Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Volume 2, Issue 2

Volume 2, Issue 2, Winter and Spring 2006, Page 98-198

Variation of facial heights among the Class I, II and III dentoskeletal relationships (Cephalometric study)

Hussain A Obaidi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 98-105
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40070

Aims: To compare the anterior and posterior facial heights among the sexes and total sample. Mean while; to find the facial height variations among the Class I, II and III dentoskeletal groups. Materials
and Methods: The sample comprised of 32 lateral cephalometric radiographs (16 for each sex) for each of the Class I, II and III dentoskeletal relationships. The age of the sample subjects was 15–20
years. The lateral cephalometric radiographs were traced. The total, upper and lower anterior facial heights and the total, upper and lower posterior facial heights were measured. Results: No significant
differences among the both sexes and total sample for the dentoskeletal groups were demonstrated. All the facial heights appeared significantly greater in Class II group than Class I group except upper
anterior, upper posterior and lower posterior facial heights and was significantly higher than Class III group in upper anterior, lower anterior and upper posterior facial height. Class III group displayed
significantly lower value in total facial height than Class I group and significantly larger value in lower posterior facial height than of Class I group and Class II group. Conclusion: The facial heights are not
affected by the sex variation, but there are certain variations in facial heights among the dentoskeletal groups.

The variation of the lower anterior facial height and its component parameters among the three over bite relationships (Cephalometric study)

Saba H. Al-Zubaidi; Hussain A. Obaidi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 106-113
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40075

Aims: To evaluate the genders and over bite subjects group variation for the lower anterior facial
height (LAFH) and its component parameters in Iraqi population in Mosul City. Materials and
Methods: The study was performed by using measurements on pretreatment cephalometric radiographs
of 79 patients, 27 with normal over bite and 26 for each open and deep over bite. The age ranged from
12–16 years with Class I dentoskeletal relationship. Results: The normal over bite group was
significantly larger maxillary anterior alveolar ratio and the mandibular anterior and basal height in
male when compared with female. Deep bite group appeared significantly larger mandibular anterior
alveolar depth in males than in females. The open bite group showed significantly larger interincisal
angle in females than in males. Multiple range variation analysis of the lower facial height and its
component parameters disclosed no significant differences in these parameters among the over bite
groups except that the open bite group was significantly larger mean value in the LAFH and
significantly lower mean value in the interincisal angle when compared with normal and deep bite
groups. Conclusion: The significant gender variation of the LAFH and its components of the normal
over bite group were appeared in maxillary anterior alveolar depth, ratio and mandibular anterior
alveolar height; whereas in deep bite group appeared in mandibular anterior alveolar depth, and in open
bite group demonstrated in the interincisal angle.

Aqueous extracts of Propolis and Miswak as topical medicament to improve post– operative outcome after surgical removal of impacted lower third molar

Faiz Abdul Razak Abdul Razak; Layla Abdulla Mustafa; Ali Idrees Idrees

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 114-121
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40083

Aim: To asses the effects of topical application of aqueous extract of either Propolis or Miswak on the post–operative outcomes in relation to the duration of operation after surgical removal of lower third
molar was performed. Material and Methods: A total of 97 patients participated and distributed randomly into 3 groups according to the medicament applied into the extraction socket: Group I, in which 5% aqueous solution of propolis extract used; group II, in which 10% aqueous solution of Miswak extract used; and group III, in which distilled water used (control group). Results: A significant improvement in post–operative outcome at 3rd day in both group I and II comparing to group III was observed. No significant difference noticed at 1st day and 6th day. Assessment of dry socket showed no significant difference in between the three study groups. However, when assessment
performed in relation with operation time, a significant difference noticed in between the three study groups with high incidence of dry socket reported in operation take longer than 30 minutes in the three
study groups. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of Miswak and Propolis as a topical medicament following lower third molar extraction had a slight reducing effect on the severity of post–operative complications.

