Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Current Issue
Volume 20, Issue 2

Volume 20, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2020, Page 154-307


Effects of Local Application of Hyaluronic Acid on Postoperative Sequelae after Surgical Removal of Impacted Lower Third Molars

Imad Marouf; Atalla Rejab

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 154-164
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.126803.1026

Aims of study: The aims from the current research is to estimate the effectiveness of the application of local hyaluronic acid (HA) gel on pain, facial swelling, and trismus after extraction of impacted mandibular third molars. Materials and Methods: The research included a total of 44 healthy patients between the ages of 18-29 years with asymptomatic impacted lower third molars at time of extraction. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; 0.8% HA was applied to the HA group (n=22) while nothing was applied in the control group (n=22). Patients’ pain levels were assessed at the first, third and seventh postoperative days and the pain scored on a numerical rating scale (NRS). Results: Pain score, facial swelling and trismus were highest on the first postoperative day and decreased gradually in both Control and HA group on the 3rd and 7th postoperative days. There were statistically significant differences in Pain scores between Control and HA groups on the three postoperative days. However, for swelling the difference between the two groups was significant just on the 1st and 3rd postoperative days. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding trismus over the days of review. Conclusions: The results of this study viewed that after surgical removal of impacted teeth HA can produce an analgesic effect and therefore it may have a clinical benefit in reducing postoperative pain and facial swelling.

Effects of Local Application of Platelet Rich Fibrin on Postoperative Sequelae after Surgical Removal of Impacted Lower Third Molars.

Imad Marouf; Atalla Rejab

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 165-176
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.126736.1025

Objectives: The goal of this research was to evaluate the effects of Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) in reducing post-surgical complications as pain, swelling, and trismus after surgical extraction of impacted lower third molars. Methods: A total of 44 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were chosen to take part in this research. Postoperative pain was assessed using a numerical rating scale (NRS). Facial swelling was measured by a modification of tape measure method. To assess trismus, the maximal interincisal mouth opening was measured by using a digital caliper scale (electronic vernier). Results: In the Platelet Rich Fibrin PRF group; the results showed a significant difference of levels of pain experienced (NRS) in the 1st postoperative day in comparison to the control group. In regard to post-operative swelling; a significant decrease in the 3rd postoperative day was observed in comparison to the control group. With regard to trismus; no significant differences between groups regarding interincisal mouth opening was noticed. Conclusions: The application of PRF reduces the severity of the immediate postoperative sequelaes.

In vitro Assessment of Coronal Discoloration from Endodontic Sealers

Makdad Chakmakchi; Chris Rahiotis; Nikolas Kerezoudis; Afrodite Kakaboura

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 177-182
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.166457

Aims: to evaluate the effect of different endodontic sealers on the coronal discoloration of the tooth part. Materials and methods: Forty intact human upper incisors and canines free of caries, restorations and coronal discoloration were used in the study. Black rectangular pieces of adhesive tape, with a round opening of 3 mm in diameter was cut to match the size of colorimeter window, the tape was applied to the middle third of the buccul surface of the tooth to facilitate a means of enamel surface standardization for analysis and was further secured to the teeth crowns with cyanoacrylate glue. A colorimeter (Microcolor, Data Station, DeLange, Braive instruments, Leige, Belgium) according to the CIE-L*a*b* color system was used to evaluate the color of enamel in the coronal part before and after instrumentation and obturation of the teeth, employing a repeated measures design (n=5) per sample. Results: There was no statistically significant difference among the levels of time of different materials (p = 0.095). Sealapex was presented significant differences against control group. Conclusion: The selection of endodontic sealers should be based mainly on other criteria (setting time, microleakage and toxicity) and no on the potent ional staining.

Evaluation of the Effect of Casein Phosphopeptide–Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Mousse versus Natural Raw Fresh Milk on Enamel Surface Roughness After a pH Challenge

Safa Al-Ani; Raya Al-Naimi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 183-194
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127159.1033

Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of CPP−ACP, raw, fresh buffalo milk and cow milk on surface roughness of artificial initial caries lesions. Materials and Methods: 100 sound maxillary first premolar extracted for the purpose of orthodontic treatment had been collected and randomly divided into four groups, in all groups the teeth subjected to pH cycle procedure then treated with: Group1: n(25) deionized water, group2: n(25) CPP−ACP tooth mousse, group3: n(25) raw cow milk, group4: n(25) raw buffalo milk. Enamel surface was assessed by a profilometer  device at a baseline and after demineralization and after remineralization. Results: In all groups, there was a high statistically significant increase in surface roughness after demineralization. And there was a high statistically significant decrease in surface roughness in all groups except deionized water after remineralization, the highest remineralization effect was found in CPP−ACP tooth mousse group followed by buffalo milk and then cow milk.Conclusions: Within the limits of the current study, it was concluded that CPP−ACP tooth mousse, raw fresh buffalo milk and cow milk were effective remineralizing agents which was reflected by decreasing surface roughness of artificial initial caries lesion, but with different potentials, CPP−ACP tooth mousse was the best followed by fresh raw buffalo milk which showed superior results in reducing surface roughness in comparison with fresh raw cow milk.

Uses and Misuses of Antibiotic in Dental Practice. A review.

Faehaa Al-Mashhadane

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 195-204
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127572.1043

Dental antibiotics are commonly used & abused drugs. In dentistry, antibiotic prescriptions are either therapeutic or prophylactic. They are effective against infections owing to their selective toxicity; that is, they can hurt or eradicate microorganism with no harm on the host cells. Much attention has been focused on eliminating the misuse of antibiotics since though appropriate selection of antimicrobial agent & having good knowledge about the susceptibility of the microorganism to a specific antibiotic, the position of the infection & factors related to patients . Full underst&ing of the dentist responsibility in this global health issue needs to identify the causes of the antibiotics usage in dentistry. This study highlights strategy of antibiotic prescription, recognize aspects attributed to the uses & misuses of them by dental patients, & providing insights into the significance of antibiotic indications in the dental field, & promote dental practitioners to review their prescriptions of antibiotics.

Bone Regenerative Potentiality of Nanostructured Biphasic Hydroxyapatite /Tricalcium Phosphate Prepared from Eggshell as a Bone Graft in Vivo

Karrar Zaker; Ziad Deleme; Ammer Taqa

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 205-220
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127182.1034

Aims: to evaluate the biological response to nano sized biphasic hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate synthesized from eggshell. Materials and methods: Egg shell burned in furnace at 1000 C° for 1 hour. The part of resultant powder was treated chemically with phosphoric acid to form HA, other part of heated egg shell treated with nitric oxide and di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate to form TCP then the two products mixed mechanically at ratio 80%/20% (HA/TCP). The mixture turned to nanoparticles via mechanical attrition and sieving membrane and sent for TEM, the resultant material characterization checked by FTIR spectroscopy. Two defects of 2 mm prepared in the femoral bone of 20 rabbits one filled with prepared material (group A) and the other left empty as negative control (group B). Results: greater bone formation was founded in group A where statistically significant. Conclusions: biphasic hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate nano particles synthesized from eggshell is effective in bone regeneration and could be used as bone substitute derived from source of no economic value. 

Densitometric and Histomorphometric Analysis for Testing New Bone Substitutes (BLUE BONE®), a Comparative Study on Rabbits' Femoral Defect

Karrar Zaker; Ziad Deleme; Amer Taqa

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 221-232
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127184.1035

Aims:  to evaluate the osteogenic regeneration ability of new nanometric biphasic hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate (80/20) BLUE BONE. Materials and methods: twenty domestic rabbits were used in the present study with two defects were created in the rabbit's femur, one filled with BLUE BONE material and the other defect were left empty as negative control. Densitometric and histomorphometric analysis measured at 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days. Results: showed positive osteogenic properties of the BLUE BONE due to the osteoconduction properties. Conclusions: this study supports that BCP may have better application prospects for bone repair.

Histological Assessment for Healing of Intraoral Surgical Wounds Produced by Diode Laser 940 nm Versus Surgical Scalpel Blade (An in Vivo study)

Mohammed Sabah; Abdulhameed Aldabagh; Abdulsattar Mahmood

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 233-243
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127185.1037

