Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Volume 5, Issue 1

Volume 5, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2009, Page 1-155


Finite Element Analysis of Acrylic Denture Produced from Metal Stock Tray

Nadira A Hatim; Ayad A Abdul-Razaq; Ibtehal H Al-Zubaidy

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1-8

Aims: To determine stress analysis exerted by denture on the edentulous alveolar bone in the premolarregion represented by stone cast produced from metal stock tray using linear finite element method.Materials and methods: Metal perforated stock tray was used to produce stone cast that represent thedenture base and the underlying bone using silicone impression material. The dimension of the crosssection of the stone cast was measured using Dimax program, then the data collected was entering Excelprogram for making the figures. The dimension of the cross section of the stone cast entering finiteelement program and other new auxiliary program prepared specially for this study for finite elementanalysis. Results: After the data was analyzed, the results were drawn in figures using surfer 7 program.High compressive, tensile, deflection, shear and maximum principal stress values were observedbelow the point of force application and in the underlying structure with different values and locationsaccording to the analysis in the mucous membrane and in the underlying bone in the X and Y axes.Conclusions: By using finite element analysis, the more stress concentration and deflection were foundbelow the point of force application, in the mucous membrane, at the beginning of the cortical bone andalong the buccal vestibule.

Finite Element Analysis of Acrylic Denture Produced From Visible Light Custom Tray

Nadira A Hatim; Ayad A Abdul-Razaq; Ibtehal H Al-Zubaidy

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 9-16

Aim: To determine stress analysis exerted by denture on the edentulous alveolar bone in the premolarregion represented by stone cast produced from visible light custom tray using linear finite elementmethod. Material and Method: Visible light custom tray (spaced and close fit) was used to producestone cast that represent the denture base and the underlying bone using silicone impression material.The dimension of the cross section of the stone cast was measured using Dimax program, then the datacollected was entering Excel program for making the figures. The dimension of the cross section of thestone cast entering finite element program and other new auxiliary program prepared specially for thisstudy for finite element analysis of vertical load of 100 Newton applied on the buccal cup (supportingcusp) of the second premolar tooth. Result: After the data was analyzed, the results were drawn infigures using surfer 7 program. High compressive, tensile, deflection, shear and maximum principalstress values were observed below the point of force application and in the underlying structure withdifferent values and locations according to the analysis in the mucous membrane and in the underlyingbone in the X and Y axes. Conclusion: By using finite element analysis, the more stress concentrationand deflection were found below the point of force application, in the mucous membrane, at the beginningof the cortical bone and along the buccal vestibule. The less stress concentration, deflection andless value of shear and maximum principle stress that distributed over large distance was found by usingvisible light cure spaced custom tray

Validation of Tanaka and Johnston Method on Iraqi Population

Hind T Jarjees; Khawla M Awni; Younis MS Hasan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 17-23

Aims: To validate Tanaka and Johnston's analysis on (50) Iraqi patients (29 females and 21 males)aged 14–22 years. The patients had normal class I molar relation ship with full permanent dentition.Materials and Methods: Plaster models of 50 (14–22) years old patients were selected. Mesio–distalcrown diameter for maxillary and mandibular permanent teeth were measured. Statistical descriptive,probability theory, correlation coefficients between individual and grouped teeth were calculated usingTanaka and Johnston method. Results: Tanaka and Johnston's analysis tables, equations and approximationswere modified in order to improve the accuracy of the prediction. The correlation coefficientsfound between the size of the permanent mandibular central incisors and maxillary first molars (1, 1, 6and 6) and maxillary and mandibular canines and premolars were high (r = 0.62 and r = 0.67, respectively).New, more accurate prediction tables applicable at earlier ages, and new regression equationswere constructed. In addition, new easier approximations were developed to allow the prediction of thesize of the unerupted maxillary canines and premolars by adding 5.6 mm to the half–widths of teeth 1,1, 6 and 6. The analogous prediction of the size of unerupted mandibular canines and premolars wasobtained by adding 5.4 mm to the half widths of same teeth 1 ,1 , 6 and 6. Conclusions: The new analysisprediction tables and new regression equations based on teeth 1 ,1, 6 and 6, which erupt earlierthan teeth used by Tanaka and Johnston, proved even more accurate than both previous equations.

