Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Volume 6, Issue 2

Volume 6, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2010, Page 198-393

Success and Failure of Implant in Bounded and Free End Saddle Area

Bashar A Tawfeeq; Rawee; Rawa Y Al; Nadira A Hatim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 198-204

Aims: To investigate age and site distribution (bounded and free end extension saddle area), and the most common width of implant can be used to give a successful results. Determine the percentage and the causes of implant failure. Materials and Methods: One hundred seventeen patients were chosen to undergo implant surgery in Al–Salam Hospital Implant Center with age group (17 y–above 60y). Frialit–2 Implant system is used with its different length and width. Post surgical follow up of patients were for 2 days, 1 week, 2 weeks after operation, and each month periodically for 6 months. History, inspection and palpation of the edentulous area considered in order to check pain, paraesthesia, in-flammatory process, infection. Post prosthetic follow up of the patients were for a period ranged from 6 month to 7 years, according to clinical and radio graphical examination of the patient. Results: clinical analysis of 117 patients was second and third decades of life ranged from 17– 40 Ys (77.77 %) with 142 implants (59.91%). One hundred forty four implants were seated in the maxilla different regions while ninety three implants seated in the mandible (Bounded and free end). Three different widths (3.8, 4.5, and 5.5 mm) were used according to the criteria of patients , and Ferialit II System. Conclusion: Higher range of age needs implant (3.8mm) was between 17– 40 years. The success rate in the maxilla was less than mandible. Slight difference was in percentage of success between bounded and free end extension partially missing teeth. The causes of failures were related to poor bone quantity specially in the maxillary arch, Surgical error in implant positioning, poor attitude of the patient to use denture be-fore reliving the area , and Poor fellow up of the patient after gingival former.

The Effect of Thyme and Nigella Oil on Some Properties of Acrylic Resin Denture Base

Wafa Abbas; Amer A Taqa; Nadira A Hatim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 205-213

Aims: To evaluating the preferable properties and concentrations of Genuine Nigella sativa and Thyme as oil low cost additive biocompatible antibiotic materials of denture base acrylic powder inre-lation to the commercially available heat cure acrylic resin material. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty acrylic resin Major heat cured samples were prepared without additives (Control), and with additives (A pure natural oil of Nigella sativa and Thyme 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2%) to eva-luate transverse strength, indentation hardness, color property, residual monomer, dimensional accura-cy, porosity, measurement of IR spectra, and anti–microbial–sensitivity tests. Results: Results showed a significant difference to P= 0.05. The addition of Thyme and Nigella oil increased the transverse strength, and hardness of the denture base materials, no porosities, an increase in residual monomer elution at 1st day, and both additives Nigella and Thyme oil act as antibacterial materials. Conclusions: The additives materials of pure natural oil of Nigella sativa and Thyme with concentration of 1.5% were recommended to give a proper properties, and as antimicrobial after curing of the acrylic resin denture base, but Thyme oil showed no effect on the color after curing in relation to Nigella sativa

