Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Volume 5, Issue 1

Volume 5, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2005, Page 1-96

Water sorption of light–cured composites

Ammar Kh Al–Nori

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2004.45503

The aim of the present research was to study the percentage
water sorption and solubility of Esthet composite
resin based on an ethoxylated bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate
(Bis–EMA) and Heliomolar composite resin based
on bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate (Bis–GMA). Six specimens
were prepared for each material using aluminum disc 15
mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness between two glass
slides; then they were light cured for 80 seconds on each side.
Percentage water sorption and solubility were measured after
one week and one month. The results showed that water sorption
after 1 week for Esthet composite and Heliomolar composite
were 0.433 and 1.12, respectively and solubility were
0.074 and 1.066, respectively; while water sorption after 1
month were 0.517 and 2.57, respectively and solubility were
0.176 and 2.689, respectively.
It could be concluded that the percentage sorption and
solubility of composite based on Bis–EMA were significantly
lower than that based on Bis–GMA.

The correlation between certain facial and dental measurements that influence dental aesthetics “Cephalometric study”

Nadia H Hasan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 6-14
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2004.45504

The purpose of the present study was to assess and determine
if the correlation between certain facial measurements
was significant to recommend their use as reliable aesthetic
factors for selection of suitable tooth moulds for anterior teeth
The materials for this study included 50 cephalometric
radiographs for selected undergraduate students of Dentistry
Collage, Mosul University; 25 males and 25 females. The age
ranged from 18–25 years old with normal occlusion.
The data were analyzed by using Minitab system and the
result confirmed that certain facial measurements considered
directly to determine the outline form to restore anterior teeth
such as tooth width at the incisor edge, incisor tooth length,
intercanine distance, the ratio of incisor tooth length and tooth
width at the incisor edge, bi–incisors width, and bi–orbital
width, while the others, bi–zygomatic width, intermolar distance,
anterior facial height, and the ratio of anterior facial height
and bi–zygomatic width, were indirectly indicated. Also
there was a significant difference between male and female
groups with different facial measurements. The ratio of the
anterior facial height to bi–zygomatic width for the total sample
was 0.93 mm, while that for the tooth length to tooth width
was 0.81 mm. It could be concluded that certain facial measurements
recommended as reliable aesthetic factors for selection
of suitable tooth moulds for anterior teeth restoration.

The selection of maxillary anterior teeth width in relation to facial measurements at different types of face form

Nagham H Kassab

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 15-23
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2004.45506

It is difficult to determine the dimensions of maxillary
anterior teeth for edentulous patient when pre–extraction records
are not available. Therefore, the present clinical study was
carried out to evaluate the relationships between maxillary
anterior teeth measurements [canine arc distance (CARCD),
central incisor width] and certain horizontal facial parameters
which included: [(interzygomatic, inner and outer canthus and
inter-pupillary) distances in addition to that (interalar, mouth
and philtrum of upper lip) widths], and also to determine those
relations at different types of facial form in both sexes for the
best selection of maxillary anterior teeth widths.
The facial and dental measurements were obtained directly
from 100 Iraqi undergraduate dental students by using an
electronic digital vernier caliper. Depending on facial index for
each subject, the larger percentage of students (80%) had a
leptoprosopic (long and narrow) face in which their facial
indices were 90 or above, whereas 4% of students had a euryprosopic
(square) face in which their facial indices 82.1–83.1;
while 16% of those students had a mesoprosopic (ovoid) face
in which their facial indices 85.3–89.5.
The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was
used for all relationships and the results revealed that there was
a significant correlation between CARCD and mouth width in
males with leptoprosopic face while in those with mesoprosopic
face the CARCD was significantly correlated with both
mouth and interzygomatic widths but with higher correlation
coefficient value being with mouth width, the maxillary central
incisor width was significantly correlated with both inner
canthal distance and philtrum width of upper lip but with higher
correlation coefficient value being with first one. In females
with leptoprosopic face, the CARCD had a high significant
correlation coefficient with inner canthal distance; while in
those with mesoprosopic face the maxillary central incisor
width was significantly correlated with interzygomatic distance
while the other correlations in different types of face form for
both sexes were found to be in low magnitude and were not
On the above mentioned results, this study demonstrated
that certain horizontal facial parameters could be used as a
guide in maxillary anterior denture teeth selection to achieve
the best esthetic result in each type of face form in both sexes