Antifungal Effect: Comparison of Commercial Denture Cleansers and Microwave Energy

Nagham H Kassab; Eman A Mustafa; Radhwan H Hasan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 24-31

and comparing this with microwave sterilization technique on heat cured acrylic resin denture basematerial which was cured by two different techniques. Materials and Methods: thirty two samples ofheat cured acrylic resin denture base material had been used, half of them was cured by conventionalwater bath technique, and the other half by microwave technique. A simple method to measure Candidabiofilm activity using pH change of Stomastat. Modified Sabouraud broth developed and used to evaluatethe efficacy of the following denture cleansers: Chlorhexidine 0.2% and sodium hypochlorite0.5%, and microwave sterilization on Candida albicans biofilm. The initial number of yeasts inoculatedwas correlated with pH value of Stomastat after 24 hours incubation period. Results: The acrylicresin samples that cured by conventional water bath technique were most effectively disinfected bychlorhexidine 0.2%. This demonstrated by increasing the pH value of Stomastat significantly than thecontrol group. The same result was obtained with those samples which were cured by microwave oven.The initial number of Candida albicans cells in Stomastat was significantly decreased than the controlgroup after treatment of acrylic samples with denture cleansers and microwave sterilization technique,while for those samples that cured by microwave technique the least number was obtained after treatmentwith chlorhexidine 0.2%. Conclusion: Both of chlorhexidine 0.2% and sodium hypochlorite0.5% and microwave technique had the ability to disinfect acrylic samples that cured by water bath andmicrowave techniques effectively. However, chlorhexidine 0.2% was the most effective one.

Evaluation of Mandibular Infiltration Compared to Mandibular Block Anesthesia in Pediatric Dentistry

Khudair A. Salman Al-Jumaili; Baydaa A. Othman Al-Rawi; Ghaeth H. Yassen

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 32-37

Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of mandibular infiltration compared withthe mandibular block in treating mandibular primary molars in children and to relate it to the type oftreatment performed. Materials and Methods: The study design was case control study. The studysample consisted of 98 cooperative children of age 3-9 years old. Forty eight children were the studygroup (infiltration group). Equal number of children to the study group matched for age and genderwere chosen (block group), they had the same criteria of the study group and required the same type oftreatment. Dental procedure included amalgam restorations, foromcresol pulpotomies, and extractions.Evaluations of pain for each anesthesia technique and type of treatment were conducted using sounds;motor and ocular changes indicating pain. Evaluations were made upon probing, during tooth preparation,coronal pulp removal and extraction. Results: No statistically significant difference was foundbetween the two anesthetic techniques of pain, when performing amalgam restorations (p>0.05). Mandibularinfiltration was significantly less effective than mandibular block for pulpotomy and extraction(p<0.05). Conclusions: In this study, the mandibular infiltration was found to be a reliable local anesthetictechnique in amalgam restoration. For pulpotomy and extraction, mandibular infiltration was notas effective as mandibular block. It is recommended to avoid the mandibular infiltration anesthesia,whenever possible for pulpotomy or extraction procedure in primary molars