Diseases of Salivary Glands: Review

Alhan D Al-Moula

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 214-230

The oral cavity is a moist environment, a film of fluid called saliva constantly coats its inner surfaces and occupies the space between the lining oral mucosa and the teeth. Saliva is a complex fluid, pro-duced by the salivary glands, whose important role is maintaining the wellbeing of the mouth. Patients with a deficiency of salivary secretion experience difficulty eating, speaking, swallowing as well as become prone to mucosal infections and rampant caries. In human there are three pairs of major encap-sulated salivary glands – (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual). Located outside the oral cavity, with extended duct systems to discharge their secretion. There are also a multitude of smaller minor unen-capsulated salivary glands. (labial, lingual, palatal, buccal, glossopalatine and retromolar). Located just below and within the mucous membranes, characterized by short duct systems. Secretion of each major salivary gland is not the same, the parotid glands secrete a rich amylase (watery serous saliva), whereas the submandibular gland produces mucinous saliva, and the sublingual gland produces viscous saliva. Because of these variations, saliva found in the mouth is referred to as mixed secretions, as many pro-teins are rapidly removed as they adhere to hydroxyl apatite of teeth and to the oral mucosal surfaces. Diseases of the salivary glands usually bring about changes in the rate of salivary secretion and compo-sition. These changes have a secondary effect in that they lead to the formation of a plaque and calcu-lus, which in turn has a direct bearing on the initiation of caries and periodontal disease. In addition to it, effect in the healthy condition of oral mucosal surfaces. There are many systemic conditions (e.g., diabetes, cystic fibrosis) affect salivary flows, a patient complaining of dry mouth must be thoroughly investigated. These diseases may become severe after therapeutic irradiation in and around the mouth. The salivary gland become less active with age while is problematic, because such a great variation exists in the secretion of saliva, but no longitudinal studies have thus far been reported. Even so, histo-logical changes associated with age have been reported within the salivary glands. Fatty degenerative changes, fibrosis and the progressive accumulation of lymphocytes in the salivary glands are thought to occur. Oncocytes – epithelial cells that can be identified by there marked granularity and acidophilia under the light microscope, are thought to represent as age change, although their significance has not been established, beside accumulation of structurally altered mitochondria. Oncocytes are found in acini intercalated and striated ducts of salivary glands and which may give rise to neoplasms. The aim of this review is to provide athorough knowledge of anatomy, embryology and pathophysiology in ne-cessary to treat patient appropriately. Examines the cause, diagnostic methodology, radiographic evalu-ation and management of a variety of salivary gland.

Assessment of Sagittal Jaws Relationship in skeletal Class I Adolescents

Manar Y Abdul; Qadir; D Al-Dawoody; Alaa; Fadhil Y Jasim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 231-237

Aims: To establish a cephalometric standard for sagittal jaw relationships for Iraqi adolescents in Mo-sul city by using three linear measurements, also to compare &correlated the three methods. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalometric radiograph were taken for 120 adolescents (52 boys and 68 girls). The age range was 12–15 years with a mean of 13.4 years. Wits appraisal (Ao–Bo), App–Bpp (distance between points A&B projected to the palatal plane), and AF–BF(distance between points A and B pro-jected to the Frankfort Horizontal plane) were measured. Results: Significant differences were found between boys and girls for Ao–Bo, and App–Bpp measurements. No significant difference was ob-served for AF–BF between girls and boys. Conclusions: Among the three measurements taken, the AF–BF distance appeared to be the most dependable one followed by App–Bpp distance.

Recycling of Ceramic Bracket Using Burning Technique ( An in vitro study)

Sarmad S. Salih; Anas M AL-Mukhtar; Omar H AL-Lwezy

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 238-242

Aims: To study burning technique is tested for recycling of orthodontic ceramic bracket, then both re-cycled bracket and control (as received) bracket are tested for shear bond strength.Materials and Me-thods:The study samples are divided into two groups, control and test group. The brackets in the test group bonded, de-bonded and then recycled using burning technique, then both control and test group brackets are bonded to the buccal surface of premolar teeth and tested for shear bond strength. Re-sults:The result showed a complete removal of the composite resin from recycled bracket base, but a dramatic decrease in shear bond strength in recycled brackets compared with that of the new one Con-clusions:Ceramic bracket could not be efficiently used after recycling with burning technique since it will have a very low retention property.

