Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Volume 5, Issue 2

Volume 5, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2009, Page 156-314

The Early Microleakage of a Fflowable Composite in Class V Restorations

Ammar Kh Al; Nori

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 156-161

Aims: To evaluate microleakage in Class V restorations, which were restored with flowable compositescompared to hybrid composite and to evaluate the difference of microleakage between occlusaland gingival margins. Materials and methods: Forty five non–carious upper premolar teeth were randomlydistributed into 3 groups of 15 teeth each. Class V preparations were made in the buccal surfacesof each tooth and restored by the use of two flowable composites (Tetric and Megafill) and thethird group with hybrid composite (Tetric Ceram). The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. The specimens were then thermocycled manually for 100 times between 5 + 2 °C and55 + 2 °C. All restored teeth were immersed in 0.2% methylene blue dye for 24 hours and sectionedbuccolingually with a finishing diamond wheel. Dye penetration was scored by use of a stereoscopicmicroscope under magnification of ×20. Results: The flowable composites had a significant effect onreducing the microleakage at gingival margin (p= 0.01). The type of material had no significant effectat occlusal margin (p= 0.454). The occlusal margin had significantly lower microleakage than gingivalmargin (p= 0.001). Conclusions: The flowable composites can reduce the microleakage at gingivalmargins, but non of the restorative materials completely sealed the tooth restoration interface.

Modification of Gypsum Products (Part II): The Effect of Drying Methods on The Compressive Strength and Surface Hardness of Modified Gypsum Products

Mohammed A. Abdullah; Isam K. Al-Khayat; Nadira A. Hatim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 162-167

Aims: Studying the effect of microwave drying on the physical and mechanical properties of modifiedIraqi plaster and modified Plaster of Paris in comparison with open air drying method. Materials andmethods: Two types of gypsum products were used in this study (Iraqi plaster, Plaster of Paris) withthe combined additives (gum arabic 0.5%, calcium oxide 0.75%, and ferric oxide 0.2%) that incorporatedwithin the two gypsum products. Physical and mechanical properties of the experimental gypsumproducts have been evaluated by measuring the compressive strength, surface hardness, and surfaceroughness. Mean, standard deviation, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Duncan's multiple rangestatistical test were used to analyze the data. Results: ANOVA analysis showed that there was a significantdifference in the compressive strength, surface hardness, and surface roughness between Iraqiplaster (I.P) and Plaster of Paris (P.O.P) with or without additives. Conclusions: At two hours timeinterval microwave oven drying, Iraqi plaster and Plaster of Paris samples were stronger than air driedsamples; and microwave oven at 10 minutes for 800 Watt not only increased the strength of gypsumproducts samples, but also save time.

The Effect of Denture Base Surface Treatments on Microlekage of Soft Lining Materials

Nadia T. Jaffer; Munther N. Kazanji

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 168-174

Aims: To evaluate the effect of two acrylic resin denture base surface trearments on microleakageof 4 soft denture lining materials (Tru–soft, Bony plus, UfiGel–P and Molloplast–B after 2 periods ofstorage and thermalcycling. Materials and methods: One hundred eighty specimens for microleakagewere prepared in a disc shape 30 mm diameter and 4 mm thickness (2 mm for acrylic resin part and 2mm for soft lining material part). Soft lining materials were bonded to three different groups ofacrylic resin surface pretreatments (untreated, sandblasted and monomer treated denture base). Thesespecimens underwent two aging procedures: Storage with two periods (one week and one month), and500 cycles of thermalcycling inside 2% methylene blue dye. Results: Statistical analysis showed thattreating the acrylic resin denture base by sandblasting increased microleakage of silicone–based linings(UfiGel–P and Molloplast–B)and decreased microleakage of acrylic–based linings (Tru–soft and Bonyplus) in comparison to untreated denture base, while treating the denture base with MMA monomerpositively decreased microleakage for all tested soft lining materials in relation to untreated andsandblasted denture base at one week storage, one month storage and at thermalcycling. Conclusions:For all types of denture base surface treatments, microleakage was inevitable, however, wetting theacrylic resin denture base with MMA monomer was more effective in reducing microkeakage thansandblasted and untreated denture bases.