Sealing Ability of Different Retrograde Filling Materials

Nawfal A Zakaria; Neam N Al-Yousifany; Raghad A Al-Askry

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 38-50

Aims: The study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of different concentrations of alcoholicextract of Olive Leaves solution (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%) in an in vitro.It also to determinesthe time required for the most effective concentration of Olive Leaves to start the effect in selectedmicroorganisms, and to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of most effective concentrations of alcoholicextract of Olive Leaves solution in an in vivo study as a root canal irrigant. Materials and Methods:The antimicrobial effect of Olive Leaves (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%), 2.5% sodium hypochlorite,and normal saline were determined in vitro by using broth microdilution method. The direct exposuretest was used to evaluate the time required for 0.8% of Olive Leaves to start their antimicrobial effecton the selected microorganisms. In an in vivo study, 36 uniradicular teeth with necrotic pulps werechosen. The patients were divided randomly into three groups, 12 patients for each group as in thefollowing: Group I: alcoholic extract of Olive Leaves at 0.8%. Group II: sodium hypochlorite solutionat 2.5% as a positive control. Group III: normal saline as a negative control. Bacteriological sampleswere obtained from the canal at the beginning of the first appointment; at the beginning of the secondappointment; at the end of the second appointment; at the beginning of the third appointment usingsterile wet paper point. Results: The Results showed that Olive Leaves at (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%),and sodium hypochlorite had a significant antimicrobial effect against aerobic and anaerobic bacteriarecovered from teeth with necrotic pulps. While the normal saline and 0.1% Olive Leaves had nosignificant antimicrobial effect. As for Olive Leaves exract. The best antimicrobial effect was noticedat 0.8%, which showed a significant difference from other concentrations of Olive Leaves,but nosignificant difference from that of sodium hypochlorite. The results of this test showed that 2.5%sodium hypochlorite and 0.8% Olive Leaves had immediate effect on all selected microorganisms. Theresults revealed that 0.8% alcoholic extract of Olive Leaves solution had a significant antimicrobialeffect when utilized clinically as an endodontic irrigant, which was not significantly differ from sodiumhypochlorite but significantly different from normal saline. Conclusions: Olive Leaves alcoholicextract solution at 0.8% was an effective antimicrobial agent when used as an irrigant in endodontictreatment of teeth with necrotic pulps.

Evaluation of Toothbrush Wear on Toothbrushing Efficiency

Rayia Jasim AL-Naimi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 51-56

Aim of the study: is to assess the influence of toothbrush wear on plaque index (PI) and gingival (GI)index. Materials and Methods: twenty dental students participated, before the beginning of the study,all the students received a prophylactic scaling and polishing by the operator, the PI and GI were recordedat the starting point T0, each student received an identical toothbrush and toothpaste and wereinstructed to brush twice daily, after one month at T1, the students were randomly divided in to twogroups, group no. 1 used the same brush provided at T1, while group no. 2 substituted the toothbrush ateach monthly examination. Recalls were scheduled after one (T1), two (T2) and three months (T3), theplaque and (PI) gingival index (GI) of Loe and Sillness, in addition to Rawls et al index of wear fortoothbrush were measured at each monthly examination. Results: showed that from T0 to T3 that thePI and GI were increasing with statistically significant difference in between each group. In comparingbetween the two groups PI showed a significant difference at T2 and T3, and although mean values ofGI in group not changing toothbrushes were slightly higher, significant difference was observed at T3only. The WI had a statistically significant difference as toothbrush bristles deteriorated, and there wasa positive relationship between the PI and WI in the group of students that did not change theirtoothbrush because as the toothbrush bristles splayed and deteriorated, the plaque values increased.Conclusion: it can be therefore concluded from the results obtained in this study, that the capacity toremove dental plaque is much related to toothbrush wear.

Evaluation of Some Mechanical Properties of Reinforced Acrylic Resin Denture Base Material(An In Vitro Study)

Tarik Kassab Bashi; Luma M Al-Nema

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 57-65

Aims: To evaluate the effect of thickness of acrylic denture base resin on the transverse strength, also to evaluate the effect of metal and fiber reinforcements on the fracture resistance of denture base resin
by four mechanical tests: Transverse strength; Charpy impact strength; Tensile strength and Rockwell Indentation Hardness. Materials and methods : Heat–cured resin, and three types of reinforcing metals
were used which were: The cobalt–chromium alloy mesh, stainless steel wire and nickel alloy plate.
Three forms of glass fiber also were used: Random, woven, and aligned unidirectional. The effect of these reinforcing materials on the mechanical properties of heat–cured resin had been evaluated by
measuring the transverse strength by the Instron testing machine, tensile strength by the Textile tensile strength Tester, the impact strength by the Charpy type impact Tester and finally the hardness by the Rockwell hardness tester. Three hundred samples were prepared in this study. Results: Revealed a statistically significant effect of thickness on the transverse strength of heat–cured resin. Results also
showed that all forms of fiber and metal reinforcements had a significant effect on the transverse strength, tensile strength , impact strength and hardness of denture base resin. Conclusions: The thickness significantly increased the transverse strength of denture base resin. All forms of metal and glass fiber reinforcement significantly improved the transverse strength, impact strength and tensile strength of denture base resin. All forms of metal and fiber reinforcement acted to reduce the hardness of denture base resin

