Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Volume 7, Issue 3

Volume 7, Issue 3, Summer and Autumn 2007

Effect of the Curing Methods on the Surface Hardness of Different Thickness on Heat–Cured Acrylic Resin.

Luay N Abood; Lamia T Rejab; Ahmad M Ali

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.164380

Aims: To evaluate the surface hardness of the heat–cured acrylic resins with two different thicknesses
cured by two curing methods conventional water bath and microwave energy. Materials and Methods:
Heat–cured acrylic resin was used in this study. Rectangular specimens were prepared with two
different thicknesses (3 and 6mm) and cured by two different curing methods, conventional water bath
and microwave energy methods. The specimens were divided into two groups according to the curing
method and specimens thickness. Forty specimens were prepared, ten specimens for each group. The
surface hardness was evaluated with Rock well hardness tester. Mean values wear compared statistically
with one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan' s multiple range test to determine
the significant different among the groups at (p<0.05) level of significance. Results: The results
showed that there is a highly significant difference of the means value of the surface hardness among
the four tested groups. Specimens cured by conventional water bath with 3mm thickness have the highest
value in relation to 6mm thickness of specimens cured by microwave energy. Conclusions: The
curing method, and specimens thicknesses have a significant effect on the specimens surface hardness
value. The specimens that cured by the conventional water bath method have a higher values than that
cured by the microwave energy curing method and the thicker specimens have a lower values than the
thinner one in both curing methods.

Dimensional Changes of Record Base for Complete Denture

Ahmed MA Hussain; Ahmed A Al–Ali; Zeina M Ahmad

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 5-9
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164402

Aims: The aims of this study are to compare the dimensional changes of record base from heat and
cold cured acrylic resin, with the latter cured by two techniques, and to study the regions vulnerable to
dimensional changes. Materials and Methods: The adaptation of the record base on edentulous maxillary
casts were tested by sectioning the record base–stone casts sets transversely and measuring the
gaps with travelling microscope. The gaps represent the crest of the ridge, midline, and the deepest
points of buccal sulcus. Results: Record base made from cold cured acrylic resin showed significantly
higher dimensional changes than that from heat curd acrylic resin. There were no significant difference
between the bench–curd and thermopress curing for cold cured acrylic resin. No significant differences
found between the ridge crest and midline , but both show significantly less dimensional changes than
the buccal vestibules. Conclusions: Curing cold cured acrylic resin by thermopress machine would not
improve dimensional stability. And to improve the dimensional stability, the denture base that is made
from heat cured acrylic resin may be used as a record base.

Effect of Type of Light Curing Unit on Shear Bond Strength of Resin Composite.

Kasim A Mohammad

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 10-17
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.164403

Aims: To compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of composite bonded to dentin cured by three light
curing units (LCUs), which are quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) and two types of light emitting diode
(LED) machines. Materials and Methods: Buccal dentin of 90 upper premolars was exposed, prior to
restorative procedure. Samples divided into 3 groups, restoration of each group cured by Astralis 5
[Austria], Top Light, [Taiwan] and Ultradent [USA]. Each group further subdivided into three
subgroups. After bonding application, each subgroup of every group restored by one of 3 composites:
Point 4™, Tetric and Degufill mineral. Composite applied and cured for 40 seconds. Samples
thermocycled and loaded at tooth–composite interface. Results: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with
significance p < 0.05 followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test, showed that SBS of subgroups that
cured by Ultradent (400 mW/cm2) was significantly higher than Astralis 5 (405 mW/cm2) and Top
Light (141 mW/cm2). The SBS of Astralis 5 was significantly higher than Top Light. No significant
differences found among subgroups those cured by same LCU. Conclusions: Shear bond strength of
resin composite bonded to dentin is directly proportional with the light intensity. However, better result
obtained by a high intensity LEDs compared with an equivalent intensity QTH–LCUs.

Temporomandibular Disorder in Mosul City.