Correlation of Vertical Dimensions of Soft Tissue Facial Profiles

Nagham H Kassab; Hamdany; Afrah Kh Al

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 243-253

Aims: To establish the interrelationships of linear measurements of the vertical facial heights among dif-ferent facial profiles in young Iraqi adult students. Materials and Methods: 75 students (48 males, 27females) of pleasing face, balanced facial profile were selected from the College of Dentistry, University of Mosul. For each subject seven vertical linear measurements{ Anterior facial height (n–gn), upper facial third, frontal third (tr–n ), middle facial third, nasal third (n–sn), lower facial third, gnathic third, (sn–gn), rest vertical dimension (RVD)(pn–pog), occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) (pn–pog) and angle of soft tissue profile facial convexity excluding the nose (n–sn–pog)} were measured directly on the subject’s face under standarized conditions keeping Frankfort plane parallel to floor, using electronic digital vernier cali-per (China). Results: sn–me, n–sn and free way space are significantly larger, while pn–pog (OVD) is sig-nificantly smaller in concave facial profiles (p≤ 0.05) indicating that the lower and middle facial thirds are responsible for the greater anterior facial height in these subjects compared with other facial profiles' sub-jects. The remaining variables distributed on statistical levels of difference between the upper and lower levels with non–significant difference (p>0.05) within facial profiles. Various correlations were noticed among all the studied variables for total sample, males and females and in different facial profiles. Of most important, is the positive significantly high correlation of pn–pog (OVD) and pn–pog (RVD) with n–me, sn–me for convex and straight profiles. Conclusions: From this study ,spatial relationships among various vertical facial dimensions and the dimensional proportions of different facial profiles in young Iraqi adult students were noticed.

Shear and Tensile Strengths of The Bonded Bracket to The Ceramic Surface

Muzahim H Hanna; Hussain A Obaidi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 254-259

Aims: To assess the shear and tensile strengths of the bonded bracket to the treated porcelain surface with hydrofluoric acid, and microetcher. Materials and Methods: The sample included 30 specimens of porcelain blocks (6 mm in diameter and 2mm thickness). The sample was grouped into three groups, 10 specimens for each group. The groups were: acid etched, microetched at 5mm distance, and micro-etched at 10mm distance. Stainless steel brackets (Roth System) were bonded to the treated porcelain surfaces using light cure Orthodontic composite resin. All the groups were thermocycled. The shear and tensile bond strengths of the bonded bracket were measured by using the shear and tensile Univer-sal testing machine. The results were analyzed statistically; that include: Descriptive, ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple analysis range testes at p≤ 0.05 significant level. Results: It was revealed that the shear and tensile bond strength values of the bonded brackets to porcelain surface treated with microet-cher at 5mm distance was greater significantly than that treated with acid etch, and microetched at 10mm distance. Conclusions: The porcelain surface treated with microetcher is strongly recommended for bonding orthodontic brackets.

Effect of Cooling an Irrigation Solution During Preparation of Implant Site on Heat Generation Using Elite System for implant.(Experimental Study)

Ahmed A Sultan; Dabag; Abdulhameed N Al

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 260-264

Aims: To compare heat generation when using irrigating solution at 5°C and 25°C during preparation of an implant site in bone using the tools of ELIT implant systems. Materials and Methods: Thermocouple technology was used to measure temperature level generated while drilling during osteotomy procedure for implant place in a bovine femoral cortical bone model. Drilling was accomplished by using milling machine .External irrigation at a constant ratio was used. The temperature of this irrigating solution was stabilized at 5°c and 25°C and The drilling depth was 8 mm and diameter of 2mm. Heat measurements were recorded after the final drilling for each irrigating solution in addition to time necessary to drop to base line level was recorded . Results: Results showed that cooled solution at 5 °C can decrease the temperature to a significant level better than solution at room temperature. In addition time needed to return to base line temperature levels is less than when using solution at room temperature. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the using cold irrigating solution can decrease the heat generated at implant site preparation consequently leading to decrease damage in the bone.

Comparison of Rugae Pattern Between Dentate and Edentulous Patients in Iraqi Sample

Inas A Jawad

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 265-271

Aim: To explore the volatile topographic changes occurring in the palatal rugae after aging and loss of all teeth. Materials and methods: The total sample consists of 40 Iraqi participants in 2 , dentate and edentulous , groups. Their maxillary casts were minutely observed. Number, lengths, qualitative cha-racteristics, and medial position of the rugae ends were recorded. Results: Many differences were ob-served between the 2 groups. Conclusions: Palatal rugae were topographically changed greatly after aging and loss of teeth regardless of time of edentulism and wearing dentures. Short , simple , scattered and anteriorly flared is the overall picture of rugae in edentulous palates .