Different methods to measure canine rotation

Neam F Agha; Neam R Al–Saleem

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 122-129
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40088

Aim: Demonstration of a new method which is liner measurement to record the amount of canine
rotation after orthodontic treatment, in addition to the ordinary angular method for measuring canine
rotation. Materials and Methods: Forty five patients (20 males and 25 females) were selected: Those
need extraction of the first premolars for correction of malocclusion. Their age varied from 12–23
years. A study model was taken for them pre and post treatment, then measurements were done directly
on the cast and other measurements indirectly converted on a paper to measure other variables.
Results: There were no significant differences among age groups and between the sexes for the angular
and linear methods. Also, there was insignificant canine rotation in the mesial or distal sides toward or
away from the reference line within the different groups; this clearly seen in the linear method. In the
angular method, also canine rotation can be seen within the age groups but not demonstrated the side of
rotation like the linear method. Conclusion: Canine rotation occur within the treatment work in the two
methods of measuring canine rotation, but this research proved that the linear direct measurement
which is the new method followed in this work was more beneficial and accurate for clinical work than
the indirect angular measurements.

The ability of Ca(OH)2 to facilitate bone formation by measuring the alkaline phosphatase level (Experimental study)

Harith Kaskos

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 130-135
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40095

Aim: To investigate the early events of bone regeneration of Ca(OH)2 by studying biochemistry level
of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as guide for bone regeneration. Materials and Methods: The mandible of eight dogs was prepared by hole of 0.5×0.5 cm in depth and diameter in the apical to the molar teeth. This hole packed with Ca(OH)2 powder mixed with distilled water to become as a paste. Samples of blood were collected pre–operatively considered as control groups [measuring level of serum ALP in experimental animals before implanted Ca(OH)2], then at the 7, 10 and 15 day postoperatively considered as treated groups [measuring alteration of level of serum ALP in experimental animals after implanted Ca(OH)2] for biochemical analysis of the level of serum ALP. Results: There was a significant difference at the day 10 following the operation between the control groups and the treated
groups, while there was no significant difference at the day 7,and day 15 postoperatively between the control and the treated groups. Also the results showed that there was a high significant difference between the different postoperative days. Conclusion: The (CaOH)2 powder mixed with distilled water have the ability to accelerate bone regeneration when it is placed in bone defect comparing to thatdefect filled with nothing.

The occupational hazards and diseases among dentists in Mosul City: Musculo– skeletal pain, eye problem and hepatitis

Ghada Dh Sayagh

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 136-143
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40100

Aims: To evaluate the distribution of the health hazards and diseases among dentists in Mosul City
according to age, sex and number of working hours per week. It also stated the usage of personal
protective measures among dentists. Materials and Methods: The study of population consisted of
one hundred and thirty dentists. The target population comprised dentists who worked in Mosul City.
The study was conducted within form of questionnaire. Dentists were asked whether they suffered any
occupational disease related to a musculo–skeletal pain and its location whether in the back, upper
limbs or lower limbs. Also location of back pain as in the neck, shoulder, thoracic, lumber and sacral
regions. Additionally, dentists were asked about eye problem, infectious diseases and if they are
wearing medical gloves and masks. Results: The musculo–skeletal pain was the most frequent complaint of the total dentists (63.08%). Back–pain was the most prevalent of the musculo–skeletal disorders among dentists (81.54%) of the total sample and more frequently in the cervical area; i.e., neck and shoulder (66.15%). There was a significant difference between the prevalence of different
musculo–skeletal pain and the weekly working hours among dentists (p = 0.01). There was a
significant difference between dentists with and without eye problems (p = 0.033). Higher prevalence
of dentists from the total sample did not complain of infectious diseases (82.31%). Dentists whom
never wearing gloves and masks comprised the higher percentages of the total sample (46.15% and 19.23%, respectively). Conclusions: Carrying out their professional work, dentists are exposed to a number of occupational hazards. The study revealed that musculo–skeletal pain was the frequent complaint of dentists and more frequently in the cervical area (neck and shoulders) with a significant association between the number of working hours per week and musculo–skeletal pain in all locations (back, upper limb, lower limb). The majority of the examined dentists complain of eye problem during their practice, whereas most of them never complain any infectious disease. No significant association between dentists wearing gloves but significant association between those wearing masks with the age.