Baceer A Abdullah

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 18-23

Aims: To describe the subjectively perceived symptoms and frequency of the objective signs of the
mandibular dysfunction and their severity by using Helkimo index ,age distribution and their relation to
sex. Materials and methods: This study includes 450 TMDs patients, who admitted to TMJ clinic at
college of dentistry in Mosul City, Helkimo index was used to assess the symptoms and signs of the
TMDs and their severity. Results: It was found that TMDs most frequently affected the age group 21–
30 years. TMJ sounds (Clicking and Crepitation) were found as the most frequent symptoms (71.5%)
followed by difficulty in opening (29.3%). No sex difference in relation to TMJ sounds was found
p>0.05. Impaired TMJ function was the most prevalent sign (82.6%). No sex difference in relation to
ITF was found p>0.05. Concerning the distribution of the patients according to Ai (Anamenstic
dysfunction index). It was found that 51patients (11.3%) were symptoms free (Ai0), 169 patients
(37.5%) reported mild symptoms (AiI) and 230 patients (51.1%) complained from severe symptoms
(AiII). No significant sex difference in relation to Ai was found p>0.05. Regarding the distribution of
the patients in relation to Di (Clinical dysfunction index).This study reveals that 7 patients (1.5%) were
sign free (Di0), 114 patients (25.3%) with mild signs (DiI), 172 patients (38.2%) with moderate signs
(DiII)and 157 patients (34.8%) with severe signs (DiIII). No significant sex difference in relation to
clinical dysfunction index (Di) p>0.05 was found in this study. Conclusions: The age 21–30 years
consider the high risk age group. The TMJ sounds were the most frequent symptoms. Severe symptoms
(Ai II) and signs (DiIII) represents high percentages (51.1%) and (34.4%) respectively in a patients
with TMDs in Mosul City.

Soft Tissue Nasal Profile Changes

Hussain A Obaidi; Manar Y Abdul–Qadir

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 24-29
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.164405

Aims: To reveal the changes of the soft tissue profile of the nose, that include; length, height and depth
of the nose among four age groups. Materials and Methods: The studying sample subjects included
48, 41, 50 and 44 individuals of age 11, 12, 13 and 14 years respectively. The subjects were Iraqi individuals
of class I normal occlusion, who live in center of Mosul City. All subjects were radiographed
with the lateral cephalometric films, these films were traced and drawing the linear parameters of the
nose, the tracing involve the length (N` – Prn), width (N – Sn) and depth (Prn – Prn`). The results were
subjected to the descriptive and variance analyses. Results: The results appeared in males the length of
the nose increase in dimension with no significant differences when compared among the four age
groups, whereas in females showed significant increase when compared the 11, 12 years with 13 years
and with 14 years age groups. While, the h weight of the nose (N`– Sn) appeared in males and females
significantly increase at 14 years age group when compared with other age groups. But significantly
increased at 12 years age group as compared with 11 years age group, in males only. Mean while, the
depth of the nose (Prn – Prn`) displayed significantly increase at age 14 years group when compared
with 11 and 12 years age groups for both sexes. The comparison between sexes for the nose parameters
demonstrated that the length, width and depth of the nose displayed significantly increase in males than
females at 11 years age group and no significantly differences at other age groups. Conclusions: The
conclusions of the study are that the nose have significantly increase between 11 and 14 years age
group in both sexes, the nasal profile parameters have insignificant difference in dimensions among 12,
13 and 14 years age groups.

Residual Monomer and Transverse Strength Evaluation of Auto Polymerized Acrylic Resin with Different Polymerization Treatment.

Mohammed M Sadoon; Nada Z Mohammed; Alia'a O AL–Omary

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 30-34

Aims: The aims of this study are to determine the effect of different polymerization treatment on the
transverse strength and residual monomer of auto polymerized acrylic denture base. Materials and
Methods: Sixteen samples of heat cured acrylic resin were prepared as a control samples. Eighty samples
of auto polymerized acrylic resin were prepared with different polymerization treatments to be
tested for transverse strength and residual monomer concentration. These polymerization treatments
were carried out by: (1) Open air polymerization treatment, (2) Under hydraulic pressure, (3) Under
clamp pressure, (4) Water bath post polymerization. (5) Microwave post polymerization. One half of
specimens were subjected to transverse strength test and another one subjected to residual monomer
test. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Results: The
result of this study showed that the microwave post polymerization treatment had significantly higher
transverse strength, and also showed that the residual monomer significantly lower with microwave
and water bath post polymerization treatment. Conclusions: The fracture resistance was improved after
post polymerization treatment for auto polymerized acrylic denture base with microwave, and the adverse
effect of monomer was decreased by water bath and microwave post polymerization treatment.

