Oxidative stress and Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms in Dentistry: A Literature Review.
Al-Rafidain Dental Journal,
2022, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 323-331
This review paper aimed to evaluate the effect of oxidative stress in the prevalence of some dental diseases and the role of antioxidants in dentistry. Oxidative stress is a normal phenomenon, present in healthy human body help them to produce energy that they need for their life. During that, the formation of free radicals begins, including both reactive oxygen species "ROS" & also reactive nitrogen species "RNS". These radicals have a role in a many types of signalling pathways that regulate inflammation. Antioxidants constrain the formation of free radicals. Mitochondria, a small cell organelle acts to generate energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate "ATP". It combines oxygen & glucose to form carbon dioxide, water, & ATP. Free radicals result as by-products of this metabolic process & when natural defence apparatuses be unsuccessful, the level of free radicals begins to increase to levels where the capacity of the body is unable to neutralize them entering the body into the state of high oxidative stress, which means greater risk of numerous oral & systemic diseases. Oral tissues are liable to free radical damage in a unique manner due to the presence of mucus membranes that allow rapid absorption of constituents throughout their surfaces. In oral environment, infection of gingiva can produce oxidative stress. The rise in formation of free radicals by oxidative stress results in further destruction of cellular walls and oral tissues. The study results suggested that the use of antioxidants is an adjunct approach to dental therapy may be helpful in controlling the oral health status.
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