Dental health status of adult population in Yemen (Thamar City)

Faraed D Salman; Khawla M Saleh; Aisha A Qasim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 144-150
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40108

Aims: To evaluate the oral health status (dental caries, periodontal disease and treatment needs) in Yemenis adult individuals. Material and Methods: The sample included 471 individuals, age ranging
between 20–59 years of both sexes using sharp dental caries explorers with WHO periodontal probes to detect periodontal health by the use of DMFT index of WHO (1997) and CPITN by WHO (1987).
Results: The mean DMFT for the total sample was 7.33 + 0.3 which was increased with increasing age
for the different age groups with a significant difference but no significant difference in the mean
DMFT for total males and females has been found. The results also showed that the total number of
teeth (880) with a mean of 1.81 tooth/person in need of treatment is the most prevalent needed one
surface filling, and 581 teeth with a mean of 1.23 tooth/ person needed two or more surfaces filling.
According to the highest CPITN there was significant difference between male and female in calculus
at p < 0.05 and shallow pockets at p < 0.01. The results also revealed that the mean number of healthy
sextants for the total sample was 4.13 while for bleeding and calculus were 1.02 and 0.21, respectively.
It means that the treatment needs for periodontal disease is more toward oral hygiene procedure and prophylaxis. Conclusion: Dental health education program is an essential activity for promoting optimal oral health and preventing oral diseases

Radiological accuracy in the interpretation of apical fitness in endodontics

Nazar Ghanem Jameel; Nawfal Abed Al-Maleek Zakaria

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 151-154
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40122

Aim: To compare the accuracy of right–angle paralleling and bisecting–angle radiographic
techniques in the determination of apical fitness in endodontic therapy. Materials and Methods:
Thirty three root canals of first upper and lower molar teeth have been used in this study. A K–file
was inserted into the canal until its tip was fit snuggly one millimeter shorter than the apex. Each
tooth then radiographed twice by the right–angle paralleling and bisecting–angle techniques. The
distance between the file tip and the center of radiographical apex was directly measured by two
examiners and the mean of each two measurements was recorded. Data were collected and analyzed
statistically by analysis of variance and Duncan’s Multiple Range test. Results: The mean value
revealed that there were clear differences between the mean of measurements by the parallel
technique (0.87mm) and that with the bisecting technique (0.39mm), when these two results
compared with the mean of real measurements (1mm). One way analysis of variance revealed there
were significant differences in one of the three groups at p < 0.05 level. Duncan’ Multiple Range test
showed that the parallel measurements when compared with the real measurements the results showed that there was no significant difference but was significantly different from the bisecting measurements. Conclusion: It is preferable to the dentist to use the right–angle paralleling technique during root canal treatment, where it gives more accurate result for estimation of the working length.

Systemic effect of tranexamic acid on Prothrombin and clotting times in rabbits after IV injection of heparin (Experimental study)

Raid M. Basheer

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 155-160
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40129

Aim: To evaluate the effect of a single dose of tranexamic acid (cyclokapron) in reducing the
postoperative bleeding following minor oral surgery on ten rabbits on anticoagulant therapy (heparin).
Materials and Methods: Samples of blood were collected pre and post heparin and tranexamic acid
injection for measuring the Prothrombin and clotting time. Results: There was no significant difference
between the Prothrombin time and clotting time normal and Prothrombin time and clotting time after
tranexamic acid injection. Conclusion: A single dose of tranexamic acid given postoperatively was
effective in reducing the postoperative bleeding following minor oral surgery in experimental rabbit on
heparin anticoagulant therapy without changing the regular heparin regimen doses. The same regimen
may be applied on hospitalized patient on heparin anticoagulant therapy

Criteria for selection of Implant cases

Nadira A Hatim; Rawa Younis Al-Rawee; Bashar Abdul Ghani Tawfeeq

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 161-170
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40136