Asymptomatic Faulty Endodontic Treatment ( Radiological and Clinical Assay)

Anas A Mohammad; Sawsan H Al–Jubori; Lamia T Rejab

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 35-40

Aim: The aim of this study is radiological assay of at least two years period of clinically asymptomatic
faulty endodontic treatment among the patients sex and treated teeth location. Materials and Methods:
A total of 447 individuals (20–60y age) from both sexes were selected, they had history of endodontic
treatment for at least two years ago. They were clinically asymptomatic and radiographic examination
showed they had faulty endodontic treatment. Radiographic examinations in this study was intraoral
periapical projection, used bisecting angle technique, used dental x–ray machine, periapical film. Special
chart was prepared for this study. The faulty endodontic treatments were radiographically categorized
as under–filling, overfilling, missing root canal, perforations of the root canal, and fractured or
separated instrument in the root canal. Statistically frequency distributions calculated. Chi–square test
was used to calculate significance difference with the level of p < 0.05. Results: The results showed
that the under–filling had the highest percentage of the faulty endodontic treatment and the females had
a higher percentage than that of the males, and the posterior teeth had a higher percentage than that of
the anterior teeth. Conclusion: Faulty endodontic treatment is not the direct cause of the signs and
symptoms of endodontic treatment failure, there are no significant differences of the faulty endodontic
treatment among the patients sex, but there is a significant difference among the location of the treated

Adrenaline and Nor Adrenaline Effect on Blood Glucose Level in Diabetic Patients

Tahani A Al–Sandook; Harith H Kaskos; Raid M Basheer

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 41-44

Aims: This study was conducted to find the effect of adrenaline and nor adrenaline containing local
anesthesia on the blood glucose level on non insulin dependent diabetic patients. Materials and Methods:
Thirty patients were given 1.8ml of 2% lignocaine containing 1:100000 adrenaline as infiltration
local anesthesia intraorally, and other thirty patients received 1.8ml of 2%lignocaine containing
0.072mg of nor–adrenaline in the same manner. Fasting blood sugar was measured before the administration
of local anesthesia and 30 minutes after the administration of local anesthesia. Results: There
were no significant differences in blood glucose level measured before and after the injection of adrenaline
containing local anesthesia. However, there were significant differences between the results obtained
with nor–adrenaline containing local anesthesia, where there is a significant increase in blood
glucose level 30 minutes after the injection of local anesthesia. Conclusions: The administration of
anesthesia containing adrenaline has no effect on blood glucose level of diabetic patients. While administration
of anesthesia containing nor adrenaline cause a significant effect (hyperglycemic effect) in
those patients.

Evaluation of the Pharyngeal Size in Skeletal Class I and Class II Subjects Diseases

Ne’am R Al–Saleem

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 45-53

Aims: The aims of the study were to measure different variables of pharynx in class I and class II skeletal
relation, clarify the effect of gender on the pharyngeal measurements and to find the effect of different
classes (class I and class II) on the pharyngeal measurements. Materials and Methods: The
samples consisted of cephalometric films of 40 subjects, 20 males (10 class I and 10 class II) and 20
females (10 class I and 10 class II). These films were traced and ten linear measurements of the pharynx.
Results: No significant difference were noticed between males and females in class I participants
except in Ba–PNS (sagittal depth of the bony nasopharynx), PNS–ppw (the sagittal depth of the pharynx
along the line ANS – PNS) and hy–MP (millimeter distance from hyoid to the mandibular plane),
where males showed a significantly higher value; while males showed a significantly higher value in
Ba – ad2 (sagittal depth of the nasopharyngeal airway along line S – Ba) and hy–apw2 (millimeter distance
from hyoid to ap2) in class II. Conclusions: No significant differences were noticed between
males and females in class I and class II skeletal relation in most of the measured variables and also no
significant differences were noticed in the same gender neither in class I nor in class II.