The Effect Of Different Curing Times on The Hardness, Fracture Resistance And Color Change of Visible Light Cured Denture Base Resin

Mohammed M Sadoon

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 66-70

Aim: To evaluate the effect of the organic acid solution on color stability of the facing heat-cured acrylic resin. Materials and methods: Two heat-cured facing acrylic resins were used in this study.
Sixty four rectangular shape specimens were prepared to evaluate the color changes of the heat-cured acrylic resin after immersion in three organic acids (acetic, citric and lactic acids). The specimens were
divided into two groups according to tested resin materials, and then subdivided into four tested groups according to immersion solution, eight specimens for each subgroup. The assessment of color property
(opacity) done by using ultra-violet visible spectrophotometer at wavelength 345 nm. Mean values were compared statistically with one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan , s multiple
range test to determine the significant difference among the tested groups at (p<0.05) level of significance.
Results: The results showed that there is a significant difference of the means value of the color change among the four tested groups for both tested materials for two different immersion periods,but there is no significant difference of color change between tested materials. Specimens immersed in acetic acid have a higher value than that immersed in other organic acids. Conclusion: The result of this study show that immersion in organic acids for different immersion periods had a significant effect on color stability of the facing heat-cured acrylic resin cured acrylic resin .

The Bond Strength of the Bonded Bracket to Enamel Surface Treated with Acid and Microetcher

Hussain A Obaidi; Muzahim H Hanna

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 71-76

Aims: To evaluate shear and tensile bond strengths of the bonded brackets to the enamel surfaces treated with acid and microetcher. Materials and methods: The sample include 30 intact extracted
upper left first premolars, the teeth were collected from orthodontics clinic and private clinics. The sample was grouped into three groups (10 teeth for each group), which were: acid etched, microetched
at 5mm distance, and microetched at 10mm distance.. Stainless steel brackets (Roth System) were bonded to the buccal enamel surfaces utilizing light cure composite (transbondTM XT) according to the
manufacturer instructions. All the groups were thermocycled, the temperature range is 5 + 3 ºC to 50 + 3 ºC with a 30 seconds dwell time in each bath. The shear and tensile bond strengths of the bonded
bracket were measured by using the shear and tensile Universal testing machine. The results were analyzed statistically; that include: Descriptive, ANOVA and Duncan’s testes at p≤ 0.05 significant level.
Results: It was reveled that the shear and tensile bond strength values of the bonded brackets to enamel treated with the acid were greater significantly than that treated with microetcher. Conclusions: The
acid agent is considered the most practical conditioner to the enamel to achieve strong shear and tensile bond strengths.

An in Vitro Comparison of Root Canal Length Measurements in Primary Teeth

Aghareed Gh. Mohammed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 77-82

Aims: The current study aims at comparing the accuracy of root canal lengths in primary teeth determined by tactile sense, conventional radiography and electronic apex locator(EAL) Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 30 extracted, single-rooted primary teeth . A comparison was conducted between the root canal length measurements obtained by tactile sensation ,conventional radiography and electronic apex locator (EAL), using the actual root canal length as a standardization to compare the above methods. Root canal length measurements were completed with size15-K file in actual-standard and measuring methods. The accuracy of the three systems to determine the root-canal length were evaluated by measuring the distance from the tip of the file to the apex. Results: Statistical results revealed that the EAL was the most accurate method of measurement with the lowest value of
standard deviation (0.88±1.41) when compared with the remaining two methods, followed by the conventional radiography while the tactile sense method can be considered the least accurate one since, a
significant difference at p that the sole use of tactile method is generally depreciated because of it's non reliability. An electronic apex locator method have been proved to be the technique of choice in determining the root canal
length in primary teeth.

The Effect of in-office Tooth Whitening on the Microhardness of Esthetic Restoration (An invitro Study).