Aims: The objectives of this study were to compare the wounds healing between two different surgical procedures and to evaluate the efficiency of the diode laser on wound healing after intra-oral incision. Materials and Methods: Experimental study were done on 16 New Zealand rabbits. Two types of wound incision were made in buccal mucosa of each group, each incision was made by using stainless steel scalpel blade NO.15 and other was made by Epic X diode laser. Two rabbits sacrificed of each group at 1st ,3rd ,7th and 14th days after procedures. Results: The histological findings of this study revealed that there was a significant difference for inflammatory cell infiltration in  1st ,3rd , 7th days in two groups, while there was no significant difference at 14th  days period. Granulation tissue formation appeared higher in diode group , while scalpel showed less amount of granulation tissue formation . In re-epithelialization of present study at 1st day all section showed nil scores, re-epithelization of oral mucosa appeared significant difference after three days ,and significant difference also at 7th day between diode and scalpel , no significance differences at 14 days in two groups. Conclusions: Diode laser has many advantages for use particularly in oral surgery , due to a better hemostatic ability, but more tissue damage occurs and more inflammatory cell infiltration in site of incision if compared with group that used of surgical scalpel blade.

Healing Assessment of Oral Mucosal Wounds Using Erbium, Chromium: Yttrium-Scandium-Gallium-Garnet Laser Versus Scalpel Blades

Mohammed Sabah; Abdulhameed Aldabagh; Abdulsattar Mahmood

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 244-256
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127183.1036

Aims : The study aims to compare wound healing histologically and serologically by using two different surgical procedures and to evaluate the efficiency of the Er,Cr:YSGG laser on wound healing after surgical procedures. Materials and Methods : Sixteen New Zealand rabbits were used as experimental animals. The animals were divided into two groups: group I and group II, each group consisted of 8 rabbits. In group I; stainless steel scalpel blade NO.15 was used for making the incision, in group II Er, Cr: YSGG laser was used for making the incision. Two rabbits were sacrificed from each group at the 1st ,3rd ,7th and 14th days after procedures. At the day of sacrifice blood was collected from each rabbit for serum and serological analysis to determine serum level of TNF-α. Results : 1:Histological findings of this study revealed that there was a significant difference in inflammatory cells infiltration at 1st day between the two groups, while there was no significant difference at 3rd  , 7th and 14th day periods. Granulation tissue formation appeared higher in erbium group, while scalpel blade incision showed less amount of granulation tissue formation. In re-epithelialization at 1st day all section shows nil score in both groups, at 3rd day re-epithelization appeared significant difference, and no significance difference at 7th and 14th days between erbium and scalpel blade.
2: Serological findings of this study shows that TNF-α level in serum have no significant differences between two groups at different time periods. Conclusions : Εr,Сr:ҮЅGG laser has numerous benefits for use particularly in oral surgery , due to low inflammatory reaction and less ulceration and smallest damage of the oral mucosal tissue, while  more inflammatory cell infiltration occurs in comparison with group that used surgical scalpel blade.

The Antibacterial Effect of Magnetized Water on Oral Microorganisms

Enas Shihab; Bakar Mahmood; Ghada abdulrahman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 257-264
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.166473

Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of magnetized water as an oral irrigant. Materials and Methods: Samples of magnetized water were prepared using a locally made device at different magnetic strengths; 500, 850, 1500 and 1900 Gauss; four groups of health y individuals  with certain criteria (25 for each group) rinse d their mouth with 10 ml of the magnetized water and two saliva samples; before and after irrigation were collected, transferred to the laboratory for colony counting. Results: significant differences were found between the CFU/ml of oral bacteria from baseline saliva samples and after irrigating with magnetized water with different magnet strengths at p ≤ 0.005. Conclusion : As the good  antibacterial, fresh, cheap , and available; the regular use of magnetized  water was suggested as the irrigant  solution for good oral hygiene.

Molecular Detection of Candida Qlabrata Isolated from Denture Stomatitis Patients

Hayffaa Abdulla; Eman Mustafa

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 265-272
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.166474

Aims: This study aimed to detect and identify Candida glabrata isolated from denture stomatitis patients by using  polymerase chain reaction( PCR). Materials and Methodes :Total of forty three of oral swabs samples were obtained from patients suffering from denture stomatitis attending prosthodontic department\College of Dentistry /Mosul university/ Dental teaching Hospital. Clinically ,62 isolates of Candida spp.  were identified to species level by standard culture methods using Sabouraud Dextrose agar(SDA) , HiCrome™ Candida Differential Agar   followed by microscopic examination, and germ tube test.  DNA  extraction of Candida glabrata from broth cultures was carried out  ,then molecular identification with PCR using  specific primers targeting phospholipase B gene (PLB) were done to confirm C. glabrata  diagnosis. Results: Among 62 isolates of Candida species , the predominant type was the Candida albicans which accounted for 29(46.8%) followed by Candida glabrata  21(33.9%), Candida tropicalis 11(17.7%), finally Candida krusei accounted for only 1 (1.6%) . HiCrome™ Candida Differential Agar  do not easily recognize  Candida spp. Sometimes C. glabrata  was falsely  identified  as C. parapsilosis  on HiCrome™ Candida Differential Agar. The result showed that the PCR products for the specific primer gave bands on agarose gel at the position 404 bp .Conclusion : Candida glabrata is emerging as the second most spreading among the isolates.    Detection of PLB gene using PCR provides a definitive target that could be used for the identification and detection of Candida glabrata. from clinical samples .      
 