Tea Tree Oil: Anew Antifungal Agents Against Candida Albicans Cells on Heat– Cured Acrylic Resin Denture Base Material. An in vitro study.

Fayhaa AM Al–Mashhadane

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 54-57

Aims: In this research, the antifungal effect of tea tree oil on Candida that colonizes the heat cured
acrylic resin denture base material was evaluated. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 24
patients wearing upper complete dentures for more than one year were selected randomly from patients
who were attending private dental clinics at Mosul city. Swabs from inner surface of upper complete
dentures were taken for each patient then Candida albican were isolated, after that these dentures were
immersed in the antifungal drugs (tea tree oil solution 15% and fluconazole solution 64 μg/ml) at 24 h
and 48 hr. After that another swap was taken for each sample of complete denture to determine the
antifungal effects of these agents. Results: The results of this study revealed that tea tree oil solution
15% and fluconazole solution 64 μg/ml had a significant antifungal effects, although tea tree solution
effect was significantly less than fluconazole effects compared to control group [Candida albican culture
(before immersion)]. Conclusions: The use of therapeutically active compounds extracted from
plants like tea tree oil will offers a natural alternative with excellent antifungal effect and can be employed
to reduce number of Candida albicans cells including those adhered to acrylic denture base
material. This approach to fungal control is believed to be a practical for home care of dentures.

Comparison between Force Deflection Values of Different Types of Orthodontic Arch Wires.

Khudair A Al–Jumaili; Enas T Al–Jwary

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 58-63

Aims: To evaluate the force values of different types of arch wires. Materials and Methods: Five
types of arch wires used. The sample consisted of 150 wires specimens divided into three deflections (1
mm, 2mm and 3 mm). A universal tensile testing machine with the use of special designed fixture was
used to perform Three Point Bending Test and the force value related to gram (gm) was measured during
loading (activation) of the wire to 1 mm, 2 mm or 3 mm deflections. Results: The results of this
investigation showed a significant difference (P≤ 0.05) in force values among all arch wires. Conclusions:
The conclusions of this study showed that the solid stainless steel wires provided a heavy force,
while the multistranded gave rise to the lowest force value.

The Effect of Infant Feeding Habits, Parents’ Education and the Area of Residence on Nursing Caries of Preschool Children in Mosul City.

Ghada Dh Al–Sayagh; Aisha A Qasim; Baydaa A Al–Rawi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 64-69

Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of some nursing caries factors related to presentation such as
gender variation, pattern of feeding habits, parent’s education and area of residence through a random
sample of preschool children in Mosul City. Materials and Methods: A sample of 271 children was
selected from 2–5 year olds, attending the Pedodontic clinic of Dentistry College at Mosul University
and some others private dental clinic in Mosul City. For each child, clinical exanimation was
performed on dental chair. The examination was conducted with a visual and non tactile technique. The
criterion used for nursing caries was the presence of caries on the labial or lingual surfaces (smooth
surface) of at least two maxillary incisors with absence of caries in mandibular incisors. The
questionnaire was designed to collect general information on each child: name, age, gender as well as
questions including area of residence (rural or urban) and parental education levels. Dietary
information sought included past and current infant feeding practices either; breast feeding, bottle
feeding or mixed of both. Chi – square (X2) test was used to determine the gender differences for each
group and between total samples of different groups. The differences were considered significant at p ≤
0.05. Results: A total of 271 children with nursing caries, 146 (53.87%) males and 125 (46.13%)
females of 2 – 5 years old were included in this study. The higher number of children was from rural
area than those from the urban area with significant difference (p≤ 0.05) between them. Concerning
parents’ education, nursing caries was significantly the higher amongst children of mothers and fathers
with the lowest level of education. The lowest percentages of children were seen in the children of
parents educated to beyond college level. The higher number of children was of breast feeding group
followed by bottle feeding group and mixed feeding group with a significant difference (p≤ 0.05)
between breast feeding and mixed feeding groups only. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference
(p>0.05) between different genders among all variables groups. Conclusions: The occurrence of
nursing caries in preschool children appears to vary significantly with respect to the area of residence,
parental education and feeding habits groups. The improvement of different familial factors may have
an impact on the oral health of children.