Ashraf S. Qasim; Omar S Rahawi; Ammer A Sultan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 83-89

Aims: To determine if the composite resin restoration need to be replaced after power bleaching atdifferent times.Materials and methods: Three composite resins (a flowable, a conventional andceramic composite) were used for this study. Transparent discs with 2mm thickness with a hole of5mm diameter were used for the production of composite samples, six samples were made for eachtype of composite with a total of 18 samples were used. The bleaching procedure was followed on thetop surface of each sample. For each sample a newly fresh material were mixed (lase peroxide sensygel) and applied over the prepared sample. Bleaching took place for 15, 30 and 45 minutes according tothe manufacturer instructions. For the microhardness measurements, a Vickers microhardness tester(Wolpert, Germany) was used, with a 200g load. Five microhardness measurements were obtained onthe top surface of each sample on the following time periods: before bleaching, after 15 min., after 30min. and after 45 min. of bleaching. Data were analyzed using T-test, a value of p≤0.05 was consideredsignificant followed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: The results showed a significantincrease in the microhardness of all the three types of composite resins after bleaching with a differenttime when compared to the control.Conclusion The bleaching agent that was tested has a significantincrease of the microhardness of the composite resins and there is no sufficient reason to indicate thereplacement of restorations.

Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer in Mosul City in 2005

Hadeel S Alazzawi; Ayad H Al-Ramadhani

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 90-93

Aim: To evaluate oral cancer status in Mosul during 2005 that will help planning research, prevention,and treatment measures. Materials and Methods: Data on oral cancer cases treated in Mosul cityhospitals during 2005 were collected. These cases included patients who were residents in Mosul cityonly. The study covers the site, clinical presentation, histopathological, and methods of treatment offore mentioned malignancy. Results: Thirty one new cases diagnosed in Mosul hospitals wereincluded in this study. The Male to female ratio was 2.4:1. About 58% of patients were over sixty yearsof age. The most common site affected the lip (22.6%). Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma wasthe most common representing 64.5% of cases examined. Metastasis to regional lymph nodes waspresent in 74.2% of cases. Conclusion: In Mosul, oral cancer is rare. The cases of this study weredetected in advanced stages affecting the choice of therapy and making prognosis much worse

The Effect of Some Coating Materials on the amount of Leaching Monomer from Poly Methyl Methacrylate Denture Base

Nadia T Jaffer; Monia MN Kandil

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 94-104

Aims: to evaluate the effect of three coating materials on the amount of residual monomer leaching fromacrylic resin denture base. Materials and methods: twenty specimens of a heat–cured acrylic resin denturebase were prepared at dimensions of 30 x 10 x 1.5 mm length, width and thickness; respectively. Thesespecimens were divided into four groups: control (in which the denture base left uncoated), monopolycoated, grape seeds oil coated and olive oil coated groups. For monomer leaching analysis, each specimenwas put in a glass tube containing 10 ml of deionized water that was changed daily. Monomer levels weremeasured by spectrophotometer at 254 nm, every 24 hour for 7 days analytic period. The results were expressedas a percentage of leached monomer mass with respect to the weight of specimen. Results: statisticalanalysis showed that there was a significant difference in the percentage of residual monomer leachingin uncoated and monopoly coated groups; and insignificant difference in grape and olive oils coatedgroups. However, there was a daily decrease in monomer leaching for all groups. Grape and olive oilscoated groups, showed lower leached residual monomer during the whole experimental period than theuncoated and monopoly coated specimens, the daily reduction of monomer leaching was sharp in the uncoated(control) and monopoly coated groups, and it was gradual and slow in oils coated groups. Conclusions:the using of natural oils (grape and olive oils), was more beneficial in reduction of residual monomerleaching, than the resin coating materials (monopoly) in comparison to uncoated acrylic resin denture base.Key words: Acrylic resin denture base, monomer leaching, coating materials, monopoly, natural oils.

The Antimicrobial Effect of Honey as Intracanal Medicament (A Comparative Study)

Rajaa T Sulieman; Ghada Y. Abdul- Rahman; Abdul-Khalik K AL-Sheik Abdal

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 105-109

Aims: The current study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of honey as a root canal medicament,and to make a sort of comparison with the currently used root canal medicament (formocresol).Materials and Methods: Fifty two uniradicular teeth were chosen. Microbiological sample wasobtained from the root canal at the beginning of the first appointment, instrumentation and irrigation ofthe root canal followed by good dryness for the root canal, application of intra canal medicament dependingon the patient group, temporary dressing for the tooth, the samples were then transferred formicrobiological study.At the beginning of the second appointment (2-3 days later), the tooth was isolated,the temporary dressing was removed and the microbiological samples of the root canal contentswere taken and complete the same sequence in the same manner as previously mentioned with the firstappointment. The sample transferred for microbiological study .The same procedure was done at thebeginning of the third appointment (2-3 days later) from the second appointment, the microbiologicalstudy was done in the Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Dental Basic Sciences, College of Dentistry,University of Mousl. Results: Comparing the antimicrobial effect between solutions of honey,formocresol, there is no significant differences between these materials when used as root canal medicament.Conclusion: This current study revealed that (H4 20% V/V) honey solution has antimicrobialeffect when used as intracanal medicament.