Evaluation of Different Zirconia Surface Treatments on their Microhardness

Mohammed Riyadh; Maan Nayif

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 273-282
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.166475

Aims: To investigate the effect of mechanical and chemical surface treatments including (AL2O3 —110µm) and citric acid solution (30%) on the microhardness of zirconia ceramic. Materials and Methods: Twenty four cubic shaped specimens were prepared from partial sintering zirconia ) IPS e.max ZirCAD MT(.Specimens were randomly assigned into three main groups (GI, GII, and GIII) according to the surface treatment methods (n=8).  Group I: zirconia surface left without surface treatment (control), Group II: In this group all specimens were subjected to sandblasting with 110 µm Aluminum oxide particles (Al2O3), while Group III: The surface was treated with citric acid solution 30% for 10 minutes. Force of Vickers microhardness was applied on the intaglio surface of the zirconia specimen at 0.5 kg for 30 seconds. Data were analyzed with one way ANOVA at 5% level of significance.  Results: Sandblasting with AL2O3 110µm significantly increased the Vickers microhardness value of the zirconia surface. Chemical treatment with 30% citric acid did not exhibit any significant changes in comparison to the control group.  Conclusions: Within the limitation of this in vitro study, the mechanical surface treatment of the zirconia surface with AL2O3 improves the surface microhardness.

The Effect of Silver Diamine Fluoride and Fluoride Varnish on Microhardness of Primary Teeth Enamel (An In Vitro Study)

Sura Abdil-nafaa; Aisha Qasim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 283-295
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127447.1039

Aims: This study aims to compare and evaluate the effect of two remineralizing agents:  fluoride varnish and silver diamine fluoride  solution on the surface microhardness of enamel of primary teeth. Materials and methods: A total of (150) primary anterior teeth were used in the study. Enamel blocks were prepared and divided into three groups: Fluoride varnish n(50), silver diamine fluoride n(50) and the control  group of deionized water n(50), then introduced into PH cycle. Microhardness of enamel blocks was measured using Vickers microhardness tester machine (OTTO Wolpert−WERKE GMBH) before and after the PH cycle. Results: There were highly statistically significant differences among study groups after  PH cycle and there were a decreasing in surface microhardness  in  all groups due to the demineralization, but  the least reduction in surface microhardness  belonged to silver diamine group followed by fluoride varnish group. Conclusions: Silver diamine fluoride was significantly better than fluoride varnish in preserving enamel's hardness and resistant to demineralization.

The Effect of Silver Diamine Fluoride and Fluoride Varnish on Roughness of Primary Teeth Enamel (An In Vitro Study)

Sura Abdil-nafaa; Aisha Qasim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 296-307
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127479.1040

Aims: The study aimed to evaluate and compare the effect of fluoride varnish and silver diamine fluoride solution on surface roughness of enamel of primary teeth in vitro study. Materials and methods: A total of (150) primary anterior teeth were used. Enamel blocks were prepared and divided into three groups: Fluoride varnish group n(50), silver diamine fluoride groupn(50), and the control  group of deionized water n(50). PH cycle completed at one day and repeated for 10 days. Specimens were kept in demineralizing solution for 3 hours and remineralizing solution for 20 hours. All specimens were washed in deionized water between solutions and placed in artificial saliva for 30 minutes at the end of the demineralization and remineralization process.  Surface roughness was measured before and after PH cycle. Results: There was no significant difference between groups before PH cycle while at the end of PH cycle, groups showed highly significant difference at p ≤ 0.01. Also, silver diamine fluoride had the lowest mean value for surface roughness followed by varnish group while the maximum increase in surface roughness belonged to the control group of deionized water. Conclusions: Silver diamine fluoride solution was a significantly  better than fluoride varnish in preserving surface characteristics of the enamel of primary dentition.