Changes of Teeth Inclination After Or-thodontic Treatment of Class II Division 1 Malocclusion

Sayagh; Nada M Al; am R Al; Saleem; ad S Gasgoos

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 272-280

Aims: The aims of the study are to evaluate the degree of improvement in labiolingual or buccolingual inclination of the teeth after treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion using Roth appliance and to compare the teeth inclination after treatment with that of normal occlusion samples to show if Roth appliance can give a reasonable result with straight arch wire technique. Materials and Methods: A twenty five patients (15–25 years age) with Class II division 1 malocclusion were treated with Roth 22" bracket system after extraction of upper first and lower second premolars to correct molars and canine relation, then the teeth inclination were compared among the four groups on the study casts that were taken before treatment, after treatment, after 1 year retention, and with the control group (25 dental casts of normal Class I occlusion) using special gauge. Results: Significant differences were seen among the four groups in the most of the teeth with the exception of the first molars and upper first premolars with the highest possible value in the(before treatment group). Conclusions: A considerable dispersion around the mean torque measurements was seen in the four groups , more lingual inclination was noticed in distally situated teeth. The preadjusted brackets help in decreasing the labial inclination of the treated teeth in Class II malocclusion making their inclination nearly to control group

Bond Strength Between Resin Compo-site and Glass Ionomer ( An in Vitro Study)

Maha A. Al-Murad; Neam N. Al-Yousifany; Nadia M. AL-Skakir

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 281-286

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of the resin composite to glass ionomer cement (sandwich technique), using different types of bonding agents. Materials and Me-thods: Sixty Teflon mold of (5mm in diameter and 4mm in height) filled with a based type of light cured glass ionomer cement, cured for (40 seconds), randomly assigned into three groups ( n=20 ) for bonding with different adhesive materials, (Single Bond, i- bond, and Te-Econom) . The bonding ap-plied for ( 15 seconds ). Second split of Teflon mold (3mm in diameter and 4mm in height ) placed on to the prepared specimen filled with a Tetric Ceram composite resin (shade A2) , cured for (40 seconds), the samples stored in distilled water at 37˚C for 24h ,then thermocycled water for ( 300 cycles) at (55±2˚C and 5±2˚C) with a dwell time of (30 seconds). The bond strength measured by using Universal Testing Machine with a Knife edge head placed at the interface between glass ionomer cement and composite at a cross head speed of 0.5mm/min. The modes of fracture were examined by a stereomicroscope at 20X magnification. Results :The data were analyzed using (ANOVA) followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test at 5% .The Single bond total-etching adhesive material showed supe-rior bond strengths than all the other materials tested . i- bond is statistically different and showed in-termediary values. The TE-Econom showed the lowest shear bond strength rates and was inferior to the Single bond one. The failures were mainly adhesive fracture for both TE-Econom and Single bond ad-hesive materials, except for i-bond that showed 60% mixed failure. Conclusions: With the limitation of this in vitro study, the high bond strength for the total- etch (Single Bond) bonding agent not mean that self- etch adhesive systems inferior to total -etch bonding, so further studies are needed to agree that total- etch bonding agents was the better form the clinical point of view. The failures were mainly ad-hesive for Single Bond and TE-Econom bonding agents and mixed failure for i-bond self- etch bondi

Gag Problem in Dental Treatment Assessment and Methods to Control it.

Nuaimy; Karama MT Al

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 287-291

Aims: To assess gag reflex as a problem in patients undergoing dental treatment and some measures used to control it in order to allow the patient to receive dental care such as taking anesthesia, fillings, extractions, impression, scaling and polishing of teeth and root canals. Materials and Methods: The sample chosen included 80 people between the ages 20 and 65 attended to dental clinics for fillings, extractions, impression, scaling and polishing and root canals during dental treatment these patients complained an exaggerated gag reflex. Results: In control group there was no significant difference between females and males regarding the age and duration of gag reflex, but significantly correlated in study group as a whole concerning the age and duration of gag reflex. Conclusions: Gag reflex is con-sidered as normal defense mechanism that prevents foreign bodies from entering the trachea, pharynx or larynx.

