-HBe+). The detection rates
of saliva for HBsAg, anti-HBc, HBeAg and anti-HBe were
55%, 65%, 53% and 100%, respectively, to that of serum. The
detection rates of HBV DNA for serum and saliva were 90%
and 60%, respectively. Conclusions: Based on these results
we have arrived at the conclusion that saliva of these carriers
might be potentially infectious.

evaluation of missile injuries in the Maxillofacial region in Mosul City-Iraq (2007-2011)

Ali S Mahmood; Israa A. Abd Al-Hameed; Mohammad S. Suleiman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 237-254
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164458

Aims: The aim of this study was to describe a new classification for missile
wounds with the treatment for each type, describing a classification for bullets
and blast missiles and other effects of explosion. Moreover; to determine the
factors affecting morbidity of wounds. Materials and Methods: The study
comprised 213 patients who were admitted to AL-Jumhurri Teaching Hospital
in Mosul City, Iraq in the period extending from 1/2/ 2007 to 1/2/2011 who
have sustained different injuries in the Maxillofacial region resulting from
different types of war missiles. All patients were evaluated by clinical
examination, plain radiography of the maxillofacial region and history of
accident was recorded. The study focused on three groups: Group A: Included
(80) patients with bullet injuries in which the bullets were still inside the body
in the maxillofacial region, Group B: Included the victims of (5) explosions
that included (93) patients with blast missiles, Group C: Included (40) patients
injured with high and low velocity bullets that involved soft or soft and hard
tissue. The recommended surgical operations for missile extraction and
definitive treatment application were employed by the same oral and
maxillofacial surgeon. The type, shape of missiles, description of injuries and
treatment were recorded. Results: The study showed that the most common
bullets were the classical type 67.5% while the most common explosion effect
was from shells 39.7%.The study also described a new classification for
missile wounds with description of treatment for each type. No statistical
significant difference was disclosed in the morbidity of injuries between low
and high velocity missiles that involved soft tissues only or a combination of
both soft and bone tissues at p value <0.05, while there was a highly significant
difference in the morbidity of injuries between soft tissues and soft with bone
tissues involvement in low velocity missiles at p value<0.01 and there was a
very highly significant difference in high velocity missile sat p-value < 0.001.
Conclusions: The present research placed a new specific classification for
missile wounds and their management, and placed a classification for missile
and explosion effects. The study also concluded that the morbidity of missile
injury in the maxillofacial region depends on the type of tissue involvement
more than the effect of missile velocity.

conservative approach to the mandible for a resection of a massive florid cemento-osseous dysplasia, Case Report

Bashar A Tawfeeq; Rawaa Y. Khaleel; Bashar A. Hassawi; Aws Gh. Younis

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 255-258
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164459

All variations of fibro-osseous diseases demonstrate
replacement of normal bone by fibrous connective tissue
matrix within which varying amounts or combinations of
osteoid and mature bone and in some instances
cementum-like tissue are deposited. Case Report: Patient
aged 46 years, was blind since 1991, admitted to the
Department of oral and maxillofacial surgery, (Alsalam
Teaching Hospital, Mosul), June 2010, presented with a
14 years duration increasingly bilateral massive hard
swelling in the lower jaw. The decision taken according
to the clinical and radiographical findings, that matching
the presentation of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia, the
affected mandible resected through a conservative 3
incisions. Results: the H and E stain examination of the
whole resected mass reveals a definite diagnosis of florid
cemento-osseous dysplasia. Discussion: Benign gnathic
lesions, even massive, could be resected via a
conservative surgical approaches, the histopathological
findings is a type of investigation and not the only sole
clue, while the sum of clinical findings and other aids of
investigations make the final decision.

The use of the three sided flap in the maxillary anterior segmental osteotomy

Bassam F. Yasen; Ayad M. Isma`el; Ne`am F. Yasen

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 259-264
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164460

Aims:Evaluation of new surgical approach to anterior maxillary
segmental osteotomy (AMSO). Materials and Methods:
Twenty five jaws operated on for AMSO with the use of three
sided flap, using sulcular type of incision of the soft tissues to
access the bone to be osteotomized. Patients underwent surgical
correction under general anesthesia and follow up extended
postoperatively till complete healing process occurred nearly six
months later. Results: From the total number of cases, twenty
four jaws healed properly; and only one jaw (premaxilla) was
lost due to necrosis of bone with loss of the associated teeth due
to accidental and complete detachment of bone from the
overlying soft tissues during surgery, although this procedure
offers the avoidance of loss of any part of the soft tissue
envelope. Conclusion: The three sided sulcular incision doesn’t
interfere with blood supply of both hard & soft tissues, with
many advantages over other types of access flaps.