The Common Complications of Chemo-therapeutic Agents and the Effect of Xylitol Chewing Gum on Oral Dental Hygiene in Patients Having Malignant.

Jawnaa K Mammdoh

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 70-77
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2007.164414

Aims: The aim of this study were to estimate the percentage of general and oral complications among patients receiving chemotherapeutic agents and correlate the oral complications with the age of the patients and with the drugs either used singly or in combination with the other chemotherapeutic agent and the effect of xylitol chewing gum on oral dental hygiene in patients having malignant diseases. Materials and Method: In this clinical trial, 70 patients with ages ranging between 7–65 years treated with different cancer chemotherapy for a duration from 3 months to 3 years. The patients were selected from those who treated in Hazim Al–Hafith center for treatment cancer in Mosul City. General and oral complications of chemotherapeutic agents were recorded and the agent recorded either used singly or in combination with the other chemotherapeutic agent. Twenty patients from those who had oral com-plications were examined and the plague and gingival indices were measured according to Silness and Loe (1963) at the base line. Then those patients were instructed to take xylitol chewing gum (4 grams/day); four times immediately after eating. The plague and gingival indices were measured again after 3 weeks of using the chewing gum. Results: The results of this study revealed that approximately half of the patients have general and oral complications while the others either had only general com-plications or had no complications (48.57%, 27.14%, 24.29% respectively). The incidence of oral com-plications correlated with the increasing in patients' age (P<0.01). The distribution of general and oral complications were correlated with the agent used either singly or in combination, where 100% of pa-tients medicated with single therapy had general and oral complications while the patients medicated with multiple therapy 70.69% of them had general and oral complications and 29.13% had no signifi-cant complications. The patients who had taken xylitol chewing gum had a significant reduction in pla-gue index while there is no significant reduction in gingival index (p<0.01). Conclusions: the study concluded that the general and oral complications arising in cancer patients can be attributed to the various modalities of cancer chemotherapy. Routine oral hygiene and elimination of preexisting dental disease and sources of mucosal irritation with a giving of salivary substitutes like xylitol reduce the incidence and severity of a number of oral complications of chemotherapy.

The Effect of Light Curing Tip Distance on Curing Depth of Resin Composite: A Comparative Study.

Ashraf S Qasim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 78-83

Aims: To determine the correlation between intensity (I) of light–emitting diode (LED) and tungsten–halogen light sources, and depth of cure of a resin composite at different distances. Materials and Methods: LED curing light (Ultra Lite 200E plus) and tungsten halogen light (Astralis 5 Vivadent) were evaluated. Intensity was measured at distances of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10mm between the light tip and detector. A blackened aluminum plate, 0.5mm thick, with a 4mm–diameter aperture was placed over the detector. The use of this aperture limited the amount of light reaching the detector to a uniform area for both curing lights and also corres-ponded to the area of the mould for the depth of cure studies. Both light tips were centered on this aperture to reduce any influence of varying I across the light tip. Depth of cure (DOC) of light–curing universal micro hybrid composite shade A2 was also measured. A metallic mould was used to measure the depth of cure at distances of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10mm between light tip and mould. The degree of divergence of the light of both light curing units was also determined by tracing the illuminated area at a 10mm distance for each of the curing lights. Results: For both lights, intensity decreased as distance increased. While, both I and DOC decrease with increasing distance, the relationship between these factors and distance may not be similar for both lights and may depend on the characteristics of individual lights. Conclu-sions: Both I and DOC decreased with increasing distances. DOC usually decreases with de-creasing I, the rate of decline varies between various light brands.

Effect of Morphological Changes of Maxillary Arch Treated Orthodontically on the Successfulness of Prosthodontic Treatment.