Effect of Tooth Paste and Mouth Wash on Brackets Dimension

Zubaidi; Saba H Al

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 292-297

Aims: To evaluate whether dimensions of the brackets change due to corrosion when immersed in tooth paste and mouth wash at different intervals of immersion (1, 14 and 30 days). Materials and Methods: Three groups of bracket (ten for each), the first group is the control group. The second group immersed in tooth paste (Anber– Iraq) for one minute three times daily then removed and washed in distill water, dried and be ready for testing nine dimensions of the bracket at three intervals (1, 14, and 30 days). The same procedure was repeated for the third group that was immersed in mouth wash (chlorhexidine). The data was analyzed using Descriptive statistic, analysis of variance (ANOVA) at p≤0.05. These data were then analyzed by the Duncan multiple analysis range test to locate the signifi-cant differences among the groups. Results: The bracket base length showed a significant difference among the control and the immersed brackets in mouth wash. The bracket base length, wing length and wing width showed a significant differences among the control and the immersed brackets in tooth paste. Conclusions: when immersing the brackets in tooth paste and mouth wash no significant dimen-sional changes occurred in bracket's dimension except for the bracket base length of the brackets im-mersed in mouth wash and the bracket base length, wing length and width of brackets immersed in tooth paste that showed significant changes among the groups.

An Investigation of Dentists Knowledge, Attitude and Practices towards HIV+ and Patients with other Blood Borne Viruses in Mosul City

Mohamed S Younis; Rayia J Al-Naimi; Tahani A Al-Sandook

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 298-308

Aims: To investigate a group of Iraqi dentists knowledge about HIV infection and other blood borne viruses. Attitudes towards treating HIV/AIDS patients and behavior practices, methods used for steriliza-tion of dental instruments and vaccination against hepatitis B virus. Materials and Methods:The study population consisted of 210 dentists. The survey instrument was a self-administered questionnaire. Re-sults: General and knowledge of the oral and other conditions related to AIDS patient was relatively low with a mean ranging between 4.21-7.33, with significant difference in gender and specialty on know-ledge .Dentists attitude towards treating HIV patient was low with no significant differences in gender and specialty as 40-70% refused to treat such patient. Younger dentists with service of 5 years were more willing to treat HIV patients compared with those who had more service years. Majority of the sample (89.57%) used dry heat for sterilization of dental instruments, 92.86% of the sample was afraid that a needle stick injury could cause HIV infection. Only 2.38% of the sample used the three proper barrier technique in their work .Female dentists (specialist and dental practitioners) tended to be vaccinated against hepatitis B with highly significant difference compared to males. 97.14% of the sample felt they needed more information about HIV and other blood borne viruses and infection control protocols. Conclusions: More effort of dental educators in teaching dental students about blood borne viruses and that universal precautions must be adopted through faculty policy and reinforced by continuing educa-tional programs for dentists after graduation for refreshment and delivering latest updates about infection control protocols which should be adopted and reinforced at an early level of study .So that barrier techniques become a protocol and a norm in their daily practices as clinicians. Because of certain inade-quacies in knowledge and infection control practices among respondents, a curriculum focusing on the management of blood borne viruses, including infection control is recommended.

Thermal Emission by Using Different Light Sources Unit which Used in Dentistry

Mona Y Shamon

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 309-313

Aim: To evaluate the thermal emission by three types of light sources units. Materials and methods: Temperature were recorded from distance of 1mm from a thermocouple the tip of three different types of light sources units including one Blue cap (LED) source unit, one special tungsten halogen (S2) source unit, and one invisible technology (IV_ Tech) source unit. Temperature changes were recorded in 10 second intervals up to 40 seconds (10, 20, 30, and 40 seconds). Temperature measurements were repeated three times for every light source unit after a one hour standby period. Mean values were compared statistically with Chi-Square test to determine the significant difference among the tested groups at (p<0.05) level of significance. Results: The highest temperature rises (39.6ºC) occurred dur-ing activation of an IV_ Tech light source unit for every test period. The least temperature increase (24
ºC) occurred with a LED light source unit for each tested period. Conclusions: These results indicated that the choice of light activation unit and curing time is important during the light activated polymeri-zation of composite resins to avoid any thermal damage to the pulp