Knowledge, Attitude and Health Behavior of Dental Students towards HIV Patients

Saygh; Ghada D Al; Rayia J Al; Naimi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 110-119

Aim: To investigate a group of Iraqi dental students knowledge about HIV infection, attitudes towardstreating HIV/AIDS patients and behavior practices. Materials and Methods: The study populationconsisted of 220 dental students from University of Mosul, College of Dentistry who were treatingpatients in the clinics of the College. The survey instrument was a self–administered questionnaire.Results General and knowledge of the oral and other conditions related to AIDS patient was low, studentsattitude towards treating HIV patient was low (167) refused to treat such patient with a highlysignificant difference, most of the students (160) were willing to treat HBV (hepatitis B patient ) comparedto only 60 that agreed to treat HIV patient , (32.7%), of the student had experienced a needlestick injury, (65.9%) of the students stated that an AIDS patient should be referred to a supportinggroup to provide him with dental treatment. A significant difference in the number and percentage ofstudents that knew they needed to undertake precautionary measures in treating patients which was 213compared to 7 students only. The three types of barrier technique during routine work was not undertakenby any of the students, 213 students i.e. (96.4%) required more knowledge concerning infectioncontrol, cross infection, modes of transmission of the disease. Conclusions: These findings clearlyhighlights the importance of the teaching emphasis of dental educators on the disease, it is vital thatuniversal precautions also should be adopted through faculty policy and reinforced at an early level ofstudy, so that the barrier techniques become a protocol and a norm in their daily practices as clinicians.Because of certain inadequacies in knowledge and infection control practices among respondents, acurriculum focusing on the management of HIV/AIDS, including infection for all blood borne diseasesis recommended.

Evaluation of Dental Caries Prevalence among Kindergartens’ Children in Mosul City Center

Karam H Jazrawi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 120-130

Aims: This study aims to determine dental caries prevalence and pattern in preschool children in Mosul City Center, and to evaluate caries according to d1–d3 criteria, which have not been widely adopted for caries diagnosis in the primary dentition. Materials and Methods: Examination was conducted on 762 preschool children aged 4–5 years old selected randomly from 20 kindergartens in Mosul City Center from
different socioeconomic and education levels. Caries was recorded in terms of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index, and the d1–d3 scale. The criteria for caries diagnosis included non–cavitated (d1 and d2)lesions and cavitated (d3) lesions.Results: Dental caries was recorded to be high (mean dmft for the total sample= 6.82), with only 16.87% of children were caries free. Distribution of caries (dt component) was slightly higher in the upper arch and the left side, with the second molars were recorded to be the most affected
and the canines to be the least. The d1–d3 criteria of caries for the total sample clearly showed that d2 lesions were the most common (47.24%), followed by d3 and d1 lesions (33.33% and 19.43% espectively).
Conclusions: The high rate of dental caries recorded in this study for this young age has strongly emphasized the necessity of community–based preventive programs and professional care that should begin in the early childhood life. Also, the benefits of d1–d3 diagnostic criteria cannot be neglected

The Mechanical Properties of the Extra Hard Spring Arch Wire Subjected to the Artificial Saliva

Qassar; Sarmad S Al; Hussain A Obaidi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 131-135

Aims: To evaluate and compare the value of the mechanical properties of the extra hard spring stainlesssteel arch wire immersed in artificial saliva. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 40extra hard spring stainless steel arch wires (Remanium, 0.016″ × 0.016″, Dentarum, Germany) dividedinto; control wires group and experimental group (ten wires for each group). The experimental groupwas immersed in artificial saliva (PH 6.75+ 0.015) ) and incubated at 37 for one, two and four weeksrespectively. The curve of tensile strength for the control and experimental groups was performed usingthe tensile testing machine. The mechanical properties of the arch wire have been derived. The resultswere analyzed using the statistics of descriptive, Anova and Duncan’s Multiple Range Analysistests. Results: The results showed that the mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength, elasticmodulus, springiness (springback) ,elastic limit, plastic limit (ductility) of the extra spring hard stainlesssteel arch wire significantly decrease as the immersion time in artificial saliva increase when comparedwith the control group. Conclusions: It is recommended not utilize the extra spring hard stainlesssteel arch wire for long periods during orthodontic treatments.

