Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Volume 1, Issue 2

Volume 1, Issue 2, Winter and Spring 2005, Page 97-191

The effects of type of tooth and the placement site of electrode on the electrical pulp testing of the anterior teeth

Talal H Al; Salman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 97-102

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of type of
the tooth and the placement site of electrode on electrical pulp
testing of the anterior teeth. Twenty persons were participated
in this study. The six maxillary and mandibular anterior
teeth were checked to evaluate the response threshold to electrical
pulp testing; each tooth was examined at four placement
sites on its labial surface, which are the incisal edge, incisal
third, middle third and the cervical third.
The results showed that the response threshold of the
mandibular anterior teeth was lower than that of the maxillary
anteriors. The canines may respond to the electrical stimulus
in a highest threshold than the lateral incisors and the central
incisors which had the lowest response threshold. Also, this
study showed that the best placement site of electrode was in
the incisal edge of the tooth and the pulp tester reading was
increased as the electrode moved toward the cervical region
of the tooth.

Gingival response to relief and non relief removable orthodontic appliances

Sayagh; Nada M Al; Sayagh; Ghada Dh Al; Dawoody; Alaa D Al

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 103-107

The gingival state of thirty seven young patients (mean
age 11.6 years) wearing simple removable orthodontic appliances
was assessed and followed at monthly intervals for 3
months. For 17 of the patients, intentional relief of the appliance
was carried out in the upper right area. Statistically, the
plaque index levels were similar in both “relief” and “non relief”
groups and reached a similar score at 2 and 3 months.
The gingival index was significantly higher in the “relief” group.

Xerostomia: Analysis among dental patients

Tahani A Al; Sandook; Nuaimy; Karama MT Al

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 108-113

The present study was conducted to estimate the incidence
of xerostomia (dry mouth) among 200 dental patients had
different systemic diseases, including hypertension, diabetes,
cardiovascular (CV) problems, anemia, arthritis and cancer.
Distribution of xerostomia according to the type of systemic
disease, age and sex was analyzed.
In this study, 64% of total patient represent xerostomia,
24.5% of xerostomic cases were males, while 39.5% were females.
Incidence of xerostomia was correlated directly with
age where 16% of xerostomic patients were limited in age
group between 21–40 years, while 48% of xerostomic
patients were limited in the age group between 41–60 years.
The results concluded that systemic disease played role
in development of xerostomia which could be due to underlying
medical condition, or due to their medication intake. Patients
complained from xerostomia were instructed for good
oral hygiene and increase their water intake. In certain cases,
pilocarpine was indicated to relieve their symptoms.

Mesiodistal axial teeth angulations of permanent anterior teeth using postero–anterior cephalometric radiograph

Hamdany; Afrah Kh Al

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 114-120

The present study aimed to determine the mesiodistal axial
angulations of upper and lower permanent anterior teeth in
young Iraqi adults having normal occlusion using postero–anterior
cephalograph. Also to detect the sex difference in the
mesiodistal axial angulations of such teeth.
The sample consisted of 33 young Iraqi adult students,
17 males and 16 females aged 20–23 years old who were having
Class I normal occlusion. Postero–anterior cephalograph
was taken for each subject and was traced to determine the
mesiodistal axial angulation of upper and lower permanent
anterior teeth.
The results revealed that the mean values of mesiodistal
axial teeth angulations in both sexes showed very limited variation.
No significant bilateral differences were found for right
and left sides for both jaws (for males, females and total
From the above results, it could be concluded that no significant
bilateral differences in mesiodistal axial tooth angulations
were found for both jaws, for total sample and for both
sexes. Also, male–female comparison showed no significant
difference in mesiodistal axial teeth angulations and for both

Oral hygiene and gingival health status among teenagers population lived in Al–Rashidiya, Ninevah

