Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Main Subjects : Conservative Department

An Evaluation of Cytotoxicity of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles with Hydrogen Peroxide Endodontic Irrigant

Saraa Al-Mallah; Ali Al-Naimi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2021.129103.1069

Aims: The aim of this research was to determine the cytotoxic effect of different concentrations of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in combination with hydrogen peroxide ( H2O2) in vitro as a potential endodontic irrigating solution. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity of IONPs at concentrations (8, 4, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.25 mg/ml) with 3% H2O2 were evaluated on cultured Human Dermal Fibroblast  (HDFn) cell line. Cytotoxicity was assessed after 10 minutes of exposure using the Mosmann’s Tetrazolium Toxicity (MTT) assay. Results: Tukey’s test indicated that no significant difference in cell viability was found at lower concentrations (0.2, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml). While at a concentration of 4 and 8 mg/ml, the cell viability was not significantly different from each other whereas, significantly different from previous concentrations. Conclusion: From the gained data, it can be deduced that IONPs+H2O2 had almost no cytotoxic effect on HDFn cell viability at concentrations 0.2, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml, while a moderate decrease of survival has been observed at concentrations 4 and 8  mg/ml.

Interim Restorations in Fixed Prosthodontics: A literature review

Raghad S Jamel; Eman M. Yahya

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 203-219
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2022.133218.1156

Background: Interim or transitional restorations have been demonstrated as critical components in different dental treatments, they designed to enhance the esthetics, functions and protect the oral structures for limited period of time. Aims: This review focuses on several important aspects associated with the interim restorations including: materials, techniques of fabrication, and current trends in the application of interim restorations in fixed prosthodontics. Conclusions: Interim fixed restorations play a specific role in the diagnosis and treatment plan of the dental procedures. They must resemble the function and form of the definite prostheses. Therefore, interim restorations should satisfy the criteria of longevity, marginal adaptation and strength.

Evaluating the Effect of Diode Laser Irradiation on Microhardness of Bleached Enamel: An in Vitro Study

Alaa H. Ali; Abduladheem Raouf sulaiman

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 182-193
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2022.173001

Aims: To investigate the effect of in-office dental bleaching techniques on the microhardness of enamel and the influence of post bleaching diode laser irradiation on the surface microhardness of bleached enamel. Materials and methods: Forty bovine teeth were prepared and then randomly allocated into two equal groups (n=20) according to bleaching technique as follows: CB: Conventional in-office bleaching technique and LB: Laser–assisted in-office bleaching technique. Each group was subdivided into two subgroups (n=10) according to laser irradiation setting as follows: C2: Conventionally bleached followed by diode laser irradiation at 2-Watt laser, C4: Conventionally bleached followed by diode laser irradiation at 4-Watt laser, L2: laser –assisted bleached followed by diode laser irradiation at 2-Watt laser and L4: Laser–assisted bleached followed by diode laser irradiation at 4-Watt laser. Vickers microhardness was assessed three times for all the specimens: before bleaching, 24 hours after bleaching and finally 24 hours after post bleaching diode laser irradiation. Paired samples t- test and independent samples t- test were utilized for statistical analysis. Results: Both bleached groups exhibited a significant decrease in micro harness after bleaching with no statistically significant differences between them. Post bleaching diode laser irradiation at 2Watt and 4Watt resulted in significant increase in microhardness with no significant difference was evident between them. Conclusions: Diode laser irradiation on bleached enamel had a positive influence on surface microhardness of enamel and it may represent a promising post bleaching treatment modality.

Microleakage of Flowable Composite as Class I Restorative Materials

Makdad Chakmakchi; Fanar Aljadwaa; Shaymaa Hassan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 56-65
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2022.129872.1098

Aims: Evaluate the ability of different a bulk-fill flowable composite sealing around class I cavities compared to conventional composite. Materials and Method: Forty upper premolar teeth prepared with an ideal class I, then distributed according to types of composite resin into four groups (n=10): group I= filling with SDR, group II= filling with Sarmco flowable composite resin, group III= filling with Tg flowable composite resin, finally group IV= filling with Valux plus composite resin (as a control) polymerized by LED light cure unit, varnished and placed in 2% methylene blue then sectioned bucco-palatally. The Micro-leakage was determined by stereomicroscope. Results: There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in mean micro-leakage values between SDR (group I) and Saremco (group II) while there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in micro-leakage values between SDR (group I) and Tg (group III) and Valux plus (group IV). Conclusion: SDR can be applied in 4 mm as a lone layer without negative effect on micro-leakage.