Nadira A Hatim; Fathel J Yassien; Faris Gh Ahmed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 84-92
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2007.164416

Aims: To evaluate the effects of orthodontic treatment, sex on the maxillary arch measurements,
anatomical landmarks position, dimensional differences of artificial teeth selection and position on the
comfort for treated partially edentulous patient; with and without previous orthodontic treatment.
Materials and Methods: two groups of patients: (Males and females) included in this study. First
group were with Orthodontic group classified as: Angle class I malocclusion, crowding more than 5
mm, there were 48 in number. Second group were 32 in number, and they're partially edentulous (with
previous orthodontic treatment or without as a control group), they were selected with special criteria.
A 192 dental stone casts were prepared, and 64 linear measurements were done for each individual cast
of the first group, and 22 measurements for the second group. Crom–Cobalt (Cr–Co.) partial dentures
were constructed for the second group individuals, follow up for 3–6 months to detect the comfort of
the patient in relation to mean differences in the length measurements of the saddle area were recorded.
Results: Incisal canine dimension showed a marked expansion of right side (0.7342 mm) post
orthodontic treatment, constriction in the upper inter 1st molar distance 2.7334 mm in relation to
control. Anatomical landmark (canine to hamular notch right and left post orthodontic treatment), in
female showed an increase in measurements in relation to male. Length difference of free end saddle
area of partially edentulous control group in relation to partially edentulous patient with orthodontic
treatment was about 2.987 mm. An increase in percentage of comfort of control patients wearing
removable prosthesis was shown in female. Conclusions: Mean values of the all measurements were
generally higher in the males than females post orthodontic treatment. Increase in the arc
measurements, but with constructions in the inter–molar distance, anatomical landmark labial surface
of the central incisors to the incisive papilla, and canine to hamular notch for both groups. Length of
artificial teeth of free end partially edentulous with orthodontic treatment was reduced, but the comfort
after prosthodontic treatment was higher in female of both groups

Evaluation of Rotation, Tipping and Extrusion During Canine Retraction by Sliding Mechanics Using Different Arch Wires.

Mustafa M Hamed; Hind T Jarjees; Khawla M Awni

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 93-102

Aims: To evaluate the amount of rotation, tipping and extrusion using different wires and to Estimate the difference in the amount of tipping, rotation and extrusion between Stainless steel and Teflon ligature in different wires. Materials and Methods: The standardizing criteria were all Typodont teeth situated in well–aligned, covered and immobilized by the acrylic bite except canine; The available space for canine sliding was (14 mm) measured by digital vernia. Elastic chain exerting 180 gm of force on canine measured carefully by tension gauge. In both vertical and horizontal direction a photographs that were taken for Typodont using digital camera. The angle between bite plane extension bar and Canine extension bar were (90o) measured by protractor directly on the photograph. Preformed band with its attachments, ready made stainless steel, composite coated and TMA arch wires all were (0.018×0.025) with the use of stainless steel and Teflon ligature, Standard titanium spring 11 mm length, Typodont components, within six types of connection the two types of ligation material had been applied to the three different wires then the 1st premolar space tend to be closed by distal canine displacement then the resultant rotation, tipping and extrusion were measured. Statistical Descriptive analysis: One–way and, Two–ways Analysis of Variance were done to detect the variability between methods and which is the best. Results: Three important results showed in the study: First, canine sliding over the composite coated arch wire with the use of stainless steel ligature gave rise to significant decrease in rotation, tipping and extrusion when compared with other methods. Second, stainless steel ligature when compared with Teflon ligature of the same corresponding method gave rise to a significant decrease in the degree of rotation tipping and extrusion. Third, Composite coated arch wires showed lowest degree of rotation then followed by TMA arch wires ordinarily this is due to their rough surface. The largest rotation seen in the stainless steel arch wire this is due to its smooth surface texture, and the same thing for the tipping of the composite coated wires that gave rise to the lowest degree of tipping followed by the stainless steel wires, these result possibly due to their stiffness then higher tipping seen at TMA wires ordinarily a result of their flexibility this sequence were the same for both types of ligations. Conclusions: Best method of space closure is the use of either composite coated arch wire or stainless steel arch wire with stainless steel ligature that give us highest resistance to tipping, lowest extrusion and relatively little rotation when compared with other methods.