Preparation of Metal Mold For Production Of Microwave Flask

Radhwan H Hasan; Nadira A Hatim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 175-182

Aims: To design and prepare a metal mold used for production of Fiber Reinforced plastic flask (FRP)suitable for curing of acrylic resin by microwave irradiation, and investigate the effect of the following variableson the shear bond strength (SBS) of acrylic teeth to acrylic denture base material: A-curing techniques(water bath and microwave). B-surface treatment with monomer. C-cross – linking of the tooth resinby using the new microwave flask. Materials and methods: The FRP flask is not available in our countryso as a special design of metal mold was prepared for this study. Inner dimensions were determined accordingto standard Ash metal flask. A microwave flask was fabricated from unsaturated polyester resin reinforcedwith glass fibers, nuts and screws was fabricated from Teflon material which are available in ourcountry. One hundred sixty samples of five different brands of acrylic teeth were divided into four groups{untreated and treated (with monomer )groups each of these were cured by water bath or microwave techniques}.The bond strength between acrylic tooth and denture base resin was measured in shear mode byusing unconfined compression machine, the SBS in MPa was calculated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA)and Duncan’s multiple range test were used for statistical analysis. Results: There was a significant differencesin bond strength of acrylic denture base to different tooth materials by using FRP flask in relation toAsh metal flask at (P < 0.001). Conclusions: SBS of acrylic teeth improved by monomer surface treatmentfor 180 seconds to microwave cured resin by new prepared flask (FRP) was significantly higher than that ofwater – bath cured resin, and cross – linked acrylic teeth showed lowest SBS compared to other type ofacrylic teeth.

A Clinical Assessment on the Efficacy of the Anterior and Middle Superior Alveolar Nerve Block Technique During Extraction of axillary Teeth

Faiz A Ayoob Al Sultan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 183-188

Aims: A clinical evaluation on a recently introduced technique of anesthesia for maxillary teeth namelythe Anterior and Middle Superior alveolar nerve block compared with the conventional infiltrationtechnique for extraction of upper anterior and premolar teeth. Materials and methods: In the first partof the study, testing of pulpal anesthesia were performed after administering this technique for teethfrom upper central incisor to upper second premolar. The sample chosen for the second part of thestudy included 60 subjects of different ages and genders. The patients were divided randomly into twogroups: control group to whom the conventional supraperiosteal injection technique was administeredand the trial group to whom the anterior and middle superior alveolar nerve block technique was administered.In both groups, extraction was carried out. Results: The result of this study indicated thesuccess of achieving pulpal anesthesia after AMSA injection for teeth from the upper canine to the uppersecond premolar with no significant difference noticed between AMSA and control group in regardingto pain score levels after extraction of these teeth. Conclusions: This new technique could beused as a good alternative and or supplementary to the infiltration technique for anesthetizing maxillaryanterior and premolar teeth using a conventional dental syringe.

An Evaluation of Different Materials for Surface Treatment on Microleakage of Repaired Composite Resin Restoration

Emad F Alkhalidi; Jabbar H Kammel

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 189-193

Aims: To evaluate the effect of different surface treatment on the microleakage of repaired CI V com-posite resin restoration. Materials and methods: This study was performed in vitro on 20 caries free premolar teeth. Standardized class V cavity preparation on buccal and lingual surfaces of each tooth was done, forty cavities cleaned with distilled water and dried, then the cavities were filled with the composite. After that, all teeth were stored in normal saline for 3 months, so that the filling become old then remove 1mm of composite from all cavities. The cavities were divided into four groups. The first two groups were treated with 37% phosphoric acid. The other groups treated with 9% hydrofluoric acid the groups II and IV were treated with silane coupling agent, then all cavities were filled with compo-site after 5th generation bonding agent were applied .The teeth were stored for one week after that the Samples were thermocycled and immersed in methylene blue dye, The samples were sectioned, and examined using stereomicroscope. Results: Samples treated with silane coupling agent showed less microleakage than those without silanation. There was highly significant difference between samples acid etched using hydrofluoric acid with those etched with phosphoric acid. Conclusions: Silane coupling agent and the hydrofluoric acid significantly decreased microleakage of repaired CI V compo-site resin restoration.