biochemical and immunological study of saliva in relation to oral health status in thalassemia major patients in Mosul

Ahmed S. Khudhur; Raja H. Al-Jubori; Mahmoud Y M

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 265-276
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164461

Aims: The present study aimed to investigate some biochemical
(Lysozyme and Peroxidase enzymes) and immunological (S-IgA)
changes in saliva of thalassemia major patients and the
correlation of these changes with the oral health status measured
by the dmft/DMFT (decay, missing, filling tooth index for
deciduous and permanent dentition), plaque and gingival
indices.Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Ibn
Al-Atheer Teaching Hospital in Mosul and involved (91)
subjects. The study group (70 thalassemia major patients) and the
control group (21 normal non-thalassemic subjects). The study
group was divided into two subgroups (35 each) according to the
history of disease. Data was collected from each patient including
medical status and oral health status indices and saliva samples
were collected from each patient and stored at -20 oC to be
analyzed for salivary Lysozyme by lysoplate method, salivary
Peroxidase activity and salivary secretary S-IgA by
ELISA.Results: Showed that the dmft/DMFT plaque and gingival
indices in thalassemia major patients were significantly higher (P
< 0.001) than normal subjects. The salivary lysozyme in
thalassemia major patients was significantly lower (P < 0.001)
than normal subjects. The salivary peroxidase activity was nearly
higher in thalassemic patients than normal subjects. The salivary
S-IgA in thalassemic patients was significantly lower (P < 0.001)
than normal subjects. Conclusions: The study showed a
significant correlation between the changes in some of the
salivary constituents and the high prevalence of dental caries,
plaque and gingivitis in thalassemia major patients.

Craniosynostosis: Forehead Reconstruction using sagital bony bar (case report)

Hilmy A. AL- Hafidh; Ali S. Mahmood

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 277-280
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164462

A four years old boy was referred to Ibn-Sina Teaching
hospital / Mosul city complaining from deterioration of vision 2
months ago, which was documented by an ophthalmological
examination. A medical cranial imaging was taken; it showed
fusion of sagital, coronal and metopic sutures with diffused
beaten copper appearance. The patient was admitted to the
neurosurgical department, a measurement of intracranial pressure
via lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid manometry showed a
340 mm CSF reading which is very high. Surgery was planned by
a neurosurgical and maxillofacial surgical team. Under general
anesthesia, a bi-coronal flap was raised, incision and removal of a
wide bony bar along the closed sagital cranial suture and the skull
bone was released by nibbling. The eye balls were separated from
the orbital bones, the anterior part of orbital roof was removed;
the flatted forehead was removed and reconstructed by using the
bone that was removed from the sagital area and fixed in its new
place by titanium plates and stainless wire. The postoperative
course was uneventful and the child's visual acuity returned to a
normal condition dramatically. Follow up for three years showed
normal cranial growth, normal vision and no medical
complications that may be related to the surgical operation

Hemodialysis and oral health

Rawaa Al-Rawee; Raed Y. Kh. Al-Rawee

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 281-289
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164463

Aims of study: The purposes of this study were to
evaluate the oral health, the educational level and decay
frequency in hemodialysis patients. Materials and
Methods: This study was conducted on 100 patients, 43
of them were controlled patients admitted to the general
dental unit in Al-Salam Hospital, while the remaining 57
patients underwent hemodialysis in the Dialysis Unit in
Ibn-Sina Hospital in Mosul. Special consent form for
each patient was obtained along with a noninvasive oral
examination. Results: By using SPSS, significant pvalue
was detected between education level & disease,
the visit to dentist & disease. ANOVA test was done for
study groups & gingival index, plaque index showed
significant relation. For decayed teeth, significant pvalue
was observed. Conclusion: Present study results
confirm the hypothesis that periodontal disease
prevalence exists in hemodialysis patients, so regular
dental visits are needed to ensure optimal oral health in
dialysis patients. Education of hemodialysis patients for
their oral health and bilateral motivation between
medical staff and dentists is mandatory.

Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the saliva of patients having pulmonary tuberculosis

Gassan Y. Hamed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 290-295
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164464

Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of saliva
as a sample for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis(T.B.) by looking for
acid fast bacilli in a direct smear and comparing it with sputum and to
determine whether the isolation of M. tuberculosis is from the lung or
disseminated through blood. Material and Methods : The study sample
consisted of 25 patients of both sexes. Age range was (17 - 65) years .
Approximately 2 ml of unstimulated mixed saliva from each subject and
parotid saliva were collected for direct smear for acid fast bacilli by
Ziehl-Nelson acid fast stain. Five samples were inoculated on Lowenstein
Jensen media and storenbrink media .Results: About 60% of unstimulated
mixed saliva revealed positive acid fast bacilli, while all samples of
parotid saliva showed negative acid fast bacilli. The five samples of
saliva which were inoculated on Lowenstein Jensen media and stonebrink
media showed positive culture. To our knowledge, we did not find any
study performed on saliva as a sample for diagnosis of pulmonary
tuberculosis to compare our finding with these studies, so the comparison
was made between the sensitivity of saliva and the sensitivity of sputum .
In this study, the sensitivity of direct smear of saliva for A.F.B was equal
to 60% of the sensitivity of sputum. The sensitivity of direct smear of
sputum for A.F.B. ranged from (2280%). There were no clinical
manifestations like gummas; granulomas; ulcer; alveolar abscess and osteitis.
CONCLUSION: This clinical and laboratory study revealed that M
Tuberculosis which was present in the mixed saliva resulted from contact
of oral tissue with infected sputum; Mixed saliva was less efficient than
sputum in diagnosis of T.B. disease . Saliva can be inoculated on
different media and that newly diagnosed patients with T.B disease don't
have any clinical manifestations in the oral cavity.

artificial saliva sorption for three different types of Dental composite resin An in vitro study

Amer A. Taqa; Rajaa T. Sulieman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 296-302
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164465

Aims: To evaluate the artificial saliva sorption for three different types of light
activated composite resin. Materials and Method: A total of thirty six specimens (bars)
(3x8x15)mm were prepared from three different types of light activated composite
resin. (Tetric N-ceram, Iv o clar-vivadent-Liechtenstein. Arabesk – voco – Germany.
Soltaire–2, Heraeus, kulzer, Germany). Twelve specimens were prepared from each
type of composite resin. Complete fabrication of composite resin specimens, polished
and kept in three different types of artificial saliva medium, three specimens from
each type of composite resin as interactive specimens kept in type of artificial saliva
and the last three specimens kept in Deionized water as control medium. The weight of
each specimens was measured at an analytic balance before and after different time
intervals of storage (1,2,7,21,35,60) days to measure the amount of absorption of
artificial Saliva (gaining and loss of weight). The study showed a significant difference
(P< 0.05) in artificial saliva sorption among the three different types of composite
resin at different time intervals when kept in different artificial saliva medium. Tetric
N-ceram (nano composite) has more affect with three different types of artificial saliva
medium (gaining and loss weight) followed by Arabesk, Soltaire-2 composite resin for
different types of artificial saliva at different time intervals. Conclusion: Dental
composites are sensitive to artificial salive medium (gain and loss of weight) Tetric N
ceram (nano – composite) interact actively followed by Arabesk and Soltaire-2 for
three different artificial saliva medium at different time intervals.

evaluation of accuracy of two electronic apex locators of different frequencies in dry and wet condition.(in vitro study)

Maan Nayif

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 303-309
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164466

Objective: To evaluate and compare the precision of two electronic
apex locators (C-Root I Apex locator III, Guangdong, China & AFA
Apex Finder 7005, Orange, USA) of dual and multi-frequency
dependent impedance in dry and wet condition.
Materials and Methods: Twenty-five straight single-rooted teeth with
mature apices were used. A flat coronal reference point prepared
followed by access preparation and canal widening with Gates Glidden
drill. A size 15 K-file introduced inside the canal so that the actual
canal length to the major foramen was determined visually under
illuminated magnified lens (x5). Teeth were embedded in alginate
mold then electronic measurements with two locators of different
impedance frequency were made to the apex reading in dry canal
condition and with presence of physiologic saline solution using same
file. Data was analyzed with ANOVA and T-test ( =.05).
Results: Comparison of apex locators reading show no significant
difference between the locators at both conditions of the canal
(p>0.05). No significant differences were found between the actual
working length and electronic length for either apex locators (p>0.05).
In contrary both EALs measurements show significantly larger
absolute difference in presence of solution than value in dry condition
(p<0.05).
Conclusion: Both apex locators were reliable in
determining the electronic working length of the teeth.