Reinforced Microwave - Cured Acrylic Resin Denture Base Material with Glass Fibers

Mohammed A Abdulla; Radhwan H. Hasan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 314-321

AIMS: To evaluation the Effect of adding glass fibers on the transverse strength and the levels of the residual monomer of specially formulated acrylic resin to be cured by microwave and heat cured acryl-ic resin denture base materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The materials were used in this study heat cured acrylic resin and microwave cured acrylic resin which is formulated to be cured by microwave energy( Acronacrylic resin). Thirty two samples were prepared for transverse strength test and divided into the following groups Control group (I) heat cured alone, group (II) microwave cured alone, the group (III) heat cured+fibers, group (IV) microwave cured+fibers the transverse strength was evaluated by using an Instron testing machine . Thirty two samples were prepared for residual mono-mer test and divided into four groups water bath and microwave cured with and without glass fibers, the residual monomer was evaluated by using ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer for seven days. RESULTS: Transverse strength test: Statistical Analysis of Variance(ANOVA) shows that there is significant differences at (p>0.0001)among the four groups and Duncan's multiple range test showed that microwave cured + fibers significantly higher transverse strength followed by heat cured +fibers, microwave alone, while heat alone shows significantly lowest transverse strength. Residual monomer test: Analysis of variance(ANOVA) for the four groups from the first day of immersion in water until 7th day shows that there are significant differences between the four groups in the all six days except the 7th day shows that there are no significant differences among the four groups for the level of the residual monomer. CONCLUSIONS: Microwave cured acrylic resin with glass fibers have signifi-cantly higher transverse strength than that of acrylic resin cured by water bath, also microwave cured acrylic resin have significantly lower residual monomer content from the 1st day of immersion when compared to that of water bath which show the same level of residual monomer at the 7th day of im-mersion

The effect of colored drinks on the surface hardness of composite resin.

Omar S Rahawi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 322-331

Aims: to determine the effect of colored drinks on the surface hardness of three types of composite restorations. Materials & methods: Three composite resins (a compoglass, conventional and ceramic composites) were used in this study. Transparent disc with 2mm thickness and hole of 5mm diameter were used for the preparation of composite samples, ten samples were made for each type of composite with a total of 30 samples. Four samples from each type of composite were immersed in( a cola ,tea, normal saline and coffee) respectively (normal saline as a control for the study),after that each colored drink measure amount of ph before put the samples using ph meter(Pw 9421,philips) and then each sample stored for (one week, two week and one month) inside incubator at 37° C then the samples were tested for the micro hardness with a Vickers micro hardness tester(Wolpert,Germany)with 200g load. Five micro hardness measurements were obtained on top surface of each sample on the following time period: before immersing in color drinks, after immersing each samples in cola, coffee and tea. Data were analyzed using One way analysis (ANOVA) and Duncan, a value of P≤ 0.05 was consi-dered significant .Results: The results of ANOVA showing a significant difference among all ceram-ic samples regarding all media and time when P≤ 0.05.Conclusion: it can be concluded that all conven-tional materials are susceptible to the effect of aqueous media of oral cavity and other softening drink.

Post- surgical outcomes and prognosis of intentionally replanted lower post-erior teeth

Wafaa k Abid

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 332-340

Aims: To evaluate intentional replantation based on clinical and radiographic assessment criteria over a two year period. Materials and Methods: The clinical trial was conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/ College of Dentistry/ Mosul University. Twenty lower posterior teeth in twenty patients of different ages and genders were enrolled in the trial. Each patient was subjected to a standard surgical protocol for intentional replantation. The criteria evaluated were both clinical and radiographical on scheduled visits for two years for each patient. Clinical criteria included pain level, tooth mobility and sinus formation. Radiographical criteria were periapical radiolucency ,root resorp-tion and ankylosis. Results: In regard to clinical criteria, no significant statistical difference was dis-closed for pain score levels and sinus formation at the scheduled visits. However, significant difference was recorded for tooth mobility at different interval visits. For radiographic criteria , a significant dif-ference for periapical radiolucency, root resorption and ankylosis was recorded at interval visits. Con-clusion: The success of intentional replantation is likely dependent upon a minimally traumatic ex-traction, short extra-oral time with copious irrigation and meticulous instrumentation as well as careful-ly controlled postoperative patient compliance. The clinical and radiographic results of cases in the current trial were satisfactory. Further study on a much more post-operative period( more than two years) and the use of materials to improve the success of intentional replantation is encouraged.