Fracture Resistance of Premolars with Different Filling Techniques

Ammar Kh Al–Nori

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 103-107

Aims: To evaluate the fracture resistance of premolars with mesio–occluso–distal (MOD) preparations
with resin composite using different incremental techniques when submitted to occlusal load.
Materials and Methods: Fifty premolars were used and randomly divided into five groups of ten teeth
each. The teeth in group I were prepared and not restored. The teeth in group II were restored in
vertical technique. Teeth in group III were restored in horizontal technique. Teeth in group IV were
restored in oblique technique. Teeth in groups II, III and IV were restored using Exite adhesive system
and Tetric hybrid composite. Teeth in group V were restored in horizontal technique using
combinations of Tetric flowable composite and Tetric hybrid composite. After thermocycling, the teeth
were tested under universal compression machine. The data obtained in this research were subjected to
analysis of variance and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Results: Both groups V and IV significantly
increase the fracture resistance of teeth over groups II and III. Conclusions: Selection and appropriate
use of materials, better placement technique and control polymerization shrinkage may increase the
resistance of teeth to fracture with Class II resin composite restorations.

The Mandibular Dimension Changes Among Four Age Groups

Hussain A Obaidi; Manar Y Abdul–Qadir

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 108-112

Aims: the study was planned to assess the value of the change among four pubertal age groups of
Class l occlusion. Materials and Methods: The sample subjects were comprise of the flowing groups:
11yeas(23 males&25 females), 12years(19 males &22 females), 13years(22 males &28 females) and
14years(22 males &22 females). Each individual radiographed with cephalometric film. The cephalometric
films traced and the mandibular lengths ( Ar–Pog, & Go–Gn & Ar–Go) were measured. The
data subjected to the descriptive and variance statistics at 0.05 significant level. Results: The findings
disclosed that the mandibular lengths (Ar–Pog, Go–Gn &Ar–Go) were significantly greater value at
14years age group as compared with 11,12,&13 years age groups. The sex variation appeared insignificant
change among the four age groups for the mandibular lengths. Conclusion: The increase mandibular
length at age 14 years can be regarded in relive the crowding at 11,12, &13 years age groups
for both sexes

An Evaluation of Proximal Caries Managements among Practitioners in Mosul City.

Neam N Al–Yousifany

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 113-118

Aims: To evaluate the diagnostic methods, preparation techniques and restorative materials used by dentists in Mosul City for the management of proximal carious lesions. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire sheet with numerous items were distributed randomly among 150 dentists (specialists and non–specialists) working in Mosul City. The sheets were collected and the data were analyzed. Results: The results revealed that there are several differences in performing specific steps of proximal caries diagnosis and the treatment among the dentists involved. Conclusions: The conclusions of this study indicated that the variations among dental practitioners in managing proximal caries refer to the role of the continuing dental education. Dentists are in need to be in contact through meetings ,lectures and training courses with the recent and up–to–date advancement in dentistry.

Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Ceramic Repair With Resin Composite

Emad F Al–Khalidi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 119-123
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2007.164421

To evaluate the shear bond strength of intra oral porcelain repair system using different surface
treatments when fracture of porcelain with complete metal exposure. Materials and Methods: forty
specimens were prepared in form of metal disks (8mm in diameter, this diameter is for each specimen
and 15mm height) and randomly divided into 4 equal groups. The first two groups were treated with air
abrasion. The other groups leaved untouched. Groups I and III were treated with 37% phosphoric acid
while in groups II and IV the surface were treated with 9% hydrofluoric acid, after that the surfaces of
all samples were treated with silane coupling agent then bonding and composite were applied according
to the manufacturer instructions. All the samples were stored in a normal physiological saline for 7
days. Then the samples were thermocycled after that Shear bond strength was tested using universal
testing machine. Results: The result showed that there was a highly significant difference between
groups treated with Al2O3 with those untreated one, the acid etch material. There was a highly significant
difference between samples acid etched using hydrofluoric acid with those etched with phosphoric
acid. Conclusion: Air abrasion and the hydrofluoric acid significantly increase the shear bond strength
between composite resin and exposed metal of metal ceramic restoration.