Clinical evaluation of the effect of four flap designs on the post–operative sequel (pain, swelling and trismus) following lower third molar surgery

Mohammad S Sulieman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 24-32
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2004.45507

The present study aimed to assess the effect of different
flap designs on pain, swelling and trismus following surgical
removal of impacted mandibular third molar. The study was
carried out in Oral and Maxillofacial Department, Dental
Teaching Hospital of Dentistry College, Mosul University.
Sixty patients were included in the research where they
were divided into 4 groups, each comprised of 15 patients. In
the first group, the impacted teeth were removed using an envelope
flap. In the second group, a standard flap was used for
the removal of impacted teeth. For the third group, the impacted
teeth were removed using modified standard flap.
While in the fourth group, S–shaped flap was used. Pain,
swelling and trismus were assessed clinically post–operatively
at 1 day, 3 days and 7 days intervals. Pain and swelling
were evaluated subjectively while trismus was evaluated by
measuring the maximum mouth opening ability (in mm) between
the right upper and right lower central incisors using a
vernier. The results showed no significant effect among the 4
flap designs on post–operative complaints.
It was concluded that the type of incision appears to
have no effect on the degree of pain, swelling and trismus
following surgical removal of impacted lower third molar.

The antimicrobial effect of water extraction of Salvadora persica (Miswak) as a root canal irrigant

Talal H Al-salman; Moataz Gh Al-Shaekh Ali; Osama M Al-Nuaimy

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 33-36
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2005.45508

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial
effect of 10% water extraction of Salvadora persica (Miswak)
when used clinically as an endodontic irrigant.
Twenty four uniradicular teeth with necrotic pulps were
chosen. The patients were divided randomly into 2 groups:
Experimental group, in which water extract of Salvadora
persica (10%) was used as a root canal irrigant; and control
group, in which distilled water was used as a root canal irrigant.
Bacteriological samples were obtained from the canal at
the step of working length determination (before the canal
was subjected to instrumentation and irrigation procedures),
and at the end of the biomechanical instrumentation procedures
by using a sterile K–file. The file was separated from the
handle using a sterile wire cutter, and the severed portion was
placed in a sterile screw–capped vial containing 5 ml of thioglycollate
broth as a transport media. A 0.1 ml of thioglycollate
broth was inoculated on each of two brain–heart infusion
agar plates: One plate was incubated under aerobic conditions,
and the other was incubated under anaerobic conditions
using anaerobic jar and gas pack anaerobic system. Both plates
were incubated at 37 ºC for 24 hours; then, the number of
bacterial colonies was counted.
The results revealed that 10% water extraction of Salvadora
persica is an effective antimicrobial agent when utilized
clinically as an irrigant in the endodontic treatment of teeth
with necrotic pulps.

Effectiveness of educational program on fixed orthodontic appliance treatment on patient’s oral hygiene

Afrah Kh Al–Hamdany; Nada M Al–Sayagh; Ali R Al–Khatib

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 37-45
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2005.45509

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether
educated dental patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment
showing better oral hygiene than dental patients who are
not educated.
The sample is comprised of 16 orthodontic patients (3
males and 13 females), 11–22 years old chosen randomly among
patients at Department of Pedodontics, Orthodontics and
Preventive Dentistry of College of Dentistry at Mosul University.
The sample is divided equally into 2 groups; the first group
was educated concerning fixed orthodontic treatment in
relation to oral hygiene and given education and instruction to
keep good oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment. The
second group is not educated. Swabs were taken from supra–
gingival plaque of facial surface of upper right and lower left
central incisors, and upper left and lower right first molar teeth;
one before orthodontic treatment and another (4–6 weeks)
later and subjected to bacteriological investigation. Qualitative
data about oral microorganisms were collected and subjected
to statistical analysis.
The results indicated that during treatment records for
both educated and non–educated groups show significant difference
for certain types of microorganisms and at different
locations with the educated group scores the least in comparison
with non–educated group

