Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Volume 2, Issue 1

Volume 2, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2006, Page 1-97


Re–assessment of Pont’s index in Class I normal occlusion

Huda A Al–Sarraf; Ahmed A Abdul–Mawjood; Nada M Al–Sayagh

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40173

Background: Since the introduction of modern orthodontics, several indices have been proposed to
help prediction normal maxillary arch width that would relieve crowding, maintain occlusion stability
and reduces future relapse. Among these indices Pont had proposed an index in 1909 to estimate
maxillary arch width depending upon the sum of maxillary incisors mesiodistal dimensions. Aims: The
present study tried to investigate the reliability of Pont's index in estimating dental arch width.
Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 22 boys and 22 girls aged 14–16 years.
Measurements of all study models were done using a sliding caliper. The arch width was measured in
first premolar region between distal pits, and in first permanent molar region between central fossae.
Results: Statistical analysis, using correlation coefficient; revealed a poor correlations existed between Pont's estimation for the arch width and the actual arch width measured from the casts for both sexes. The arch widths were generally underestimated for all test groups. Conclusion: It was concluded that Pont's index is not a precise method for prediction of maxillary dental arch width.

Handpiece asepsis among dental practitioners in Mosul City

Talal H Al–Salman; Nawfal A Zakaria; Moataz Gh Al–Shaekh Ali

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 6-11
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40175

Aims: To investigate the incidence of handpiece asepsis in general dental practice in Mosul City and to
evaluate the problems associated with routine handpiece sterilization which are commonly needed by
those practitioners. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was designed to collect the information
about handpiece asepsis techniques performed by dentists. One hundred twenty dentists in Mosul City
were randomly selected and the data were analyzed. Results: About 55.8% of the respondents know
about the importance of handpiece sterilization, but no one do ideal sterilization between each patient
due to absence of sufficient number of handpiece and lack of autoclave system in clinics. No one
disinfect the handpiece scientifically; 59.38% smear the handpiece between each patient by one of the
antiseptic solutions. Conclusion: Handpiece asepsis in Mosul dental clinics is poor. Most of dentists
depend on disinfection by disinfectant solution to prevent cross infection by handpieces. Most dentists,
because of their poor equipment in both private and national clinics, cannot sterilize handpieces after
each patient.

Salivary calcium level during lactation

Karama MT Al–Nuaimy; Tahani A Al–Sandook

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 12-14
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40176

Aims: To determine the salivary calcium during lactation in females and compare with non–lactating
females. The saliva nowadays is considered as good source or media for estimation of several ions such
as calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc and even abused drug. Materials and Methods: The
unstimulated saliva was collected from sixty females, thirty lactating and the other thirty were non–
lactating. Results: Salivary calcium ion concentration in non–lactating females was 5.021 + 0.1
compared to 2.46 + 0.21 in lactating mothers that reflect a significant decline in calcium concentration
(p < 0.001). Conclusion: This decline in calcium concentration reflected the importance of external
calcium supplement during lactation

Prevalence of dental caries, dental health attitude and behaviour in Humaidat village, Ninevah, at the entry of 21st century

Saher S Gasgoos; Tarik Y Khamrco

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 15-19
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40178

Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of dental caries in Humaidat village (which is located at Tigris river
about 25 Km to the Northern West from Mosul City), to determine the level of dental health attitude
and behaviors and to compare the results with the previous study that carried out in the same village
before 10 years. Materials and Methods: The size of the sample was 213 individuals, 105 males and
108 females. Their ages were ranged between 10–60 years. Clinical dental examination was carried out
using decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index for the permanent teeth. Questionnaires were
used to assess the level of dental health attitude and behaviours among the individuals. Results: Most
of the individuals have poor awareness about their oral health. They were not used to brush their teeth
regularly; they eat large amount of sweets at different times of the day and a large percent of them had
no willingness to seek for dental treatment. Clinical dental examination indicated the high caries
prevalence among the individuals, which increased by increasing age, and most of the cases were
treated by extraction. Conclusion: The oral and dental health status in the rural areas is far from good
and needs to be reevaluated.