A Comparative Study of Curve of Spee and Arch Circumference Between Class I Nor-mal Occlusion and Class II Division 1 Ma-locclusion

D Al; Dawoody; Alaa; am F Agha; Sarraf; Huda A Al

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 341-347

Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the curve of Spee in class I and class II division 1 malocclusion groups to investigate whether there is a relationship between the depth of Curve of Spee with arch circumference and other variables (overjet and overbite) between two classes of occlusion. Materials and Methods: 60 dental casts of untreated adolescents, 30 girls and 30 boys aged 12–15 years, were obtained from secondary schools at Mosul City. The sample included 2 groups; the class I occlusion group and class II1 malocclusion group, each group comprised from 30 subjects (15 boys and 15 girls). The depth of curve of Spee and arch circumference were measured on mandibular dental casts. Overjet and overbite were assessed with a vernia. Description of the variables within each class and comparison of the variable between two classes were assessed by student t–test. In addition, a correla-tion coefficients between the depth of curve of Spee and other variables were calculated. Results: the results showed that there were no significant differences between genders within the groups for all va-riables. However, these variables showed sexual differences between two groups. Statistically signifi-cant correlation was also found between the depth of Spee and overbite, overjet and arch circumferences in both groups.

Risk Factors Influence on the Prevalence and Severity of Root Caries in Mosul (Rural and Urban)

Aisha A Qasim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 348-357

Aims: To determine the association of root caries with some risk factors among adult population in Mosul City (rural and urban). Materials and Methods: A sample of 231 subjects was selected, aged 20-70 years old, from rural and urban areas of Mosul City. For each subject, clinical examination was performed for root surface caries, pocket depth and tooth loss. The questionnaire forms were completed by the dentist. Root Caries Index (RCI) was used for detecting root caries. Billings Index was used to record the severity of root caries, while WHO Index was used to measure pocket depth. Results: From the total sample, the mean RCI was 19.37 in rural and 18.62 in urban areas; with no significant differ-ence between them. The study revealed that for severity of the root caries lesion, grade I (incipient) was the most prevalent for both genders. Subjects of this study revealed correlation between some risk fac-tors and the occurrence of root surface caries. The mean pocket depth in relation to root surface caries with not significant difference between urban and rural areas (p > 0.05). the mean number of the miss-ing teeth increased with the increasing age in both rural and urban areas. Conclusion: Root surface caries is regarded to be high in both rural and urban population, especially those with old age. As such, management of a root caries in older population is predicted to be one of greatest challenges facing dental team in the future

The Effects of Ginger, Diazepam and Metoclopramide in Patients Receiving Dental Treatment

Mohammad A Mohi; Al Deen; Fayhaa AM Al; Mashhadane

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 358-365

Aims: To diagnose and treat patients with gagging reflex during dental treatment and to compare ef-fects of ginger, diazepam and metoclopramide as different treatment modalities. Materials and Me-thods: This study was carried out on 120 dental patients, 37 males and 83 females who they are suffer-ing from moderate to severe gag reflex, their ages was ranged between 31 – 68 years old. The sample is randomly subdivided into 4 groups, each group consist of 30 patients, they was received different treatments (ginger, diazepam, metoclopramide and glucose (placebo)). Severity of gag reflex before and after treatments is reported depending on patient's words and direct reaction. Results: Kruskal – Wallis test was used to compare the response to treatment in 4 groups and there was significant differ-ences between them (p≤ 0.00). Conclusion: Ginger is effective antiemetic agent and can be useful for reducing nausea and vomiting (gag reflex) during and after dental treatment.

