Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Current Issue
Volume 20, Issue 1

Volume 20, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2020, Page 1-153


Choice Between Composite and Amalgam Restorations According to Dentists and Patients Perception

Hanan Mahmood; Asaad Abd-alqader; Raya Al-Naimi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 1-17
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.126468.1015

Aims : The aim of the current study was to evaluate dentists and patients choices of type of restorative materials applied in fillings and their knowledge about the mercury content in amalgam restorations. Methods: a cross sectional descriptive study based on two types of questionnaire, one for the dentists(119) and the other specific for the patients (500) were distributed to determine the knowledge and awareness, preference of amalgam and composite restorations. Results: showed that the of awareness of the dentists about the amalgam controversy came from different sources, half of the dentists sample stated amalgam restorations were safe, were as 21% stated it unsafe. Placement of the selected restoration(either type) was influenced by different factors, recall appointments of patients complaining from several complaint was mostly from composite. For patients 67.6 % didn’t have any knowledge about harmful effect of mercury release from amalgam with the majority of the patients stating that they preferred composite or a tooth colored restoration. Conclusion: with in the limitations of this study awareness of safety of dental amalgam among the dentists was low, with a large agreement that postoperative complications were mainly due to composite restorations. For the patients the majority did not know anything about issues related to the mercury content of the amalgam and majority of them favored the placement of composite restoration similar to the color of their teeth.

Kinesiology Tape in Comparison with Submucosal Injection of Dexamethasone in Reducing Pain and Swelling After Surgical Removal of Impacted Lower Wisdom Teeth

Issam Mohammed; Ziad Deleme

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 18-24
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164519

The purposes of the suggested research are to assess the effectiveness of different protocols in decreasing oedema and aching post extraction of third wisdom teeth. Materials and Methods: The research involved thirty patients whom had impacted mandibular wisdom teeth of different local anatomical locations. Kinesiology adhesive tape put for one week only for 15 cases and Dexamethasone 8 mg submucosaly injected directly post operatively for other 15 cases. swelling was calculated by a tape scale means from known points and mean taken also pain evaluated by VAS using ribbon gauge degreed from 1 to 10. Calculations had been applied for the first day of surgical intervention, 3rd day and seventh day. Results: There was no significant statistical differences were documented statistically for oedema readings concerning two study methods on the reading day one, three and seven following the operation, and there were highly significant readings related to pain parameters. Conclusions: Usage of Kinesiology adhesive tape clinically was closely with a same advantageousness with Dexamethasone injection submucosaly in dropping the oedema and pain parameter, although clinically dexamethasone was better in both parameters than Kinesiology tape, so it can be used additionally in contraindicated cases of prescribing steroids for alleviating ache, oedema following to wisdom teeth surgery.

Challenge Skills Criteria for Dental Implants Success in Inferior Alveolar Nerve Lateralization and Transposition

Rawaa Al-Rawee; Bashar Tafeeq; Radhwan Al-Khashab

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 25-35
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164518

Abstract
Objectives: direct the surgeons to solve the problem of insufficient posterior alveolar ridge height for successful dental implants.Materials and Methods: Case series: Four patients underwent inferior alveolar nerve translocation operation with dental implant, One male and 3 females. Intervention and outcome: Cases divided to 2 groups, group A in which surgery done under local anesthesia were the bony windows not involve the mental nerve (the window done distal to mental nerve). Group B underwent surgery under general anesthesia with bony window involve mental nerve. Result: Survival rate of the I.A.N. were 100% with 9 succeed dental implants inserted with the translocation of the nerve. Fixed prosthesis delivered with good satisfaction of these patients. Parasthesia extend between 3 weeks up to 8 weeks with complete recovery after 6 months. Patients followed for 6 years.
Conclusion: IAN Lateralization and Transposition is the most appropriate choice for dental fixture replacement in atrophied posterior mandible rather than other choices as bone augmentation or short implants. Although skill, precise and experience challenges must available in the surgeon for optimal and long term success result. Avoidance of permanent injury to the IAN should be avoided by accurate clinical and radiographical examination. Patient choice for local or general anesthesia has no effect on surgeries itself.