Comparative Assessment of Root Canal Sealer’s Apical Sealing Ability

Nur Alalaf; ِِEmad F Alkhalidi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 124-135
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2022.129250.1077

Aims: To compare the apical sealing ability of TotalFill BC, AH Plus Jet, and GuttaFlow Bioseal sealers. Materials and Methods:  Thirty single rooted mandibular premolars were decoronated and standardized at 15mm. The specimens were chemo- mechanically prepared, and randomized into three experimental groups (n =10) according to the root canal sealer tested: TotalFill BC, AH Plus Jet and, GuttaFlow Bioseal. The specimens were filled using single cone technique. The specimens were decalcified, dehydrated, and cleared. The specimens were analyzed by stereomicroscope, and digital images were captured using stereomicroscope attached camera. The apical dye leakage depth was measured and evaluated using four grade scoring system at 10X magnification. The apical micro leakage data among experimental groups were statistically analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and Fisher’s exact test at 5% significance. Results: Statistically, there was no significant difference in apical micro leakage among the experimental root canal sealers. (P> .05) Conclusions: In this study, no experimented root canal sealer had perfect sealing ability. The experimental root canal sealers were similar in their sealing ability at apical area of root canal.

Effect of Different Storage Temperatures on Degree of polymerization of Tetric Evoceram Bulk Fill Composite resin (An in vitro study)

Dalia Ahmed; Manal Sultan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 194-202
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2022.129363.1081

Aims: This study aims to evaluate the effects of different storage temperatures -18°C, 5°C, 23°C and 40°C on degree of conversion of bulk fill composite. Materials and Methods: The tetric evoceram was randomly allocated into four equal treatment groups (n=10/group) according to the storage temperatures: A: 23°C (control), B: 5°C, C: -18°C and D: preheated to 40°C. After the material removal from storage. The forty-disc shape specimens were prepared with 8mm diameter and 4mm thickness all specimens cure with monowave LED light (LEDition light cure). After photoactivation, the specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 24 hours, at 37°C for complete polymerization.  The degree of conversion of the top and bottom surface of composite resin specimens were determined after 24 hours of curing using FTIR-ATR. Results: There was a significant difference in different storage temperatures on degree of conversion.  As the temperature of resin composite increase, the top and bottom degree of conversion of the specimens also increased. Conclusions: The degree of conversion of bulk-fill composite resin increase as the increase of pre-cure temperatures.

Assessment of Apically Extruded Debris after Using Different Endodontic Instrumentation systems.

Saif Nadhim Hassoon

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 1, Pages 113-123
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.129677.1089

Aims: Assess the quantity of apical extruded debris after instrumentation with ProTaper universal files, K3 files, and Wave One reciprocating file. Materials and Methods: Thirty lower premolars were used in this study. Teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups each one contained 10 samples as follow: Group1- Teeth were prepared with ProTaper universal files. Group2- Teeth were prepared with K3 files. Group3- Teeth were prepared with Wave One file. Debris that was apically extruded during canals preparation was collected in the centrifuge tubes, which previously were weighed. Centrifuge tubes were put for 5 days in the incubator with temperature of 70 °C to allow evaporation of moisture. After that centrifuge tubes that contained debris were weighed, and quantity of extruded debris was determined via subtraction the initial weight of centrifuge tube from the final weight of same tube, then collected data was analyzed statistically. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that, ProTaper group showed highest amount of apical extruded debris followed by Wave One group and, K3 group showed least amount of apical extruded debris. The difference between ProTaper group and Wave One group was not significant, but both of them had significant difference with K3 group. Conclusions: Within the limits of the current study, preparation of root canals with K3 files is better than other groups in terms of less extrusion of apical debris.

Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles with Hydrogen Peroxide against Endodontic Enterococcus faecalis

Saraa Al-Mallah; Ali M Al-Naimi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 158-164
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2021.128786.1062

Aims: This study aimed to assess the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) effect of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in combination with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by evaluating its effect against endodontic Enterococcus Faecalis ( E. faecalis) in the planktonic model. Materials and Methods: the tested irrigants groups (IONPs, 3% H2O2, 5.25% NaOCl, IONPs+H2O2) were serially diluted in brain heart infusion broth, and 100 μl of standard microbial suspensions of E. faecalis were added. The results were obtained based on turbidity and growth on selective enterococcus agar plates. Results: IONPs+H2O2 showed to be more effective against E. faecalis than IONPs, 3% H2O2 and 5.25% NaOCl as lower dilutions were required to inhibit the growth of the bacteria. NaOCl exhibited an antibacterial effect equivalent to that of H2O2, while IONPs exhibited a stimulatory growth at the high tested concentration. Conclusions: IONPs+H2O2 showing promissory antibacterial properties as an intracanal irrigating solution to control E. faecalis from the infected root canal.

Effect of Thymol Incorporation on Antibacterial Activity of the Locally Prepared Zinc Oxide-Guaiacol Root Canal Sealer: An in Vitro Study

Fatin S Mohammed; Sawsan Al-jubori

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 270-280
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2021.128787.1061

Aims: This study aimes to prepare a new formula by thymol crystals incorporation into locally prepared zinc oxide-guaiacol root canal sealer and evaluating the antibacterial activity and comparing the results with zinc oxide eugenol-based root canal sealer. Materials and Methods: The addition of thymol crystals at three different concentrations (2%, 5%, and 10%) to improve the antibacterial activity of zinc oxide-guaiacol endodontic sealer was done: 40 Petri plates of Enterococcus agar media were used, each plate with five wells. Petri plates divided into four groups incubation intervals (1, 2, 3, and 7 days) for each type, using agar diffusion test (ADT) with 0.5 McFarland turbidity standards and statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics, a one-way ANOVA test, and Duncanʼs Multiple Range Test. Results: The thymol incorporated zinc oxide-guaiacol sealer groups at studied concentrations (2%, 5%, and 10% ) produced bacterial growth inhibition zones persisted at all incubation time intervals at (1, 2, 3, and 7 days) and high significantly at p≤0.01 than that of zinc oxide eugenol based sealer. There is a significant reduction at p≤0.01 in antibacterial efficacy in all incorporation groups at 7 days incubation period, 5% thymol incorporation group with significant largest bacterial growth inhibition zones for all incubation periods. Conclusions: This study concluded that the prepared zinc oxide - guaiacol sealer formulas with three studied thymol crystals concentrations having better antibacterial efficacy than that of zinc oxide eugenol root canal sealer, 5% thymol incorporation formula is the best in antibacterial activity than others.

Effect of Staining and Bleaching on Surface Roughness of Different Nano Hybrid Resin Composite Materials

Zahraa S Abdulwahhab; Emad Farhan Alkhalidi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 42-50
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127506.1042

Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of staining by coffee and In-office bleaching by 30% hydrogen peroxide on surface roughness of two different Nano-Hybrid resin composite materials. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro experimental study, 32disc samples were fabricated from each type of the Nano-Hybrid resin composite materials, each sample measured 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height. The samples for each composite group were then sub-divided randomly into four sub-groups (n=8). In control sub-groups, samples were stored in artificial saliva at 37°C for 1 week. Samples of Staining sub-groups were stored in a coffee solution for 48h at 37°C. Samples of Staining Bleaching sub-groups were stained in a coffee solution for 48 h at 37°C then bleached with 30% H2O2. Samples of Bleaching sub-groups were bleached with 30% H2O2. The surface roughness measurements were taken for all samples of each sub-group; the measurements for control sub-groups considered as baseline data. Results: The surface roughness measurements of all sub-groups for both tested materials didn’t exceed the critical value (Ra< 0.2 μm) with no significant difference among all sub-groups (P >0.05). Conclusion:  Surface roughness of the two tested Nano-Hybrid resin composite materials were neither influenced by coffee staining nor by in-office bleaching with 30% H2O2.  