Aims: To evaluate upper and lower limits of the parameters used such as (age, sex, or selection of
patient), and to detect the grade of understanding and acceptance of Iraqi publics for the implant
surgery (education level). Materials and Methods: From a total of 300 patients seeking implant
therapy in Al–Salam Hospital Implantology Center, only 45 patients were chosen to undergo implant
surgery with age group 17– >60 years during the period from February 2002 to February 2005. A case
sheet was specially prepared for this study containing information needed to determine the suitable
criteria of implantation. Frialit–2 implant system was used with its different lengths and widths (color–
coded). Maxillary and mandibular impressions, registration of maxillo–mandibular jaw relation records
were done for each patient to record all findings. Data were collected and statically analyzed. Results:
The higher age group patients were 17–30 years with percentage 5.33%, while non–operated patients
51–60 years showed high percentage of 29.66%. Criteria of the forty five patients (22 females and 23
males) participated in this study were statistically analyzed concerning the economical level. The
operated patients showed 57.77% level I (high), 40% level II (moderate) and 2.22% level III (low).
While for education level showed 53.3% level I, 42.2% level II and 4.4% level III. Conclusion: Low
percentage of educational level of patients need an explanation about surgical and prosthetic parts of
dental implant to elevate the education level of patients. In addition to educational level, economical
level of patient plays an important role in the criteria for selection of patients.

Evaluation of brackets shear bond strengths using two different light–emitting diode curing units

Ahmad A Abdul–Mawjood

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 171-175
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40149

Aims: To evaluate the efficiency of two types of light–emitting diode (LED) curing units in bonding orthodontics brackets. Materials and Methods: Three groups, ten teeth each, of newly extracted premolars were used in the study. In the control, the brackets were bonded using a halogen bulb light curing unit, while in the other two groups the brackets were bonded using a high and a low intensity
LED curing unit, respectively. The brackets were bonded to the teeth using Transbond® light–cured orthodontic adhesive. The bonded brackets were tested for their shear bond strength using a universal compression machine. Results: The mean bond strength of brackets bonded with the high intensity LED curing unit was above the clinically accepted value and it was comparable to that of the halogen
bulb light curing unit group. Meanwhile, the mean bond strength of brackets bonded with the low
intensity LED curing unit significantly differed from the other two groups and was below the clinical
acceptance level. Conclusion: The high intensity LED curing units can be used successfully in bonding orthodontic brackets. The bond strength was sufficient to consider these units as good substitutes for the halogen bulb–based units. The low intensity LED curing units are not recommended to be used in

Oral malignant lesions in a sample of patients in the north of Iraq (Retrospective study)

Ali Idrees Al-Niaimi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 176-180
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40153

Aim: To determine the frequency of occurrence and the distribution of different oral malignant lesions in a sample of patients in the north of Iraq. Materials and Methods: This study including the review
of 6603 patients’ files with different types of malignant tumors of the body between the years 1995– 1999 and the cases affecting the oral cavity were isolated and undergo descriptive statistical analysis.
Results: From the 6603 patients’ files reviewed, only 119 cases (2%) had malignant lesions of the oral cavity with age range between 2.5–90 years and the mean of age was 58.3 years. Male:female ratio was 1.2:1. Squamous cell carcinoma was the predominant tumor of the oral cavity. Lower lip was the most commonly affected site by the oral cancer. Conclusion: Oral cancer included many types of tumors but the predominant type is the squamous cell carcinoma that takes many forms. Although it show high occurrence over the age of 40 years but it may occur at any age and sex. The other types of cancer although they are rare in the oral cavity but they should be taken in consideration during diagnosis of
oral cancer.

Assessment of oral cleanliness and gingival condition among intermediate Thamarian school students

Faraed D Salman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 181-185
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40157

Aims: To evaluate the oral cleanliness and gingival health among intermediate school students and to
find if there was any variation between age and sex groups in Thamar–Yemen. Material and
Methods: A sample of 596 students aged 13–15 years old (308 males, 288 females) were examined
using plaque index score by Silness and Löe (1964) and gingival index by Löe and Silness (1963). The
clinical examinations were carried out in the school using plane mouth mirrors, WHO periodontal
probes to detect the dental plaque and gingival health. Results: The mean plaque score for the total
sample was 0.90. The plaque index was increasing with age, females reported less mean plaque scores
than males with statistically significant difference between them. The mean gingival score was 0.52 for
the total sample and it was increasing with age with statistical significant difference. Females also
reported less gingival scores than males with statistical significant difference between them. The study revealed that 45.1 % of the total sample did not brush their teeth. Conclusion: Gingival and periodontal diseases are indirectly related to the exposure of bacterial plaque for long time which calls for integrated, coordinated planning of preventive and treatment services as an urgent priority.