The Antimicrobial Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Olive Leaves as a Root Canal Irrigant.

Jabbar H Kamel; Nadia M. Al-Shakir; Nawal A. Al-Sabawi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 136-148

Aims: The study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of different concentrations of alcoholicextract of Olive Leaves solution (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%) in an in vitro.It also to determinesthe time required for the most effective concentration of Olive Leaves to start the effect in selectedmicroorganisms, and to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of most effective concentrations of alcoholicextract of Olive Leaves solution in an in vivo study as a root canal irrigant. Materials and Methods:The antimicrobial effect of Olive Leaves (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%), 2.5% sodium hypochlorite,and normal saline were determined in vitro by using broth microdilution method. The direct exposuretest was used to evaluate the time required for 0.8% of Olive Leaves to start their antimicrobial effecton the selected microorganisms. In an in vivo study, 36 uniradicular teeth with necrotic pulps werechosen. The patients were divided randomly into three groups, 12 patients for each group as in thefollowing: Group I: alcoholic extract of Olive Leaves at 0.8%. Group II: sodium hypochlorite solutionat 2.5% as a positive control. Group III: normal saline as a negative control. Bacteriological sampleswere obtained from the canal at the beginning of the first appointment; at the beginning of the secondappointment; at the end of the second appointment; at the beginning of the third appointment usingsterile wet paper point. Results: The Results showed that Olive Leaves at (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%),and sodium hypochlorite had a significant antimicrobial effect against aerobic and anaerobic bacteriarecovered from teeth with necrotic pulps. While the normal saline and 0.1% Olive Leaves had nosignificant antimicrobial effect. As for Olive Leaves exract. The best antimicrobial effect was noticedat 0.8%, which showed a significant difference from other concentrations of Olive Leaves,but nosignificant difference from that of sodium hypochlorite. The results of this test showed that 2.5%sodium hypochlorite and 0.8% Olive Leaves had immediate effect on all selected microorganisms. Theresults revealed that 0.8% alcoholic extract of Olive Leaves solution had a significant antimicrobialeffect when utilized clinically as an endodontic irrigant, which was not significantly differ from sodiumhypochlorite but significantly different from normal saline. Conclusions: Olive Leaves alcoholicextract solution at 0.8% was an effective antimicrobial agent when used as an irrigant in endodontictreatment of teeth with necrotic pulps.

The Skeletal and Soft Tissue Facial Profile in Adolescent and Adult

Saba H Al-Zubaidi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 149-155

Aims: To evaluate the norms for several cephalometric soft tissue measurements and to investigatedifferences in the mean values of these measurement between two age groups (11–14 and 18–25) andbetween two gender. Materials and Methods: The adolescent sample consists from 30 subjects (15 foreach gender) with age range from 11 –14 years. The adult sample consists from 30 subjects (15 foreach gender) with age range 18–25 years. The two groups satisfying the criteria of balance facial profile,class I molar relation ship and normal over bite–over jet relation ship. Ten skeletal and soft tissuemeasurements were obtained from tracing lateral cephalometric radiograph. The data was analyzedusing descriptive statistic and student t– test. Results: During adolescence, no significant differenceswere found between males and females. During adulthood, the males having higher values for all measurements(except nasolabial and mentolabial angles) but statistically not significant. From adolescentto adult males, the angles of facial convexity, Z– angle in addition to lower lip length and nasal depthare significantly different with the adult male having the higher value. For females, the lower lip lengthand nasal depth significantly higher in the adult period. Conclusions: The adult males having relativelystraighter facial profile. In addition, Z– angle also greater in the adult males than during adolescence.For both genders, the nasal depth and the vertical height of lower lip were significantly greater inadults.