Oral health status and treatment needs of Iraqi and Yemeni dental students (A comparative study)

Faraed D Salman; Aisha A Qasim; Khawla M Saleh

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 46-51
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2005.45510

The aim of this study is to compare oral health status
(dental caries, periodontal disease and treatment needs) of Iraqi
and Yemeni dental students.
The sample included 100 Iraqi dental students and 90
Yemeni dental students of fourth grade, age ranged between
22–23 years old of both sexes. The study revealed that there
was a significant difference in the DMFT between Iraqi and
Yemeni dental students for the total sample at p < 0.05 level,
with significant difference between Iraqi and Yemeni dental
students for both sexes at p < 0.01 level.
The results also revealed that there was no significant difference
in the type of treatment required for the total sample
between females of Iraqi and Yemeni dental students, but
with significant difference in the treatment need between males
of Iraqi and Yemeni dental students. Highest percentage
of treatment need for Iraqi and Yemeni students were for 1
surface restoration.
The highest CPITN code percentage for Iraqi students
was for code 2 (calculus) followed by code 1 with a significant
difference between Iraqi males and females students at
p CPITN code percentage was for code 1 followed by code 2.
There was a significant difference in the total sample between
Iraqi and Yemeni dental students at p require scaling while Yemenis require oral health instruction.

Clinical evaluation of bonded brackets for three composite bonding systems

Hussain A Obaidi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 52-56
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2005.45512

Bonding the teeth with orthodontic brackets via orthodontic
adhesive is essential stage in orthodontic treatment. But,
still the failure bracket due to orthodontic or functional forces
could be the predominant problem through the orthodontic
treatment, in addition to the enamel fracture; in cases the bracket
failed at the enamel–composite interface completely or
partially (scores 0, 1, 2) as suggested by Artun and Bergland.
This study is a clinically attempt to evaluate the failure–
bracket number and the bracket failure sites, for three orthodontic
composite systems, which were two paste (Concise);
nomix (Right ON) and light cure (Transbond). These adhesives
were used in bonding a stainless steel brackets to the teeth
of adhesive system.
The number of the failed brackets through 18 months of
treatment were recorded and the site of the failed brackets
were observed by magnifying lens (10×) and recorded according
to the Artun and Bergland index.
The results showed that there were no significant differences
of failed brackets at p < 0.05 and 0.01 levels among
these three composite systems, but the Concise adhesive had
the least failure–brackets.
The failure sites of the failed brackets for the three bonding
systems were occurred at scores 2 and 3, while the Concise
system had the highest percentage of score 3 site (80%)
(composite bracket interface).

Aural symptoms in temporomandibular disorder patients

Ahmad A Al–Tuhafi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 57-62
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2005.45513

The prevalence of aural symptoms in 100 patients with
temporomandibular disorder (TMD) were investigated and
compared with control group of 100 subjects without clinical
manifestation of TMD. The relationship between otologic symptoms
and severity of TMD signs was also evaluated.
Examination of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) included
maximum mouth opening, clicking, crepitation, locking, luxation,
deviation of midline, masticatory muscle tenderness, and
TMJ tenderness. All patients of the two groups were questioned
about feeling of ear complaints, including otalgia, tinnitus,
and hearing loss.
It was found that 48% of TMD patients complained of
one or more aural symptoms compared with 13% of the controls.
There was a highly significant difference between the
two groups (p<0.01).
The prevalences of otalgia, tinnitus, and hearing loss in
TMD patients were 36%, 27%, and 4% respectively. While in
the control group the prevalences were otalgia 6%, tinnitus
10%, and hearing loss 1%. There were highly significant differences
between the two groups regarding otalgia and tinnitus
The evaluation of the relationship between aural symptoms
and TMD signs, yielded a significant positive correlation
between otalgia with clicking, number of tender muscles,
and TMJ tenderness. While it reversibly correlated with mouth
opening. Tinnitus was found to be positively correlated
with clicking and number of tender muscles.
From the results of this research, dentist and otolaryngologist
must act as a team in recognizing and diagnosing
TMD and the otolaryngologists should refer patients with otalgic
complaint without apparent ear diseases to a specialist in
TMD for further evaluation