Temperature rise beneath a light–cured materials using two types of curing machines

Sabah A Ismail; Abdul–Haq A Suliman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 20-25
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40180

Aim: To measure the temperature rise induced by a light emitting diode (LED) curing unit and by
quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) curing unit using two types of composite resin XRV Herculite and
Venus. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted non–carious single canal premolars were cleaned and
bisected longitudinally. Class V preparations were cut on the buccal surfaces. The teeth were divided
into four groups; each of ten. The teeth in the first and second groups were restored with XR–Herculite
composite resin. The teeth in the third and fourth groups were restored with Venus composite resin.
The composite resin in the first and third groups were polymerized using QTH curing unit “Astralis”
for 40 seconds; the light intensity was 502 mW/cm2. The distance between the tip of the light and the
composite was 3 + 1 mm. The composite resin in the second and fourth groups was polymerized using
LEDs “Ultra–Lite 200 E plus” curing unit for 20 seconds; the light intensity was 536 mW/cm2 using
the same distance as the first and third groups. The temperature rise at the pulpal wall was recorded by
placing a thermocouple on the pulpal wall directly under the restoration. Results: The lowest
temperature rise during LED irradiation with Venus composite resin followed by LED irradiation with
XRV Herculite composite resin. Whereas QTH curing units with XRV Herculite composite resin
produced higher values, QTH curing units with Venus composite resin produced the highest
temperature rise. Conclusion: The temperature rise of LED curing units and QTH curing units used in
this study was under the limits that affect the integrity of the dental pulp.

Anaesthetic efficacy of periodontal ligament injection of 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 adrenaline

Shehab A Hamad

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 26-34
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40186

Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of periodontal ligament injection of 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000
adrenaline in producing profound pulp anaesthesia and soft tissue anaesthesia. Materials and
Methods: The sample of this study included 120 dental students, 72 males and 48 females, ranging in
age from 18 to 23 years. The periodontal injection was administered to the periodontal space on the
mesial and distal aspects of the central incisor, first premolar and first molar of both arches. The
injection was administered by a standard dental syringe using 0.2 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000
adrenaline. The pulp anaesthesia was evaluated by electric pulp tester and soft tissue anaesthesia was
evaluated by probing. Results: The success rate of pulp anaesthesia in this study was 57.5% (60% in
the maxilla and 55% in the mandible). In both arches, first premolar and first molar teeth showed a
significantly higher success rate than that of central incisor (p<0.05). The mesial and distal teeth,
adjacent to the injected tooth, were anaesthetized in 29.7% and 40.8% respectively. No significant
difference was noted in the success rate of pulp anaesthesia between mesial and distal teeth (p>0.05).
The duration of pulp anaesthesia was 18.34 minutes. The duration of pulp anaesthesia was significantly
longer in the mandibular than maxillary teeth (p<0.05). The extent of associated soft tissue anaesthesia
was 14.77mm on the labial (buccal) aspect and 11.18 mm on the lingual (palatal) aspect. No significant
difference was noted, in both arches, in the extension of soft tissue anaesthesia on both aspects
(p>0.05). Conclusion: The periodontal ligament injection anaesthesia has a higher success rate in
premolars and molars as compared to incisors. The duration of pulp anaesthesia was 18.34 minutes.
The extent of soft tissue anaesthesia was 14.77 mm on the labial aspect and 11.18 mm on the lingual
aspect.

Reliability of the S–N line

Hussain A Obaidi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 35-41
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40191

Aim: To evaluate the degree of the reliability of the S–N reference line by using highly stable reference
lines (vertical and horizontal cranial axes). Materials and Methods: The sample of the study
comprised of lateral cephalometric radiographs of patients 13–18 years, 12 males and 12 females for
each of the three skeletal relationships. The ANB angles were 0–2, more than 2 and less than zero
respectively. The method was conducted by localization of the anterior superior of anterior wall of sella
turcica point (As), which is stable at age 5–6 years, drawing the Vertical Cranial Axis (VCA) which
pass through the point As and tangent to the upper part of the anterior wall of the sella turcica (at least
for 3 mm); then, drawing the Horizontal Cranial Axis (HCA), which is perpendicular to the VCA at the
As point. The deflection and the sagittal dimension of the S–N line were measured to evaluate the
variation in the location of the points S and N, which are the determinant of the S–N line. Results:
Point N had significantly local variation between gender and among the three skeletal relationships, but
that point S had insignificant local variation between gender and among the three skeletal relationships.
Conclusion: The S–N line is not stable due to unstability of the location of point N.