Biomechanical Behaviors of the Orthodontic Wires

Qassar; Sarmad S Al; Hussain A Obaidi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 194-198

Aims: To evaluate and compare the yield, ultimate and failure stresses of the untreated and the treatedsuper–elastic Nickel titanium and Spring hard stainless steal orthodontic arch wires with artificial salivafor one, two and four weeks. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of four groups (10wires for each group): the control group, one, tow and four weeks of emersion in artificial salivagroups, for each of the nickel titanium and spring hard stainless steal orthodontic arch wires. The specimenswere tested with tensile procedure and plotted the load stress– strain curve, from this curve theyield, ultimate and failure stresses elasticity modulus can be calculated. The data were subjected to thedescriptive statistics, ANOVA and Duncan’s analyses at p≤0.05 significant level. Results: The biomechanicalproperties (yield, ultimate and failure stresses) of Super–elastic Nickel titanium and Springhard stainless steal orthodontic arch wires demonstrated significant decrease as the immersion time inartificial saliva increased. Conclusions: The orthodontic arch wires (super–elastic nickel titanium andspring hard stainless steal) are recommended to be used intra–orally for short period to avoid reachingthe complete loss of the biomechanical properties.

The Influence of Different Ligature Materials on Frictional Coefficient of Slided Bracket on Arch Wire

Mukhtar; Anas M Al; Hussain A Obaidi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 199-202

Aims: To evaluate the frictional coefficients of different ligature materials with combination of stainlesssteel arch wire and bracket. Materials and methods: Ten ligatures were used for each of stainlesssteel, elastotomeric and teflon utilized with stainless steel arch wires and brackets. A simulated halfarch fixed apparatus was designed for measuring the static and kinetic frictional coefficient of the slidebracket incorporated with tensile testing machine. The data were analyzed by using the descriptive andvariance analyses of tests (ANOVA and Duncan’s Multiple Range test at p≤ 0.05) to reveal the significantdifference of the frictional coefficient among the three types of ligature materials. Results: It wasdisclosed that the elastomeric ligature had a very highly significant increased mean value of the staticand kinetic frictional coefficients as compared with other ligatures. Conclusions: The elastomeric ligatureis not recommended for use with sliding stainless steel bracket on the arch wire.

Shear Bond Strength of Hard Chairside Reline Material to Denture Base Material

Radhwan H Hasan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 203-210

Aims: To evaluate the effect of different surface treatment on shear bond strength (SBS) of a hard chairsidereline material to denture base resin. Materials and methods: Cylindric columns of denture reline materialwere bonded to columns of denture base resin. Fifty specimens were prepared and divided into 5 groupsaccording to the surface treatment used. Group I: Untreated; group II: Wetting with denture base resin monomer(180 s); group III: Wetting with Kooliner monomer (180 s); group IV: Wetting with acetone (10 s);and group V: Wetting with chloroform (5 s). The strength at which the bond failed under shear was recordedand fracture site on the specimens was tested by visual examination and reflecting light microscope. Thedata were statistically analyzed using one–way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Duncan’s Multiple RangeTest and Chi–square test. Results: All surface treatments caused significantly increase (p < 0.0001) in SBS.Chloroform caused significantly higher SBS, and untreated group showed significantly lower SBS. Mixedfailure mode was predominant in groups with higher SBS, while adhesive failure mode was predominant ingroups with lower SBS. Conclusions: All surface treatments (Monomer, Kooliner monomer, acetone, chloroform)achieved significantly higher SBS.

Clinical Comparison Between Primary and Secondary Closure Techniques of Wound on Pain and Swelling Following Lower Third Molar Surgery

Harith H Kaskos

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 211-215

Aims:To evaluate the effect of recycling of denture base on the surface hardness of artificial acrylicdenture teeth. Materials and methods: Thirty identical artificial acrylic denture teeth of two types(cross linked and conventional denture teeth) were positioned within polyvinylchloride tubes filledwith melted wax to prepare a samples within heat activated denture resin to be tested for Vickers hardnesstest before and after recycling by water bath for 1 hours at 100 °C and by microwave for 30 minutesat 80 watt then for 1.5 minute at 500 watts. Results: Showed that the water bath and microwaverecycling of denture base will not affect the hardness of conventional and cross linked denture teeth,and cross linked denture teeth are more wear resistance after recycling by microwave and water bath.Conclusions: Artificial denture teeth will not affect by double cycle of curing produced of acrylic denturebase.

Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA)

Ennas Y Shehab; Bazzaz; Maha M Al; Mahmoud Y Taha

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 216-219

Aims: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of MTA against selected microorganisms compared with awidely used root end filling materials. Materials and methods: Fifteen mm discs of MTA, GIC andAmalgam were prepared and three types of microorganisms; two bacteria and one fungus, were grownin 4 ml of brain heart infusion broth for 18 hr. Then 0.5 ml of each growth was spread over selectedmedia (three plates for each sample) and the discs were applied on the agar, incubated for 24–48 hr andthe zone of inhibition was measured. Results: Amalgam did not demonstrate any antimicrobial activity,whereas MTA showed antimicrobial effect against all tested microorganisms and was highly significant.GIC showed antibacterial activity comparable to MTA but failed to produce antifungal effect.Conclusions: MTA demonstrated antibacterial and antifungal effect, while GIC showed only antibacterialactivity, whereas Amalgam did not show any activity.

The Effect of Acrylic Resin Recycling on The Hardness of Artificial Acrylic Resin Denture Teeth

Mohammed M Sadoon; Ali; a W Omari; Nada Z Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 220-224

Aims: To evaluate the effect of recycling of denture base on the surface hardness of artificial acrylic denture teeth. Materials and methods: thirty identical artificial acrylic denture teeth of two types
(cross linked and conventional denture teeth) were positioned within polyvinylchloride tubes filled with melted wax to prepare a samples within heat activated denture resin to be tested for Vickers hardness
test before and after recycling by water bath for 1 hours at 100 °C and by microwave for 30 minutes at 80 watt then for 1.5 minute at 500 watts. Results: Showed that the water bath and microwave
recycling of denture base will not affect the hardness of conventional and cross linked denture teeth, and cross linked denture teeth are more wear resistance after recycling by microwave and water bath.
Conclusions: Artificial denture teeth will not affect by double cycle of curing produced of acrylic denture base.

Comparison of New Topical Treatment (Curcumine viscous solution 30% ) For Recurrent Herpes Labialis (RHL)

Saffar; Maha T Al

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 225-231

Aims: To determine the therapeutic effect of viscaus solution of curcumine 30% , as a topical treatment of RHL in comparison with the traditional antiviral agent " acyclovir ". Materials and methods: A
total of 120 patients (100 female, 20 male) with RHL divided into four groups: Group I: Fifty patients used viscous solution of curcumine 30% topically. Group II: Thirty patients used viramed "acyclovir"
cream topically. Group III: Twenty five patients used glycerol topically "control positive group".Group IV: Fifteen patients without treatment "control negative group". Results: Female were more
affected than male with RHL (83.3% female, 16.3% male) with high percentage of association between highly stressed events and RHL. The results also showed significant differences between size of lesion,
duration of healing and pain in patients using viscous curcumine solution topically and patients received viramed cream and patient received no treatment. The patients group which received glycerol
"control positive" showed a significant differences in duration of healing compared with group I and group II. While, patients group which received viramed topically showed no significant differences
compared with group III and IV in related to duration of pain and show significant difference with group I, III and IV in relation to duration of healing. Conclusions: Topical application of viscaus carcumine
solution 30% showed a good effective response on RHL compared with other antiviral agent with the lower percentage of adverse effect, and further study for its effect on other oral lesion may be recommended.

The Effect Of Light Curing Intensity On Fluoride Release From Composite Resin

Manal A. Sultan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 232-237

Aims: To find the effect of light cure intensity on polymerization of light cured composite resin(Tetric and Kerr composite resin). Which affects the amount of fluoride release from (light cure) composite resin. Materials and methods: Two types of light cure composite resins material (Tetric ceram and Kerr are used in this study, three groups of samples were made from each type of material used each group contain 10 samples which are cured by light cured device with different intensity of light cure.The first group of samples were cured by light the intensity of the light cure was 170 Mw/cm2. The second group of samples were cured by the intensity of 300 Mw/cm2 , third group of samples were cured at the intensity of 470 Mw/cm2. Results: The amount of fluoride released from all samples were determined in (milli volt)then convert to ppm(part per million).The amount of fluoride release in to deionized water from materials at the high intensity were less from the amount of the fluoride release from the materials that cured at low intensity. Conclusions: The amount of the fluoride from the light cured composite resins material which cured at the high intensity is less than the amount of the fluoride released from light cured composite resin at low intensity. Which means that the intensity of light cure will affecting the amount of the fluoride release from light cured composite resin materials.