Histological Effects of Cytarabine on Liver and Buccal Mucosa in Mice

Ghasaq dawood; Ghada Taqa; Manar Alnema

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 36-45
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164521

Aims : This study aimed to investigate the histopathological effect of cytarabine drug on liver and buccal mucosa in mice. Materials and Methods: Sixteen male albino mice were randomly assigned to two experimental groups and housed as eight animals /cage as a group.Control Group: was given daily I.P distilled water   for 5 days. Cytarabine Group: was given daily Cytarabine at dose (100mg/kg/ I.P) for 5 days. At the end of experiment, all animals were sacrificed and liver in addition to the  buccal mucosa were excised and placed in 10%  buffered formalin solution for histological preparation and evaluation. Results: histopathological study of cytarabine treatment group showed multiple changes in liver like defused vacuolar swelling with abnormal hepatic cords patterns, congested sinusoids and multiple foci of apoptotic cells while in buccal mucosa sections revealed a severely shrinkaged and atrophied appearance of mucus-salivary glands, vacuolation of the stratified squamous epithelium and interstitial edema. Conclusions: this study concluded the direct cytotoxicity of cytarabine to liver and buccal mucosa. So caution should be taken when administrating the drug to patient with liver or salivary glands dysfunction. 

Histological Effects of Adding Gold to the Eggshell nHA and Seashell nHA on Rabbits Wound Healing

Banan Alhussary; Ghada Taqa; Amer Taqa

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 46-54
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164522

Aims:To evaluate the histological effect of the gold alone and gold with nanohydroxyapitite(nHA ) of  (eggshell and seashell) on healing in the rabbit’s mandibular bone .  Materials and Methods: twelve male rabbit were assigned to form four experimental groups and three animals in each groups, small groove was done in the rabbits mandibular bone: Group 1: control groups (groove was not filled by anything), Group 2: gold alone (groove was filled by gold), Group 3: eggshell nHA with 5% from gold (groove was filled with eggshell nHA with gold 5% ) and Group 4: seashell nHA with gold 5% from (groove was filled with seashell nHA with 5% from gold).Results: Histological study of adding the gold showed increasing in bone healing like space filling and newly formed bone trabeculi and highly number of lacuna  compare with control groups while when adding the gold with nHA (eggshell and seashell) showed more enhancing in bone healing compare  with control and gold alone.  Conclusion: this study concluded that the addition of gold on nHA (eggshell and seashell) was  successfully increasing in bone healing compare with control group.

Effect of Herbal Mouthwash on Salivary pH in Orthodontic Patients

Israa R. Alkasso; Ghada Taqa; Sarmad Al qassar

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 55-62
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164525

Aims: The aims of present study were to analyze herbal mouthwash effects on salivary buffering capacity of orthodontic patients after acidogenic challenge by taking a carbonated beverage (coca cola® soft drink), in comparison with baseline pH and determine the duration of action of this mouthwash at which it will persist to protect teeth enamel and oral mucosa  from acidic pH. Materials and Methods: Ten patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances were included in this study. baseline pH for each patient was detected. Each patient was instructed to take one cup of carbonated beverage (coca cola), the mouth pH was re measured directly after coca cola drinking. The patients were asked to gargle with herbal mouthwash for 5-10 seconds, the saliva pH was re detected for each patient after 0, 5,10,15 minute. Results:  A significant reduction in  salivary pH was found after coca cola drinking (5.47 ± 0.689) was found in comparison with baseline pH (6.65 ± 0.303), salivary pH at 0, 5, 10 and 15 mins from herbal Mouthwash (6.79 ± 0.110),  (6.7 ± 0.115) , (6.58 ± 0.139)  and (6.53 ± 0.188) respectively at  (P value<0.05), while there were no differences among rest pH measurements. Conclusion: application of herbal mouthwash elevated saliva pH directly higher than baseline pH and was effective in enhancing saliva buffering capacity. However, there were no significant differences in pH after taking herbal mouthwash at different times.

Chlorohexidine vs Herbal mouthwash effects on Salivary pH in Orthodontic patients

Israa Alkasso; Ghada Taqa; Sarmad Al qassar

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 63-72
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164523

Aims: This is a comparative study for two different mouthwashes (Herbal mouthwash vs Chlorohexidine mouthwash) on salivary pH in Orthodontic patients after acidogenic challenge by taking a carbonated beverage, compare it with baseline pH and determined the duration of action of mouthwash at which it will persist to protect teeth and oral mucosa from acidic pH. Materials and Methods: Twenty orthodontic patients were involved, 10 patients in each group, after taking one cup of carbonated beverage, they were gargling with one mouthwash for 5-10 seconds, then saliva pH was measuring in 0,5,10,15 minutes after gargling. Results: significant difference in pH after Pepsi drinking (5.47 ± 0.689) in compare with Baseline pH(6.65 ± 0.303), pH after Herbal Mouthwash at 0 time(6.79 ± 0.110),  pH after 5mins(6.7 ± 0.115) from Herbal Mouthwash, pH after 10mins from Herbal Mouthwash (6.58 ± 0.139) and pH after 15mins from herbal mouthwash (6.53 ± 0.188), pH after zero min from gargling with  Chlorohexidine Mouthwash )6.73 ± 0.231(, pH after 5mins from Chlorohexidine Mouthwash (6.59 ± 0.159), pH after 10mins from Chlorohexidine mouthwash   (6.51 ± 0.166)and significant difference in pH after 15mins from Chlorohexidine mouthwash(6.37 ± 0.194) in compare with baseline pH  at  (P<0.05), while there were no significant differences between baseline salivary pH and the other pH measurement. Conclusion: Application both mouthwashes were elevated saliva pH directly higher than baseline pH and both are effective in enhancing saliva buffering capacity.

Anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D3 on chronic gingivitis

Asmaa Thanoon; Faehaa Al-Mashhadane

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 73-82
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164541

Aims: To investigate the effects of vitamin D3 on chronic   gingivitis and to evaluate its effect on Tumor necrosis factor-α and Interleukin-6 in their saliva. Material and Method: Forty patients were classified into two groups: - group 1: (20) chronic gingivitis patients, did not receive any medication (control group), group 2: (20) chronic gingivitis patients (treatment group), received Vitamin D3 1000IU capsule/ day. Scaling and polishing have been carried out for each volunteer to reach the base line for gingival index, oral hygiene index and calculus index. Then these indices were measured for all patients on the next day, after 3 weeks and after 6 weeks in both groups. Five milliliters of unstimulated saliva were collected for measurement of human salivary Tumor necrosis factor-α and Interleukin-6 by ELISA Kits.  Results: significant differences were observed between treatment and control groups throughout study days with significant reduction in oral health indices in 21st and 42nd days of treatment group. Comparisons between the salivary parameters showed significant decreases in Tumor necrosis factor-α and Interleukin-6 levels throughout 1st, 21st and 42nd day in treatment group, while in control group no significant differences were observed for IL-6 but significant increase in levels of TNF α was detected.  Conclusion: Vitamin D3 has beneficial effect during treatment of chronic gingivitis.

Antioxidant Effect of Folic Acid and its Relation to Salivary Proteins and Oral Health

Rawia Al-Basrawi; Faehaa Al-Mashhadane

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 83-94
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164540

Aims: To assay the effect of systemic treatment with folic acid on salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total protein (TP) in relation to oral health indices of patients with chronic gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Forty patients were classified into two groups :- Group 1: (n:20) chronic gingivitis patients, did not receive any medication (control group), Group 2: (n:20) chronic gingivitis patients (treatment group), received 1 mg\day oral tablet of folic acid for 42 days. At the beginning of study, scaling and polishing have been carried out for each volunteer to reach the base line for gingival index and oral hygiene index. In the next day, these indices were measured for all participants , then measured after 21 days then after 42 days from treatment.  At all visits, five milliliters of unstimulated saliva were collected for measurement of salivary TAC and salivary TPby spectrophotometer. Results: the results revealed that there is a significant difference in salivary TAC of treatment group after 6 weeks, no significant difference in salivary TP during study period, no significant difference in gingival index and oral hygiene index between treatment and control group. Conclusions: sub-acute using of systemic folic acid in chronic gingivitis patients improves salivary TAC and decrease salivary TP slightly .
Results: the results revealed that there is significant difference in s. TAC of treatment group after 6 weeks, no significant difference in salivary TP during study period, no significant difference in gingival index and oral hygiene index of treatment group Conclusions: sub-acute using of systemic folic acid in chronic gingivitis patients improves salivary TAC and decrease salivary TP slightly .

CAD-CAM Technology: A literature review

Mohammed Abdulla; Hala Ali; Raghad Jamel

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 95-113
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.164542

Aims: this article focus some of an important aspects related to a CAD/ CAM technology including: applications, designing, construction by the use of computerized controlling machines that developed very fastly in the last two decays. Conclusions: CAD/CAM technology is attained finished different dental restorations through designing and milling processes of a two dimensional or three dimensional models using different ready blocks by numerical controlled machines.

Antioxidant effect of vitamin D-3 and its relation to salivary protein and oral health

Asmaa Thanoon; Faehaa Al-Mashhadane

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 114-124
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.126781.1024

Aims: To investigate the antioxidant effects of vitamin D3 on oral health and to evaluate its effect on total salivary proteins in saliva. Materials and Methods: Forty patients were classified into two groups: Group 1: (20) chronic gingivitis patients, did not receive vitamin D3 (control group), Group 2: (20) chronic gingivitis patients (treatment group), received Vitamin D3 1000IU capsule. Scaling and polishing have been carried out for each volunteer to reach the base line for plaque index, gingival index, oral hygiene index and calculus index. In the next day, these indices were measured for all participants, then measured after 3 weeks then after 6 weeks from treatment.  At the same visits, five milliliters of unstimulated saliva were collected for measurement of total salivary proteins and total antioxidant capacity. Results: there were significant reduction in oral health indices in 21st and 42nd days of the study which mean good response to treatment and improvement in gingival health. Conclusion: Vitamin D3 can be a good adjuvant in periodontal therapyKey words: vitamin D3 , antioxidant, salivary protein, oral health.