flexural strength of dual cured composite resin cements polymerized with different light sources

Ali M. Rasheed; Eman M. Yahya; Sabah A. Ismail

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 310-316
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164467

Aim: To determine the flexural strength of dual cured composite
resin cements polymerized with LED light and Quartz-tungsten
halogen light and to determine the effect of curing and storage time
on the flexural strength. Materials and Methods: feldspathic
porcelain (IPS InLine) used to produce uniform disc-shaped
specimens (10mm diameter and 1.5mm thickness ). An electronic
caliper was used to confirm precise specimen dimensions. Vita
shade 2A was selected. One commercial dual-polymerizing
composite resin cement was used (Variolink II; Ivoclar Vivadent ).
The resin cement was placed in brass molds 8 ×6× 2 mm in size
that lined with a teflon used to prepared the specimens to determine
flexural strength. After insertion of the resin cements a glass slab
was pressed over the mold and removed any expressed materials
around the margins of the mold. A mylar strip (0.07 mm) was used
to prevent adhesion of the resin cement to ceramic disk. Two types
of light source were used: Quartz-tungsten halogen light and LED.
The specimens divided into 8 groups (10 specimens for each). For
each light source the curing time done for 20 and 60 sec. and the
specimens either tested 15min. after curing or after 24hrs.
Measurements for the 3-point flexural strength test were performed
at a constant crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Statistical data analysis
was performed by three-way ANOVA and Duncan Multiple Range
Tests to determine the significant group. Results: three- way
ANOVA indicated there is no statistical significant differences
between the two light sources (p>0.05), were as there is statistically
significance between the flexural strength of specimen cured for 60
sec. and tested after 24hrs more than other groups (p<0.05).
Conclusions: adequate curing time with 60sec. and instruction for
the patient not to use of the restoration until at least 24hrs after the
insertion of the restoration is advocated.

the effect of storage media on the Degree of Conversion of different types of composite resin.

Fanar T. H. Al- Jadwaa; Moataz GH. S. Al-Shaekh; Amer A. Taqa

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 317-322
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2011.164468

Aims: This study was performed to evaluate the effect of
Pepsi, orange juice and coffee as storage media on the Degree
of Conversion (DC) of three types of composite resin.
Materials and Methods: Three types of visible light-curing
composite restorative material (Te-Econom, Tetric ceram
and VOCO) were used in this study, The specimen disks of
composites were prepared using Polyethylene mold 5mm in
diameter and 1mm in height, The degree of conversion was
measured for each group after storage for 7days in light-proof
boxes containing storage media, The degree of conversion of
the samples was measured by Fourier transform infrared
spectroscopy (FTIR), One way analysis of variance and
paired differences tests were used for statistical analysis.
Results: The results revealed that there was a significant
difference in the degree of conversion of the three types of
composite resins when stored in all type of storage media as
compared to dry samples(control group). Conclusions:The
degree of conversion of the three types of composite resin
was increased when stored in different storage media.
Key words: Storage Media, degree of Conversion, composite
Resin.

Evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate MTA as traumatic pulp capping material an in vivo study

Neam N Al- Yousifany

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 323-329
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164486

aims of the Study: The purpose of this clinical study was to
evaluate the effectiveness of mineral trioxide aggregate MTA
as direct pulp capping material in permanent teeth with
traumatic exposure. Materials And Methods: twenty four
permanent teeth for healthy patients ages between 15-40
accepted direct pulp capping treatment after accidental
traumatic exposure during cavity preparation done by graduate
students, in Conservative Department , College of Dentistry,
University of Mosul. The teeth were treated directly with MTA
material over the exposure site then based with Glass Ionomer
cement and restored with permanent restoration . clinical , and
radiographic examinations were carried out after 1 week then
follow up after 6,10,12,24 weeks. Results: six month clinical
&radiographic follow up were carried out for all patients . At
recall appointments, patients were evaluated for reparative
dentin formation, pulpal calcification, continued normal root
development and evidence of pathosis. One patient did not
return for recall appointments and evaluations after one week ,
another one failed to return after six weeks interval . The
remaining had favorable outcomes on the basis of clinical
finding , electrical pulp tester & radiographic appearance .
Conclusion : within the limitation period of the present
study , MTA can be considered as a reliable pulp capping
material for manangment direct pulp exposure in permanent teeth.