The effects of drying techniques on the compr-essive strength of gypsum products

Radhwan H Hasan; Kasim Mohammad

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 63-68
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2005.45514

Excess water in set dental stone decreases its strength.
So different methods were used to expel excess water but the
compressive strength may be affected by drying technique.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compressive strength
of two types of set dental stone after air, conventional
oven and microwave drying techniques.
A total of 60 stone specimens (30 specimens made from
Silky Rock stone and 30 Zeta stone) were prepared by the aid
of an acrylic split mold according to ADA Specification No.
25. Specimens were divided into six groups of 10 identical
specimens for each. Then groups were either dried by air,
conventional oven or microwave oven. Using Unconfined
Compression Machine, the specimens were loaded by a cross
head speed of 1 mm/minute till the specimen being fractured.
The load required to fracture the stone specimens was recorded
and analyzed using analysis of variance followed by Duncan’s
Multiple Range Test for the statistical comparisons between
drying techniques at a significance level of p< 0.05, and
Student’s t–test was used to compare between the two stone
The results revealed that high significant differences
were present between the different drying techniques
(p<0.0001) with air dried specimens were significantly stronger
than others and microwave dried specimens were significantly
stronger than conventional oven dried specimens. Silky
Rock (type IV) stone was significantly stronger than Zeta
(type III) stone (p<0.001).
From this study, it could be concluded that the highest
compressive strength can be obtained by air drying of the stone
for 24 hours, while microwave drying technique give better
results than conventional oven drying technique with the
advantage of time saving over the two other drying techniques.

Shear bond strength of posterior comp-osite cores

Jabbar H Kamel; Abdul–Adheem R Al–Mallah; Ahmed H Kharoufa

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 69-74
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2005.45516

This study was designed to evaluate the shear bond strength
(SBS) of posterior composite resin cores to tooth surface using
two dental adhesives and two retentive means.
Thirty extracted permanent molars were used for this purpose.
They were made flat by removing the occlusal one third
using “stone grinding wheal”. Teeth were then randomly divided
into six groups:
Groups I and IV: Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus (SbMP)
and All bond 2 dental adhesives were used for groups I and IV
respectively to adhere composite to the flat tooth surface with no
retentive mean as the control group.
Groups II and V: A circumferential slot was prepared and
composite attached to the tooth using SbMP and All bond 2 for
groups II and V respectively.
Groups III and VI: Four self threading pins were placed
and composite adhered using SbMP and All bond 2 for groups III
and VI respectively.
After storage and thermal cycling, the SBS for each group
was measured using “universal testing machine”.
The results varied according to the retentive mean and dental
adhesive used. Groups with four pins produced the highest SBS
and groups with no retentive mean showed the lowest SBS. Also
the groups using All bond 2 adhesive generally had higher values
when compared with the same groups using SbMP dental adhesive.
Within the limits of this study, it is indicated that when the
highest SBS is to be achieved, then All bond 2 dental adhesive
with pins should be used.