Shear Strength of Acrylic Resin Base to Nickel Chromium Minor Connector of Removable Partial Denture

Ahmed A Al-Ali

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 366-375

AIMS: To test the shear strength and type of failure between the latticework and mesh minor connec-tors on one side, and cold–, thermopress–, light–, and heat–cured acrylic resin base on the other. MA-TERIALS AND METHODS: Two types of minor connectors for metallic removable partial denture, latticework and mesh are casted from nickel–chromium alloy; Different types of acrylic resin(cold–, thermopress–, light–, and heat– cured) are used to test the shear strength. The type of failure was also investigated. ANOVA, Duncan multiple rang test in addition to T–test were carried out to determine the significant difference at P<0.05. RESULTS: There is significant difference between the four acryl-ic resin variables in relation to shear strength with each of the latticework and mesh type minor connec-tors. In each group of acrylic resin, except the thermopress–cured group, there is a significant differ-ence between the latticework and mesh types of minor connectors. CONCLUSIONS: The shear strength between the acrylic resin base and the nickel–chromium minor connector differ in the differ-ent types of acrylic resin and differ in the different types of minor connectors.

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Citrus Juices: An In Vitro Study

Nahla O Tawfik; Siba M Al-Haliem; Waidulla N Al-Ani

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 376-382

Aims: This work aimed at determining the antibacterial activity of three Citrus Juice on Staphylococ-cus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: The antibacteri-al activities of juices of three types of Citrus (C.) fruit, C. limon (lemon), C. aurantium (bitter orange) and C. paradisi (grapefruit), against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria using four concen-trations of these juices by agar diffusion method with measurement of diameter of the zone of inhibi-tion around the extracts. Results: The results confirmed the presence of anti bacterial activity of the Citrus juice. The highest inhibition zone (18 mm) was observed with a 10% concentration of C. para-dises juice on Staphylococcus aureus, but Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resis-tant. C. limon and C. aurantium juice at 10% and 5% concentration gave positive results with bacteri-cidal effects on the three tested bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The zones of inhibition of C. limon were 10, 12 and 13mm for 5% and 15, 21 and 20 mm for 10% respectively. For C. aurantium, they were 18, 19 and 20 mm for 5% concentration and 16, 19 and 19 mm for 10% concentration respectively. Those effects were better than those produced by stan-dard antibiotic disc used for comparison. Conclusions: The use of different concentrations of Citrus juice extracts had an effective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Inter Observer Agreement in Evaluat-ing the Position, Shape and Appear-ance of Mental Foramen by Panoramic Radiography

Shahrazad Sami

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 383-389

Aims : the study aims is to examine the inter- observer variability in radiographic interpretation of the variable position , shape and appearance of mental foramen. Materials and Methods: Four examiners, two dental radiologists and two oral surgeons evaluated 30 panoramic radiographs to evaluated the position, shape and appearance of mental foramen. Results: The most frequent position of mental fo-ramen was between first and second premolars then followed by those below the apices of the first and second premolars and the most frequent shape of mental foramen was irregular where separated type is the frequent appearance of mental foramen. For agreement there was no significant difference between two radiologist for position ,shape and appearance of mental foramen , but with a significant difference was found between four observer, for the position of mental foramen. Conclusions: The study concluded that the position of mental foramen is most commonly below and between the pre-molar teeth and the most frequent shape are irregular and appearance separated type

Determination of Salivary pH in Patients With Recurrent Aphthous Ulceration (RAU)

Ahmed S Khudhur; Abbass F Al-Taee

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 390-393

Aims: To determine salivary pH in patients with recurrent aphthous ulceration and in control normal subjects. Materials and Methods: A controlled clinical trial was performed on 60 subjects divided into 30 normal subjects and 30 patients with recurrent aphthous ulceration. The salivary pH was deter-mined using a chair-side pH meter. Results: Highly significant difference in pH level was observed between patients and control groups (t-value 5.420, p< 0.0001). There were no significant differences in pH levels between males and females in both patients and control groups. Conclusions: The pH of saliva in male patients with (RAU) was more toward acidic pH than normal male subjects.