A comparative double–blind study among two universal systems of classification of impacted lower wisdom tooth and duration of surgery

Mohammad S Sulieman; Wa’el T Wattar; Karam H Jazrawi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 42-47
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40196

Aim: To estimate the importance of time in determining the difficulty of surgical removal of impacted
third molars. Materials and Methods: Two hundred medically fit patients were selected with an age
range between 18–25 years of both sexes. These patients had vertically impacted lower third molars
and indicated for surgical extraction. The diagnosis of third molar impaction was based on clinical and
standard intraoral periapical radiographs. A double–blind approach was adopted whereby two
researchers carried out a classification of the operation based on expected time of surgery and the third
researcher performed the surgery. The classification of the impaction was performed pre–operatively
according to Pell–Gregory classification, then the operation was performed following the standard
procedure for this type of surgery. Following extraction, surgical difficulty was rated according to
Garcia et al. classification and operation time from the incision till suturing of the flap. Results:
Comparison among the three classification systems was performed and the results indicated no
significant difference among the three classifications regarding simple and moderate operations, but
only a significant difference was recorded for the difficult operations. Conclusion: This study,
however, revealed the importance of time in assessing the difficulty of such operations and this, in turn,
will help surgeons in scheduling the treatment plan and taking the necessary precautions when dealing
with difficult operations

The therapeutic effect of viscous solution of curcumine in the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS)

Maha T Al–Saffar

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 48-52
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40201

Aim: To determine the various therapeutic effect of different concentrations of viscous curcumine solution on the healing of ulcer in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). Materials and Methods: A total of 83 patients with RAS divided into four groups: Group A: Thirty patients received viscous solution of curcumine 10%; Group B: Thirty three patients received viscous solution of
curcumine 50%; Group C: Ten patients without treatment (control negative); and Group D: Ten
patients received glycerin treatment (control positive). Results: Females were more affected than males
with RAS (69.9% female and 30.1% male) and upper and lower labial mucosa were the most common
site of the lesion. The results also showed significant difference between complete healings in patients using viscous solution of curcumine 50% and 10% respectively, and patients without treatment (control negative), while there was no significant difference between the complete healing in patients use 50% of solution and 10 % of the same solution. Conclusion: Topical application of viscous solution of curcumine at 10% and 50% showed a good percentage of complete healing of ulcer in patients with RAS and further study for its effect on other oral lesion may be recommended.

Mesiodistal crowns angulation in Class II division 1 malocclusion

Neam F Agha; Mahmood Kh Ahmed; Dina A Al–Khashab

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 53-63
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40207

Aims: To evaluate the mesiodistal angulation of the crowns in 50 study models (25 for each sex) of
Class II division 1 malocclusion and compare it to 38 study models (19 for each sex) of Class I normal
occlusion to find the differences between the two groups so as to provide valuable information in the treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion. Materials and Methods: Mesiodistal crown angulation is measured as the angle formed between the long axis of the crown and a line perpendicular to the occlusal plane. The data subjected to statistical analysis at p< 0.05. Descriptive statistics (mean,
standard deviation, minimum, maximum), correlation for all the crowns and comparison between right
and left side, male and female and between Class I and Class II were carried out. Results: Significant
differences in the angulation of the crowns between the two classes in the buccal segment of the upper
dental arches for both sexes with significant higher values in Class II division 1 were found. For the
lower arch there were significant differences in central, lateral incisors and second premolar in males
and in all crowns except first molar in females with significant higher values in Class II division 1 indicating that the crowns are more mesially inclined in Class II division 1 malocclusion. Conclusion:
The crowns were more mesially inclined for Class II division 1 malocclusion than for Class I occlusion. There was a correlation among teeth in each quadrant.

Preparation and modifying a new type of waxes

Nadira A Hatim; Amer A Taqa; Wafa M Abbas

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 64-70
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40211

that has almost the same properties of dental modeling wax used in dentistry. Materials and Methods:
Three groups of waxes (220 samples) with different compositions regarding its origin (Al–Dora
refinery waxes, natural bees wax–North of Iraq, and commercially available Iraqi waxes), additives
such as starch, sodium–carboxyl methylcellulose (Na–CMC), rosin, or nylon, and coloring agents were
prepared. The samples were tested for their melting range, 21 samples only had a melting range that
nearly coincides with that of the dental waxes such as Major and Cavex. Results: The resultant 21
samples were tested for their softening, trimming, penetration, residue materials and solubility. Only 4
samples showed properties that are closely similar to that of Major and Cavex wax. The results of
melting point ranged from 69–80oC. Softening test showed that the samples which contain nylon, Na–
CMC, or rosin were softened without adhering to the fingers. Trimming test showed that they were
trimmed easily and clearly. Penetration test showed that, some samples had the similar measurements
of Major and Cavex wax (0.6–0.9mm). Residue materials showed that all samples had no residue of
wax materials on acrylic teeth after wax elimination procedure. All the prepared waxes were soluble in ether (acetone), and petroleum spirit (benzene). Conclusion: Six new modeling wax materials were prepared according to ADA specification No.24. Three of new wax materials consist of nylon(polystyrene 1.71–2.13%); the other two novel modeling waxes were fabricated by using additive materials (Na–CMC and rosin).