The effect of storage on shear bond strength of three composite resins to dentin

Sabah A Ismail

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 75-82
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2005.45517

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of storage
time on shear bond strength of three composite resin, two
utilize total etch technique and one utilize self etching bonding
One hundred twenty maxillary and mandibular molars
were used in this study. The teeth were prepared by cutting the
occlusal enamel with diamond bur to expose dentin and ground
wet with silicone carbide papers. The specimens were then
divided into three groups and stored in distilled water.
Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus was used in the first group
and a stainless steel round mould, with a central hole of 4
mm in diameter and 2 mm in height was used to build up the
composite Z100. The composite resin was inserted in two increments,
each one was light cured for 40 seconds. This gro-up
is divided into four subgroups each of ten according to the
storage time (one day, fifteen days, three months and six months)
then stored in distilled water accordingly.
The same procedure was repeated in the second and third
groups. The composite used in the second group was Tetric
with Excite bonding agent. In the third group, Definite composite
and its bonding agent Etch and Prime was used.
The bond strength was measured and the data were statistically
analyzed. Z100 composite had the greatest shear bond
strength followed by Tetric and Definite. One day and fifteen
days storage time for all types of composite had greater shear
bond strength than the three months and six months storage
In conclusion there was a gradual decrease in bond strength
with increased storage time up to six months irrespective
of the type of composite.

Radiographic and microscopic evaluation of the efficacy of two different techniques in obt-uration of internal resorption defects (An in vitro comparative study)

Ragheed M Basheer

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 83-87
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2005.45518

This study was designed to determine the effectiveness
of lateral compaction and ultrasonic condensation obturation
techniques for internal resorption defects, for which 20 extracted
human maxillary central incisors teeth were selected.
They were instrumented up to size 55 file. Their roots were
sectioned transversely 6 mm from the apex and hemicircular
cavities were prepared in both sections using #6 round bur.
The sections were glued back together using cyanoacrylate
thus obtaining root canal with cavities simulating internal resorption.
The teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups of 10
teeth each. The following obturation techniques were evaluated:
Lateral compaction (Group I), and ultrasonic condensation
(Group II). Ultrasonic condensation gave good results.
Obturated internal resoption defects were filled mainly with
gutta percha. Statistical analysis showed that there was significant
difference between Groups I and II. Results with lateral
condensation were inferior compared to ultrasonic condensation
technique for obturation of simulated internal resorption
defects Therefore, the latter technique is recommended to be
used to obturate the defects of internal resorption defects in
clinical practice.

Salivary calcium concentration in patients with high incidence of calculus formation

Shatha Hassan; Tahani Al–Sandook

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 88-90
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2005.45519

Salivary calcium level was determined in this study in
individuals with good oral hygiene who have no repetitive history
of calculus accumulation, and in individuals with a history
of repetitive calculus formation whether subgingival or
supragingival in spite of their attempts in controlling their
oral hygiene. Salivary calcium concentration was significantly
higher in the second group. Moreover, salivary calcium concentration
in this study varied according to age. It is advisable
to use alkaline mouthwashes and intensive good oral hygiene
to control their calculus formation

Prevalence of Candida albicans in patients using fixed orthodontic appliances after the use of peppermint

Ghada Abdul–Rahman; Zaid B Al–Dewachi; Alaa D Al–Dawoody

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 91-96
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2005.45520

This study was conducted to evaluate the antifungal effect
of peppermint extract as mouth rinse during orthodontic treatment.
Thirty patients (11 males and 19 females) who wear orthodontic
appliances and instructed to use chlorhexidine as
mouth rinse (8 patients); Mentha piperita extract (10 patients)
or left to care of their teeth without any mouth rinse (12 patients);
mean number of Candida albicans colonies recovered
from anterior surface at three intervals (Time 0: Before wearing
the appliance; time 1: After 7 days and time 2: After 1
month) was 48.8, 144.3, 158.9 for the control group; 132.9,
125.4, 147.9 for the peppermint group and 72, 105.8 and
130.8 for the chlorhexidine group.
The mean number of Candida albicans colonies from
the posterior surface at the different intervals was 87.4, 136.8,
159.5; 121.3, 84, 34.6 and 78.5, 91.25, 91 for control, peppermint
and chlorhexidine groups respectively. The use of the
peppermint extract decreases the number of Candida albicans
significantly at the posterior surfaces