Ajrab; May Gh Al

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 121-126

The aim of this study is to evaluate the oral hygiene and
gingival health among teenagers aged 13 to 16 years old living
in Al–Rashidiya in Mosul City.
The sample consisted of 633 students (345 males and
288 females) examined in their schools using plane mirrors
and periodontal probes. Plaque index by Silness and Löe
(1964) and gingival index by Löe and Silness (1963) were used
for detecting plaque and gingival scores respectively.
The results showed that 31.9% and 31.3% of the sample
brush their teeth for males and females respectively while
25.1% and 11.7% of students did not. A very highly significant
difference has been found in mean plaque and gingival scores
between those brushed their teeth and those not in all age
The study revealed that mean plaque score for total males
and females were 1.01, 1.00 for those brush their teeth and
1.32, 1.46 for those not and there is no significant difference
by sex. While the mean gingival score for total males and females
were 1.28, 1.31 for those brush their teeth and 1.63,
1.76 for those not, with no significant difference between sex.
It has been obvious that mean plaque and gingival indices
increased with increasing age of the individual.

The effect of dental educational level in adults (18–25 years old) with crowded teeth on the plaque and gingival conditions

am R Al; Saleem; Saher S Gasgoos; Saad S Gasgoos

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 127-131

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relation
between crowding, plaque and gingival conditions according
to the level of dental education of the Iraqi adults.
The sample was divided primarily into two groups: The
first group was collected from dental students whom dentally
well educated, while the second group was collected from
other population whom dentally non educated (industrialist).
Each group was subdivided into two groups according to the
presence or absence of crowding, so that four groups were
obtained (educated participants with non crowded teeth, educated
persons with crowded teeth, non educated participants
with non crowded teeth and non educated participants with
crowded teeth).
The results of this study indicated that the dental educational
level is positively affecting on the gingival health in both
crowded and normal occlusion. However, regardless of the
level of education, plaque accumulation and gingivitis are significantly
higher in the crowded teeth sample.

Effect of anterior teeth inclination on soft tissue facial profile in Class II division 1 malocclusion

Sarraf; Huda A Al

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 132-139

The purpose of this study was to investigate soft tissue
adaptability to hard tissue; in other words, to evaluate the relation
between the inclination of upper and lower anterior teeth
with the upper and lower lips, and how this relation affect
the soft tissue profile in Class II division 1 malocclusion subject
for both genders (males and females).
The sample of this study comprised lateral cephalograms
from 40 Class II division 1 malocclusion subjects (20 males
and 20 females) aged 18–25 years. Two dental [upper and lower
incisor inclination {the angle formed between the long
axis of the upper central incisor (U1) and the palatal plane
(PP) and the angle formed between the long axis of the lower
central incisor (L1) and the mandibular plane (MP)}] and three
soft tissue [nasolabial (nla), labiomental (lma) and soft tissue
facial convexity (n–sn–pog)] angular measurements were
analyzed. The results showed no significant difference between
males and females concerning the proclination of upper
anterior teeth and the prominency of upper lip, while the females
exhibited more proclined lower anterior teeth and more
protrusive lower lip than males. The males tend to have more
convex facial profile than females

Prevalence and severity of traumatic injury of permanent anterior teeth among 7–15 years old children in Mosul City

Aisha A Qasim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 140-144

The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence
and severity of traumatic dental injuries of permanent anterior
teeth among children in Mosul City, and to find if there is any
variation between age and sex groups.
A sample of 209 children aged 7–15 years old (112 males
and 97 females) was examined using Garcia–Godoy classification
in the diagnosis of traumatic dental injuries.
The results showed that the upper central incisors were
the most commonly injured teeth (60%) followed by the lateral
incisors (35%). No case of injured canine was recorded.
The lower lateral incisors reported the very little average
The results also showed that the most common type of
dental injuries was the simple enamel fracture (43.7%).

Age differences for Class I open bite malocclusion among adolescence (Lateral cephalometric study)

Hind T Jarjees

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 145-153

The purpose of this study is to determine the age differences
for open bite malocclusion concerning facial skeletal
and dentoalveolar height.
The study was carried out on a sample of 50 students (24
males and 26 females) aged 12–15 years with Class I occlusion
selected according to certain criteria among the students of
secondary schools in the center of Mosul City. The sample
was divided into two age groups: 12–13 years old, and 14–15
years old.
Lateral cephalometric radiograph was taken for each subject.
Twenty one cephalometric measurements (nine angular
and twelve linear) and five ratios had been determined. The
data were statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for
Social Sciences.
The results revealed that males showed significant increase
in total posterior facial height, upper posterior facial height
and ramus height with increasing age, while females showed
increase of upper anterior dental height and decrease the
ratio between upper posterior dental height and upper anterior
dental height with increasing age.
Concerning angles, females approved significant increase
of the angle formed by the intersection between occlusal
plane and palatal plane (OP–PP), while males showed a slight
decrease of the angle of palatal plane inclination in relation to
anterior cranial base (SN–PP angle) with increasing age.