Association of Root Caries, Oral Hygiene and Gingival Health Among Adult Population in Baghdad and Mosul City Center (A omparative Study)

Alhan Ahmed Qasim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 238-253

Aims: To determine the association of root caries, oral hygiene and gingival health among adult populationin Baghdad and Mosul Cities. Materials and methods: A sample of 210 subjects was selectedaged 20 – 60 years, attending the Periodontal Clinic of DentistryCollege at Baghdad and Mosul Universities.For each subject, clinical examination was performed on a dental chair, using plane mouthmirrors and exploratory probe to detect root surface caries. While WHO periodontal probe was used todetect the dental plaque and gingival health. Root Caries Index (RCI) was used for detecting root caries,Plaque Index (PI) for oral hygiene and Gingival Index (GI) for gingival health. T – test was used tofind a difference between Baghdad and Mosul, while Duncan's Multiple Range Test was used to findthe difference among groups, the differences were considered significant at p≤ 0.05. Results: From thetotal sample the mean Root Caries Index (RCI) rate was (13.69) in Baghdad and (13.59) in Mosul, nosignificant difference was found between the two cities (p> 0.05). The mean Plaque Index (PI) wasmoderate for Baghdad and Mosul (1.23, 1.04) respectively, while Gingival Index (GI) mean was lowfor both cities (0.96, 0.71) respectively. Also subjects who did not brush their teeth revealed a highmean of RCI, PI and GI in both cities than those who brushed their teeth once or more than one timedaily with highly significant difference (p< 0.01). A significant decrease in the mean of RCI, PI and GIwith high level of education (p≤ 0.05) was found. Conclusions: Root surface caries is regarded to behigh in both cities population and deserve attention concerning their actual role in the epidemiology ofprinciple oral disease of the adult population.

The Effect of Thermocycling on Shear Bond Strength of Two Types of Self Etch Primers

ed J Sa; Saad S Gasgoos

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 246-253

Aims: To determine the shear bond strength of two types of self–etch primer (Transbond plus 3M Unitek,USA made and Clearfil, Japan made) when used to bond metal orthodontic brackets to enamel surfaceafter thermocycling test and water storage for two months and to check the failure site after debondingusing adhesive remnant index. Materials and methods: sixty extracted upper first premolars fororthodontic reason were used in this study; 30 teeth were bonded with light curing Transbond plus 3MUnitek and the other 30 teeth were bonded with light curing Clearfil self–etch primers. For both groups,Dentaurum stainless steel orthodontic brackets were bonded to enamel surface with Transbond XT lightcuring composite. Then 10 samples from each groups were tested for shear bond strength after 24 hours,the other 10 samples from each groups were tested after 500 manual thermocycles between 5°C &55°C,the third 10 samples of each groups were tested after 500 thermocycles and 2 months water storage atroom temperature. The adhesive remnant index was tested under 10X magnification lens. Results: Bothmaterials demonstrated a very good shear bond strength before thermocycling (14.5825 MPa for 3MUnitek & 14.3966 MPa for Clearfil groups). After 500 thermocycles, there were no significant changes inshear bond strength for both materials (15.0567 MPa for 3M Unitek & 13.997 MPa for Clearfil groups)and this is clinically acceptable. After 500 thermocycles and two months water storage the shear bondstrength of the 3M/Unitek reduced progressively below the acceptable clinical value (3.469 MPa),whereas the shear bond strength of Clearfil group still above the acceptable level (10.607 MPa). The tendencyof bond failure at the enamel–adhesive interface was increased after thermocycling and water storage.Conclusions: this study was done in vitro and further in vivo investigations are needed to evaluatethese 2 materials.