A clinical evaluation on the alkalization of local anesthetic solution in periapical surgery

Fa’iz A Al–Sultan; Wafaa Kh Fathie; Rayan S Hamid

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 71-77
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40218

Aims: To assess the effect of alkalization of local anesthetic solution for the purpose of enhancing its
efficiency in periapical surgery. Materials and Methods: A total sample of 80 patients, all needing
periapical surgery on one or more of their upper anterior tooth (teeth) was subjected to this trial. For the
purpose of comparison, the sample was randomly divided into two groups based on the local anesthetic
solution that they were to receive before surgery. The first group(control) included those patients who
received the commercially available local anesthetic solution with a standard pH of 3.5.The second
group (trial group) included those patients who received a pH adjusted local anesthetic solution at 7.2
(using sodium bicarbonate).Prior to, and at the completion of intended surgery, the following data
were recorded: Pain during injection, onset of achievement of surgical anesthesia, pain during
operation and the duration of operation itself. Results: A significant difference in regard to onset of
achievement of surgical anesthesia between both groups was noticed with a faster onset in group two where the patients received a pH adjusted local anesthetic solution when compared to control group where the patients received the commercially available local anesthetic solution. Also, less pain on deposition of solution was noticed in the second group as well as less pain score levels were recorded during operation in regard to the same group. Conclusion: The pH adjusted local anesthetic solutions
may provide certain advantages when compared to the commercially available local anesthetic solutions regarding enhancement of anesthetic efficiency, reduced pain on injection as well as during surgery.

Anchorage loss and distal teeth movement

Neam F Agha

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 78-83
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.42386

Aim: To develop the amount of canine retraction or space closure and the amount of mesial migration of anchorage. Materials and Methods: Data collected from treated patients attending College of
Dentistry/ Mosul University and from private clinics, in which a standardized method used for treatment work. Sixty eight patients, 37 have Class I crowding and 31 have Class II malocclusion were
divided into two groups: Growing and non–growing patients. The data subjected to statistical analysis for description of variables. Results: There were what we can call them "primary factors" affecting
anchorage loss which is represented by the type of malocclusion. In Class II malocclusion, greater anchorage loss than Class I crowding, and in the "secondary factors" effect of patients age, higher
anchorage loss in growing subjects than non–growing patients was found. Conclusion: The type of malocclusion is important in affecting anchorage loss which is considered a primary factor. Also,
higher anchorage loss in growing patients than non–growing patients was found.

The effect of canal size on the penetration depth of endodontic irrigants

Nawfal A Zakaria

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 84-87
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.42392

Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of canal size change on the penetration level of endodontic irrigant solution. Materials and Method: Five canals of different sizes (20, 25, 30, 35 and 40) were tested by preparing Class I cavity in the apex. Paper point was placed in this cavity and sealed 4 mm by sticky wax. Irrigation was done by methylene blue solution 15 times for each canal size, then the paper point piece examined under stereomicroscope for discoloration and wetness. Results: The irrigant solution was penetrated up to the apical area of the all canal sizes in the all 15 irrigation trials. The volume of fluid, the degree of fairing, the use of apical patency files, and the needle depth were the other different factors improving penetration depth of irrigating solution. Conclusions: There was no effect of canal
size on the penetration level of the endodontic irrigant.

Clinical measurements of the dimensions of the dental arches and its application on construction of dental prosthesis

Zeina M Ahmed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 88-97
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.42394

Aims: To determine the ideal dimensions of the artificial dental arch by measuring the dimensions of dental arch of completely dentulous subjects and to find the relation of these dimensions to some facial
measurements. Materials and Methods: The sample of study consisted of 54 completely dentulous adult subjects (24 females and 30 males) with Class 1 normal occlusion aged 19–24 years. Dental casts were taken for each subject and the dimensions of the dental casts and the facial measurements were made by using digital vernier caliper. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Science program. Results: The dimensions of the dental arches and the facial measurements of the
male group was larger than that of female and there was high correlation between some dimensions of dental arch with some of the facial measurements. Conclusions: The width of the dental arches of the
artificial dental prosthesis could be determined depending on the extraoral facial measurements as the percentage of upper intercanine distance to mouth width is 74.43% and the percentage of the upper
inter first molar distance to bizygomatic width was 40.65%