Comparison between Tanaka/Johnston and Boston University prediction approaches in a group of Iraqi pupils

Khawla M Awni

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 154-160

The purpose of this study was to compare two mixed dentition
prediction methods that do not require the use of periapical
radiographs of the unerupted permanent lower teeth.
The two compared methods were the Tanaka/Johnston (T/J)
and the Boston University (BU) prediction approaches.
Study casts of 52 children (20 males and 32 females)
were used; those children were selected from primary and secondary
schools located in different areas of Mosul City. All
subjects have normal Class I molar relationship.
The finding indicated that on the average the T/J approach
overestimated the tooth size of the unerupted teeth (mean
+ SD = 1.02 + 1.07 mm). On the other hand, the BU approach
underestimated the tooth size of the unerupted teeth (mean +
SD = –0.2 + 1.07 mm). The findings further indicated that there
were statistically significant correlation between the predicted
and actual tooth size.
The error involved in the use of the prediction equations
was expressed as the standard error of the estimate (SEE).
The present findings indicated that the SEE for T/J prediction
ranged between 0.52–0.63 mm and the corresponding values
for BU equation ranged between 0.45–0.68 mm. Depending
on the stage of dental development; i.e., which deciduous and
permanent teeth are present, the T/J approach can be used
when the only permanent four mandibular incisors have completely
erupted, whereas the BU approach can be used when
all the deciduous (canines and first molars) are still present.

Success rate of apicectomy of anterior and premolar teeth

Mohammed Kh Hasouni; Shehab A Hamad

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 161-167

This study was carried out to assess the success rate of
apicectomy of anterior and premolar teeth. Out of 336 patients,
who had undergone apicectomy in a private practice between
1997–2001, only 256 patients (76.2%) completed the two
years recall visits; which was the minimum time recommended
in this study to judge whether the operation was successful
or not. The age range of the patients was 12–67 years
(mean of 34.7 years), 136 were males and 120 were females.
The overall success rate of apicectomy in this study was
89.1%. Sex of the patient had no bearing on the success rate
(p > 0.05). Highly significant influence of the patient’s age on
the success rate was observed (p < 0.01); the success rate increased
proportionally with increased age. Highly significant
influence of the type of the apicectomised tooth on the success
rate was noted (p < 0.001); upper anterior teeth showed the
highest success rate (92.1%), whereas upper premolars showed
the lowest success rate (77.4%). Periapical condition of the
tooth prior to the operation, preoperative vs postoperative obturation
of the root canal, and orthograde obturation vs retrograde
obturation were not significant factors affecting the success
rate of apicectomy (p > 0.05).

Gagging: A problem in prosthetic dentistry and its medical treatment

Nagham H Kassab; Saffar; Maha T Al

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 168-173

This study was designed to diagnose and treat patients
having gagging reflex whom need prosthetic treatment; patients
in this study were wearing denture or received new one;
those attending Prosthodontic Department/ College of Dentistry/
University of Mosul.
The sample of this study was 243 patients consisting of
167 males and 76 females and their ages ranged between 22–
79 years old. All of them had either single upper, partial or
complete denture excluding from this study all patients who
did not have denture before, because this study directed toward
prosthetic patients only.
A sample, which consists of 243 patients, was divided
into two main groups according to their response to gag reflex.
The first one represented the control group which consisted
of 200 patients, those did not have gagging reflex problem
while the second group which represented those patients who
they suffer from gagging problem when they are wearing or
during denture insertion and consisted of 43 patients: Each
one of them subdivided furthermore into subgroups according
to patient’s medical health status and sex. The second group
(gagging patient) subdivided furthermore into 3 subgroups
according to severity of gag reflex in which according to that,
treatment plan had been made and it consisted of psychological
treatment only for patients with mild and moderate gagging
and medical and psychological treatment for patients with
severe gagging reflex which include metoclopromide and valium
The result of this study demonstrated that those patients
with severe gagging reflex problem reflect difficulties during
prosthetic treatment which required medical and psychological
treatment, which include reassurance of patient with explanation
of steps of prosthetic treatment plan to reduce fear and
anxiety before any prosthesis construction and the response
of those patients to medical treatment was approximately
58.3% to this treatment and it was concluded that any type of
prosthetic treatment in patients with gagging reflex required
medical and psychological treatment plan.