A clinical study of the anti–caries effect of 1.23% and 0.4% APF fluoride gel on primary dentition: One year follow–up

Karam H Jazrawi; Layla A Makani; Tarik Y Khamrco

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 186-193
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.45478

Aims: To determine the efficacy of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel in reducing caries
increment in a group of pre–school children in Mosul City, and to compare between the anti–caries
effect of two different concentrations (full strength–1.23% and half strength–0.4%) after one year of
bi–annual application of the gel. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 363 kindergarten
children [192 (52.89%) males and 171 (47.11%) females] aged 4 years –at the initial examination–
from 10 randomly selected kindergartens in Mosul City Center. The sample was divided into two
experimental groups and one control group. Children in the first group received bi–annual application
of full strength (1.23%) APF gel; those in the second group received bi–annual application of half
strength (0.4%) APF gel, whereas those in the third group did not receive any fluoride treatment.
Dental examinations were done according to WHO criteria using dmft and dmfs indices: One before
fluoride application and the other after one year. Results: A significant reduction in dental caries
increment of the two experimental groups compared with the control group regarding dmft and dmfs
indices. The percentage of caries reduction regarding dmft and dmfs indices were 97.25% and 101.15%
for the first group, and 95.94% and 85.33% for the second group, respectively. However, the
differences between the two concentrations were statistically not significant, although children in the
first group who received the full strength fluoride application revealed slightly better reduction in
caries increment than those in the second group who received the half strength fluoride application.
Therefore, to decrease the risk of ingesting a highly concentrated fluoride gel, the use of the lower
concentration APF gel is recommended. Conclusion: The use of such a program involving
professional APF gel application for pre–school children is advised especially for those with evidence
of dental caries.

Incidence of third root in mandibular permanent first molar: An endodontic challenge

Ali M Rashid; Haq A Suliman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 194-198
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2006.40167

Aim: To investigate the incidence and the morphology of third root for the mandibular permanent first
molars from indigenous Iraqi population and their significance in the successful of endodontic
treatment. Materials and Methods: A clinical, radiographical prospective evaluation of first
mandibular permanent molar teeth (n= 788) and laboratory analysis of 695 extracted first mandibular
permanent molars collected from University Mosul, College of Dentistry, Department of Conservative
Dentistry and private dental clinic were collected and examined. All the clinical cases treated as third
root present, unless otherwise both 90º, 20° mesial radiographical shift and trapezoidal access opening
excluded the presence of this macrostructure. The third root was classified in three groups on the basis
of the curve of the root/root canal according to Ribeiro and Consolaro (1997). Chi–square was used to
determine the significance between both genders, whereas descriptive statistics was used to describe
the result of observations. Results: Upon clinical and laboratory observation of total 1483 first
mandibular permanent molars, 121 (8.1%) exhibited radix entomolaris (RE), 17 (14%) were classified
as type I (straight root/root canal), 33 (27.2%) as type II (an initially curved entrance and the
continuation as a straight root/root canals) and 71(58.6%) as type III (an initial curve in the coronal
third of the root canal and a second buccally orientated curve starting from the middle to apical third). Statistical analysis with Chi–square indicated no significant differences between both genders regarding the occurrence of RE. In all cases, RE occurred bilaterally. Out of 71 teeth attended for clinic, 87.3% teeth required retreatment, while the apparent reason of extraction for 86% of 50 collected extracted teeth with RE seemed failure of endodontic treatment and the cleaning and
obturation confined to the mesial and distal canals only. In all cases, the orifice of the RE was located
distolingual from the main canal in the distal root. Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware of this unusual root morphology in mandibular first molars. Radiographs exposed at two different horizontal angles are needed to identify this additional root. The access cavity must be modified in a distolingual direction in order to visualize and treat the RE; this results in a trapezoidal access cavity.