Evaluation of Intruded Primary Incisors: One Year Follow Up Study

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 254-258

تحدد هدف البحث الحالي بتقصي اثر أنموذج التعلم البنائي في تحصيل طلاب الصف الرابع العلمي في مادة علم الأحياء , ولتحقيق هدف البحث تم صياغة الفرضية الصفرية الآتية :- لا يوجد فرق ذو دلالة إحصائية عند مستوى (05,0) بين متوسطي درجات تحصيل طلاب المجموعة التجريبية الذين يدرسون على وفق أنموذج التعلم البنائي ودرجات طلاب المجموعة الضابطة الذين يدرسون على وفق الطريقة الاعتيادية.اقتصر مجتمع البحث الحالي على طلاب الصف الرابع العلمي في المدارس الثانوية والإعدادية النهارية التابعة للمديرية العامة لتربية محافظة الديوانية للعام الدراسي 2009-2010. استخدم الباحث التصميم التجريبي ذي المجموعات المتكافئة الذي يتضمن مجموعتين، المجموعة التجريبية والمجموعة الضابطة، ووفقاً لهذا التصميم اختيرت عينة الدراسة قصدياً في مدرسة (ثانوية أبي تراب المطورة للبنين)، بلغت عينة الدراسة (51) طالباً قسموا عشوائياً على مجموعتين اختيرت أحداهما عشوائياً (بطريقة القرعة) لتمثل المجموعة التجريبية وقد ضمت (26) طالباً درسوا باستعمال أنموذج التعلم البنائي، واختيرت الأخرى لتمثل المجموعة الضابطة وقد ضمت (25) طالباً درسوا باستعمال الطريقة الاعتيادية. كوفئت المجموعتان في متغيرات : العمر الزمني، والذكاء، والتحصيل السابق (نصف السنة). حدد الباحث المادة العلمية بالفصول الأربعة الأخيرة (الثامن – التاسع – العاشر – الحادي عشر) من كتاب علم الأحياء للصف الرابع العلمي. اعد الباحث اختبارا تحصيليا اعتمادا على محتوى الفصول التي تم اختيارها من كتاب علم الأحياء , اذ تالف الاختبار بصورته النهائية من (40) فقرة موضوعية من نوع الاختيار من متعدد وقد تم حساب الصدق والثبات ومعامل التمييز والصعوبة لهذا الاختبار. أظهرت النتائج باستخدام الحقيبة الإحصائية للعلوم الاجتماعية (SPSS) ما يأتي: - تفوق طلاب المجموعة التجريبية التي درست على وفق أنموذج التعلم البنائي على طلاب المجموعة الضابطة التي درست على وفق الطريقة الاعتيادية في التحصيل.

Palatal Dimensions and Its Correlation with the Circumference of Upper Anterior Teeth

Zeina M Ahmad

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 259-267

Aims: To put a bases for the prediction of the circumference of artificial anterior teeth depending on thepalatal dimensions Materials and methods: The study sample consists of 30 female and 32 male withclass I occlusion aged 19– 24 years .The dimensions of the palatal vault and the circumferences of upperanterior teeth were recorded with digital venire caliper and analyzed with SPSS program (version 11). Results:significant correlation was found between the dimension of the palatal vault and the circumference ofupper anterior teeth. Conclusions: the angle of circumferences of upper anterior teeth of narrow short anddeep palate will be more tapered than those one in the wide, long and shallow palate.

Bacteriological Study on Tooth Brushes

Eman A Mustafa

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 268-272

Aims: To determine if the tooth brushes in a regular use can become contaminated with microorganismsand to investigate if the microorganisms were present with a packaged brushes. Materials andmethods: Thirty synthetic tooth brushes were used in this study. Ten adults each was supplied withnew tooth brush of the same type and brand together with identical tubes of fluoridated tooth paste.After three weeks, subjects were requested to follow their normal hygiene practices, twenty new toothbrushes from two manufacturers were also enrolled in this study. All brushes were collected, decapitatedand cultured in different culture media to identify aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms presentin each tooth brush. Results: The result showed that various microorganisms can grow on used toothbrushes, Staphylococcus epidermidis were isolated from all used tooth brushes except one, α hemolyticStreptococci, yeasts (Candida albicans), Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli wereisolated from 70%, 60%, 50%, 30% and 20% of the used brushes respectively. Proteus spp. and Enterobacterspp. were isolated from 10% of tooth brushes while Corynebacteria, Aerococci and Moraxellacatarrhalis were isolated from 40% of used tooth brushes. Anaerobic bacteria (Peptococcus spp., Veillonellaspp. and Peptostreptococcus spp.) were isolated from 30%, 20% and 10% of the used brushesrespectively. Eleven from twenty unused brushes were contaminated; while other nine were apparentlybacteria free. Conclusions: It is concluded that used tooth brushes were found to harbour microorganismsand it cannot be determined whether or not the brushes were contaminated when new.