Surface Roughness Assessment of the Sandblasted and Acid- Etched Zirconia Ceramic

Mohammed Riyadh ALobaide; Maan M Nayif

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 146-157
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2021.128358.1052

Aims: To evaluate the effect of sandblasting with Al2O3 particle and 30% citric acid etching on the roughness of zirconia ceramic. Materials and Methods: Thirty disks were prepared from partial sintered zirconia (IPS e.max ZirCAD MT blank disk, Ivoclar Vivadent; Schaan, Liechtenstein). Specimens were assigned randomly into three groups based on surface treatment techniques (n=10).  Group I zirconia surface was left without surface treatment (control). Group II specimens were subjected to sandblasting with 110 µm Aluminum oxide particles (Al2O3) while the group III surface was treated with citric acid solution 30% for 10 minutes. The surface roughness of the zirconia was investigated using a profilometer. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Duncan’s tests at 5% level of significance.  Results: Sandblasting with AL2O3 110µm significantly increased the surface roughness value of the zirconia surface. Chemical treatment with 30% citric acid did not exhibit any significant changes in comparison to the control group.  Conclusions: Sandblasting with AL2O3 increased zirconia surface roughness but acid etching has no effect.

Evaluation of Different Zirconia Surface Treatments on their Microhardness

Mohammed Riyadh; Maan M. Nayif

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 273-282
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.166475

Aims: To investigate the effect of mechanical and chemical surface treatments including (AL2O3 —110µm) and citric acid solution (30%) on the microhardness of zirconia ceramic. Materials and Methods: Twenty four cubic shaped specimens were prepared from partial sintering zirconia ) IPS e.max ZirCAD MT(.Specimens were randomly assigned into three main groups (GI, GII, and GIII) according to the surface treatment methods (n=8).  Group I: zirconia surface left without surface treatment (control), Group II: In this group all specimens were subjected to sandblasting with 110 µm Aluminum oxide particles (Al2O3), while Group III: The surface was treated with citric acid solution 30% for 10 minutes. Force of Vickers microhardness was applied on the intaglio surface of the zirconia specimen at 0.5 kg for 30 seconds. Data were analyzed with one way ANOVA at 5% level of significance.  Results: Sandblasting with AL2O3 110µm significantly increased the Vickers microhardness value of the zirconia surface. Chemical treatment with 30% citric acid did not exhibit any significant changes in comparison to the control group.  Conclusions: Within the limitation of this in vitro study, the mechanical surface treatment of the zirconia surface with AL2O3 improves the surface microhardness.

Evaluation of Apical Microleakage of Endodontically Treated Teeth Sealed With Three Different Root Canal Sealers

Omar S Rahawi; Manaf B Ahmad; Sabah A Ismail

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 11-19
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2019.126101.1004

Aims: Different materials can be used during endodontic treatment of teeth as a root canal sealer. Thus, this study was done to evaluate the sealing ability of three different types of root canal sealer in the apical part of canals. Materials and Methods: 50 sound human teeth can instrumented by using a rotary ProTaper nickel-titanium files under crown down technique. The samples was divided randomly into 3 groups (n=10), Additionally two groups were used for controls, first group use Endofill sealer ( PD product dentaires SA,Switzerland), and group two used Tagadseal sealer (technical general United kingdom), third group used AH plus sealer (Dentsply, Switzerland). All teeth were obturated using single cone technique with sealers, then the whole root surface layered with two layer of special type of nail varnish except apical 1 mm, then all teeth were placed into 2 % methylene blue dye liquid for one week at 37o C. After that removed from dye liquid, the nail varnish was removed. The positive controls (n=10) were left unfilled and coated as described earlier. Then the teeth was split longitudinally and each half examined under a stereomicroscope with magnification: 10 X. Then using computer software on the photo taken by a digital camera. Analyzing of data was done by One-Way Anova and Duncan,s Test analysis among the means of microleakage of the three types of sealers. All tests were computed at 5% significance level. Results: show statistically significant difference among groups.