Rapid Detection of Candida species Isolated from Denture Stomatitis Patients using Phenotypic methods and Chromogenic agar media

Hayffaa Abdulla; Eman Mustafa

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 125-133
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.126821.1029

Aims: The purpose of this study was Isolation and phenotypic identification of different candida species isolated from denture stomatitis patients. Materials and Methods : Over all 62 isolates of Candida species yielded from 43 patients attending prosthodontic department\College of Dentistry\Mosul university\Dental teaching Hospital. Clinically, the samples processed by traditional methods including culture characteristics, gram staining reaction , germ tube, chlamydospore formation, culture on CHROM agar Candida  , Sabouraud Dextrose agar, urea's test and Carbohydrates fermentation  test. Results: All isolates were accurately diagnosed to the species level by various traditional methods , among the total of 62 Candida species , the predominant type was the Candida albicans which accounted for (46.8%) followed by Candida glabrata (33.9%), Candida tropicalis (17.7%), finally the species Candida krusei accounted for (1.6%). Conclusions: Candida albicans is highly spreading among patients wearing dentures particularly those suffering from denture stomatitis in which  CHROM agar Candida medium is best method for rapid identification  and documentation of different Candida species . 

The Effects of Combining Drill Diameters Bypass, and Implant Bed under Preparation Protocols on Primary Stability of Dental Implant in Low-Density Bones (Experimental Study)

Zaid Bashir; Mohammad Sulaiman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 134-142
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.126765.1023

Aims: The aim of the current study is to compare the impact of using different drilling protocols on the dental implants primary stability inserted in the low-density bones. Materials and Methods: Out of twenty-two, ten oxen ribs were used in this in-vitro study. Using computed tomography (CT) scan, the most proximal three centimeters (cm) of the rib was confirmed to be a low-density bone comparable to human edentulous jaw bones. Forty dental implants were inserted, each rib received four dental implants using four different techniques that are arranged into four study groups:Group (I): includes a number of ten dental implants where the drilling burs and implants have the same size. Fit-size technique (F.G).Group (II): includes a number of ten dental implants where the diameter of the drilling burs is less than the implant diameter. Under-sized technique (U.G) Group (III): includes a number of ten dental implants where the simplified drilling protocol (Drill bypass) (D.G) was used for insertion.Group (IV): includes a number of ten dental implants where combined drilling protocols (C.G) (Undersized U.G+ Drill bypass D.G) were used for insertion. Results: Results revealed a statistically significant difference in the mean of insertion torque values (IT) between combined group (C.G) (65.000 N.cm) and fit-sized group (F.G) (45.0000 N.cm).Concerning Periotest M, a statistically significant difference was found in the mean of (PTV) between combined group (C.G) (-6.4500) and fit-sized group. A statistically highly significant correlation was found between insertion torque values (ITs) and Periotest M values (PTVs). Conclusion: Dental implant insertion in low-density bones using simplified drilling protocol (Drill bypass) (D.G) is better to be combined with undersized implant bed preparation (U.G) to enhance implant primary stability and with less time.Keywords: Kinesiology adhesive tape, Swelling, Pain, Dexamethasone, lower third molar teeth removal.

Role of Multi-Disciplinary Team Clinic in the Management of Orthognathic Patients A Seven Years Review of Orthognathic Surgery

Bashar Tawfeeq; Rawaa Al-Rawee; Younis Saeed; Dina Al-Khashab; Mahmood Ahmed

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 143-153
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.165621

Aims: to evaluate the need for and benefits of Multi-Disciplinary Team (MDT) clinic in treating orthognathic patients. Materials and Methods: a total number of 272 patients were examined in 2 centers in Mosul. The sample divided into 2 groups, first group diagnosed from Feb 2004 till March 2009 without MDT clinic, while second group diagnosed from April 2009 till July 2011 in MDT clinic, and evaluated for their needs and wants to correct functional and esthetic problems, a criteria were applied to all of them to manage the real need for the surgical work. Results: from total patients seeking treatment, first group were 116 patients, 54 patients (46.5%) operated, while the second group were 156 patients, 33 patients (21.1%) operated. Conclusions: need for surgical correction of facial and gnathic deformities is a three handed subject: patient's real complaint, team work decision and medical staff education.