Evaluation of the Effect of Some Denture Cleansers on Hardness of Acrylic Denture Base and Teeth Materials

Aliaa W AL-Omari

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 273-278

Aims: To evaluate the effect of some commercially available new denture cleansers on the hardnessof acrylic denture base and teeth materials. Materials and method: Samples were preparedfrom heat cured acrylic resin denture base material and teeth. After that, half of the samples foreach group were immersed for ½ hr per day in the denture cleanser throughout one month, theother half of the samples immersed for 8 hr per day in the denture cleanser through one month.The denture cleansers used are three solutions prepared freshly everyday for immersion of thesamples. The hardness of the samples were tested by using Vickers hardness tester, the mean istaken for each group and evaluated by using one way analysis of variance test and Duncan's multiplerange test to compare the groups. Results: The results demonstrated that there were significantdifferences in the hardness of acrylic resin denture base material with different denturecleansers and duration of immersion (P < 0.0001), and there were significant differences in thehardness of acrylic resin teeth with different denture cleansers and duration of immersion (P <0.0001). The results also revealed that the cross linked teeth had a higher hardness value than theacrylic resin teeth. Conclusions: The type of denture cleanser and duration of immersion had aneffect on the surface hardness of acrylic resin teeth and denture base materials. The cross linkingof acrylic resin materials increase the resistance of the material to the action of solvents.

The Effect of Three Coating Materials on the Candidal Growth, on the Surface and Color of A heat–Cure Acrylic Resin Denture Base

Enas Yaseen Shehab; Nadia T Jaffer; Monia MN Kandil

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 279-288

Aims: To evaluate the effect of three coating materials: Acrylic resin coating "monopoly", olive oil andgrape seeds oil on the Candida albicans growth, and on color of a heat – cured acrylic resin denture base.Materials and methods: Three coating materials underwent pores method to find out their antifungaleffect. The effect of coating materials on the acrylic denture base surface was determined via Sensitivity testin which twenty discs of acrylic resin 6mm diameter and 2mm thickness were prepared and divided intofour groups: control (uncoated), monopoly, olive, and grape oil coated groups. These discs were added toSabouraud Dextrose agar surface and incubated for 24 hours at 37 oC and the diameter of growth inhibitionzones were measured. Then the Turbidity test was taken place, in which 60 acrylic specimens (1cm x 1cm x2mm) were prepared and immersed in 60 test tubes that were divided into four groups, each group (15specimens) was subdivided into three groups of incubation: 7, 20, and 30 days incubation period, each testtube contained 4 ml Brain Heart Infusion Broth, 0.1 ml of 24 hours Candida albicans, and its correspondingacrylic specimen, turbidity (yeast growth) was measured by a spectrophotometer at 530 nm wave length.For color change measurement test, 20 acrylic resin specimens (45 x 10 x 2.5 mm) were prepared anddistributed into four studied groups. The absorbed light was measured by spectrophotometer and termedoptical density at 345 nm. Results: All coating materials were fungicidal in pores method. Statisticalanalysis of sensitivity test showed that Candida albicans was susceptible at highest extent to monopolycoated denture base followed by the oils coated groups. In turbidity test, monopoly specimens showedantifungal activity in all periods of incubation, but the effect decreased gradually, olive and grape oil coatedspecimens exhibited their highest antifungal activity after 30 days incubation. Color change measurementsshowed that monopoly coated group had the highest optical density, while the olive and grape groupsshowed a decrease in the optical density when compared to uncoated group. Conclusions: Use of coatingmaterials on the acrylic denture base surface was beneficial, especially monopoly in terms of antifungalactivity against Candida albicans followed by natural oils (olive and grape oils). However, coatingmaterials showed a significant change in the color of acrylic denture base.