Evaluation of surface roughness of composite according to surface treatment

Sabah A Ismail

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 174-179

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of
various finishing and polishing procedures on the surface roughness
(Ra) of two composite resins: An organically modified
ceramic (Definite) and a micro hybrid (Tetric).
Thirty specimens of each composite resin were fabricated
using a stainless steel mold of 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm
in depth. The composite resin was covered by a Mylar strip
and pressed flat with a microscopic glass slide and light cured.
The specimens for each composite resin were divided into
three groups, each of ten. The specimens in group one received
no treatment, while the specimens in group two and three
were finished with diamond bur. After finishing with diamond
burs group three were polished with Sof–Lex discs.
The surface profile of the specimens was obtained with a
surface profile–testing machine (Profilometer). The roughness
value in micrometer (μm) was recorded as the average Ra.
Results showed higher surface roughness in groups finished
with diamond burs followed by groups finished with diamond
burs and polished with Sof–Lex discs while groups set
against Mylar strip showed the lowest roughness values. The
result revealed no significant difference in surface roughness
values between the two composite resins.

Assessment of mouth opening limitation in myogenic temporomandibular disorder patients

Ahmed A Al; Tuhafi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 180-184

This research was to evaluate a new assessment of mouth
opening limitation in myogenic temporomandibular disorder
(TMD) patients. The suggested assessment was accomplished
by calculating the opening ratio (OR) which depends on
the ratio between maximum comfortable mouth opening and
maximum assisted mouth opening.
There was a remarked significant difference in the OR
between the TMD patients and control groups. There was no
significant relationship between OR with age or sex in both
groups. A significant reversible correlation between OR with
number of tender muscles and temporomandibular joint tenderness
was found.
It could be concluded from this research that the OR has
diagnostic value in TMD patients, but unlike other measures,
as it independent on age and gender.

Evaluation of some adhesive materials for repairing gypsum models

Radhwan H Hasan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 185-191

The aim of this study was to evaluate some adhesive materials
that are used in dentistry for repairing of gypsum cast.
The specimens were prepared with dimensions 121×16×10
mm length, width and thickness, respectively. The total number
of specimens was 96 (48 specimens for dental plaster,
while the other 48 specimens were for dental stone). The length
of each specimen was measured and recorded on its surface,
then the specimens were fractured into two pieces and reattached
together with one of the three adhesive materials, reattachment
was done either immediately (time= 0) or after 4
minutes of adhesive application. These specimens were divided
into six groups for each gypsum product, which involved:
Group 1: Control, unrepaired specimens; group 2: Polycarboxylate
cement, time= 0; group 3: Polyacrylic acid solution,
time= 0; group 4: Polyacrylic acid solution, time= 4 minutes;
group 5: Cyanoacrylate adhesive, time= 0; group 6: Cyanoacrylate
adhesive, time= 4 minutes. The length of each specimen
was measured again and differences in length for each repaired
specimen was measured. Then all specimens were subjected
to the flexure of transverse strength test. Data were analyzed
using analysis of variance and Duncan’s Multiple Range
The results indicated that using of cyanoacrylate adhesive,
time= 0 and polyacrylic acid solution, time = 4 minutes
had significantly higher transverse strength providing maximum
adhesion for each gypsum product. The results of this study
also showed that there were dimensional changes with polycarboxylate
cement adhesive and such changes not observed
with cyanoacrylate and polyacrylic acid solution adhesives.