The Antibacterial Effect of Myrtus Communis as Root Canal Irrigant: Acomparative Study

Rajaa T Sulieman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 289-296

Aims: To evaluate the antibacterial effect of Myrtus communis alcoholic extract solution when used asintracanal irrigant and to compare it with the currently used root canal irrigants. Materials and methods:Samples of 30 patients of both sexes were included in the in vitro study having 30 uniradicularnecrotic pulp. Microbiological samples were obtained from the root canal and then transferred for laboratorywork. In the clinical trail "in vivo", samples of 32 patients having uniradicular necrotic pulp.They were randomly divided into four groups major depending on the type of irrigant solution used.Samples from root canal obtained at the beginning of the study and after treatment. The percentage ofthe reduction of the counts for both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were calculated. Results: The invitro study showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was obtained with the 35% Myrtuscommunis alcoholic extract. In the clinical trail, the antimicrobial effectiveness of 35% Myrtuscommunis alcoholic extract solution was evident and comparable with that from other commonly usedroot canal irrigant like chlorhexidine 0.2% and sodium hypochlorite 5.25%. Conclusions: This studyrevealed that alcoholic extraction solution (35%) from Myrtus communis has antibacterial effect andcould be used as root canal irrigant.

Using Thermopile as Densitometer for Measurement Optical Density for X-Ray Radiation Film Which Used in Dental Medicine

Qusay Kh Omer Al; Dulamey

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 297-302

Aims: To encountered in using thermopile device (thermocouple) as densitometer for measuring opticaldensity for X–radiation film which is used in dental medicine. Materials and methods: Americium–241(Am–241) 59.5keV was used to expose a number of dental X–ray films for different times toend with a variety of optical densities on them. Results: A comparison of the optical density readingsbetween the densitometer and thermopile was made. Conclusions: The thermopile was capable tomeasure the optical density of any transparent polymer material while the densitometer can measurethe optical density of the X–ray film only.

The Significance of Motor Speed on Heat Generation During Implant Drilling (Experimental Study on Bovine Bone)

Abdul Hameed N Aldabagh

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 303-306

Aims: To measure the heat generated from 3 drilling speeds (1250,2000, and 2500 rpm) using the armamentariumof ELIT implant systems. Materials and methods: Temperature was measured withthermocouple technology in vitro using the bovine femoral cortical bone model. Intermittent drillingwas accomplished by using normal hand force that used in implant preparations. External irrigation at40 mL/min with normal saline was used with drilling depth at a depth of 7mm and diameter 3.75. Heatmeasurements were recorded after final drilling step. Results: Result showed temperature increasesrelated to the time of drilling and the speed of 2500 rpm accompanied with lowest temperature. Conclusions:From a heat generation, we concluded that preparing an implant site at 2500 rpm could decreasethe risk of bone damage, which may affect the initial healing of dental implants. This may decreasethe devital zone adjacent to an implant after surgery.

Surface Porosity of Different Investment Materials with Different Mixing Techniques

Zubaidy; Ibtehal H Al; Luma M Al; Nema; Ahmed A Al; Ali

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 307-314

Aims: To evaluate and compare the number and surface area of surface porosities of different dental investmentmaterials by using two mixing techniques. Materials and Methods: Two mixing techniques;manual and mechanical were used to prepare specimens for four dental investment materials: Biosint Supra,Rema Exakt, Rematitan Plus, and Deguvest soft. Computer programs are used to measure the numberand surface area of the porosities to compare among them. ANOVA, Duncan multiple range test in additionto T–test were carried out to determine the significant difference at P<0.05. Results: In relation to the surfacearea of the porosities, there are high significant differences among the investment materials tested, andhigh significant difference is presented between the two mixing techniques tested with the manual mixingtechnique and showing higher value than the mechanical vacuum mixing technique. In relation to the numberof porosities, there are no significant difference among the investment materials tested, but there arevery high significant differences between the two mixing techniques tested with the manual mixing techniqueand showing higher value than the mechanical vacuum mixing technique. Conclusions: the numberand surface area of the surface porosities differ from the different materials used, and differ in the samematerial by changing the mixing technique.