Print ISSN: 1812-1217

Online ISSN: 1998-0345

Main Subjects : Pedodontic, Orthodontics and preventive Dentistry Department


Speeding Orthodontics: A Review Article

Nada N Al-Hafidh; Afrah Kh Al Hamdany; Lamiaa A Hasan

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 177-184
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.128952.1067

The request for orthodontic treatment has grown quickly in the last years. One of the most critical issues in orthodontic treatment is how to decrease the duration of orthodontic treatment since the most common complaint of orthodontic patients is prolong the time of treatment which is a huge burden on patients. Orthodontic tooth movement can be enhanced by different methods and techniques. The current study reviewed and summarized the evidence regarding the success of different methods on speeding orthodontic tooth movement.

An Overview on the Applications of Finite Element Analysis in Orthodontic

Ali R Al-Khatib; lamiaa A. Hasan; Nada N Al-Hafidh

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 185-192
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.129173.1074

In the 21st era, technological progressions challenged the dental professional to perform extremely risky and multifaceted procedures more reliably and harmless way using the finite element method (FEM) that can sim-ulate and analyze the dental structures. As orthodontic revolve about the forces so FEM is one of the most accurate tools for the researchers in this ground. This review highlights the use of the finite element method in orthodontics and craniofacial research. This stores the different researches performed by using the finite ele-ment model to study the growth of the cranial structure, biomechanical reaction to orthopedic forces, ortho-dontic tooth movement, orthognathic surgeries application, and orthodontic implants

Bolton’s Ratios for Patients with Different Angle’s Malocclusions Seeking Orthodontic Treatment in Kurdistan Region

Mokhtar M.S Al-Hamidi; Mariam Noaman Jasim; Wurood Jasim Dhayef

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 281-291
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2021.128919.1066

Aims: The study aimed to evaluate the overall and anterior Bolton’s ratio between females and males of the Kurdistan population, and then compare it to Bolton’s original ratio. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of 160 orthodontic models (80 males, 80 females) that randomly selected from the Kurdistan Iraq population for patients seeking orthodontic treatment, ranging in age from 16 to 34 years. After evaluating the width of each tooth separately using digital caliper, anterior and total ratios were calculated by a formula presented by Bolton. Results: The study’s overall Bolton’s ratio was significantly higher for both females and males at 92.54 and 91.73, respectively, when compared to that of Bolton’s original value of 91.3; the anterior Bolton’s ratio was also significantly higher at 79.97 for males & 79.22 for females, when compared to that of Bolton’s original value of 77.2. The high significant difference was observed between the current study and Bolton’s ratios, with p-value of 0.01, whereas no significant gender differences in any malocclusion group have been found. Conclusions: No gender effect on Bolton’s ratios among all Angle’s classification types.

Effect of Different Mouthwashes on Gingival Health of Dental Students

Reaam A Fadhil; Saher S. Gasgoos

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 251-259
DOI: 10.33899/rdenj.2021.129122.1071

Aims: To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of different mouthwashes in decreasing the gingival inflammation. Materials and Methods: The participants were (88) dental students, aged between 18 to 25 years (44 males and 44 females). The students with mild to moderate gingivitis were randomly divided into four groups, 22 Participants for each one. In Group A, participants were advised kin gingival mouthwash, Group B participants used Wisdom daily gum health mouthwashes, Group C participants are given LACALUT aktiv mouthwashes, and KIN B5Gums mouthwash was given to Group D. The students were advised to use 10 ml of given mouthwash for 30 seconds, twice a day, not immediately after tooth brushing (at least 5minutes after tooth brushing), for 14 days. The parameter was recorded for gingival index (GI) at 0 and 14 days. Results: The reduction in the gingival inflammation is highly significant on day 14 (T1) compared to baseline values (T 0). There are highly significant differences among the four types of mouthwashes used for the reduction of gingival inflammation. These results prove that the four mouthwashes used have variable efficiency on gingival inflammation depending on their major active chemical components. Mouthwash C is the most effective one in reducing gingival inflammation. Mouthwash A, mouthwash B and mouthwash D have no significant differences between them. Conclusions: In this study, all the mouthwashes were used showed clinical efficacy in reducing gingival inflammation. The mouthwash LACALUT aktiv is the most effective one.

The Synergistic Effect of Aqueous Extracts of Iraqi Propolis and CPP-ACPF Paste on Enamel Microhardness after Demineralization Challenge.

Mayada Kashmoola; Aisha A. Qasim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 292-306
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2021.128876.1064

Aims: This study endeavors to estimate the synergistic effect of aqueous extracts of propolis on microhardness power of fluoridated CPP-ACP (MI plus) paste after demineralization challenge. Materials and methods: A total of (75) posterior wisdom teeth were used in the study. Enamel blocks were prepared and divided into five groups randomly, the teeth in all groups were subjected to demineralization cycle and then treated with: Sinjar's aqueous extract of propolis (AEP) -MI paste plus cream n. (15), Sulaymaniah's AEP-MI paste plus cream n. (15), Duhok's AEP-MI paste plus cream group n. (15), control positive group of MI paste plus alone n. (15), and control negative group of artificial saliva alone n. (15). Microhardness of enamel blocks was measured using Vickers microhardness tester machine at base line, after demineralization cycle and finally after treatment protocol. Results: Statistically, there were highly significant differences among study groups after demineralization cycle and there was a decrease in surface microhardness in all groups after demineralization, but the least reduction in surface microhardness belonged to mixture of Sulaymaniah's aqueous extract of propolis with MI paste plus followed by MI paste plus alone group after treatment protocol.  Conclusions: Mixture of Sulaymaniah's aqueous extract of propolis with MI paste plus was significantly better than MI past plus alone in preserving enamel's hardness and resisting the demineralization challenge.

Effect of Different Mouthwashes and Text Messages on Plaque Accumulation for Dental Students

Reaam A Fadhil; Saher S. Gasgoos

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 260-269
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2021.129084.1070

Aims: Study and compare the effectiveness of different mouthwashes on dental plaque and assess the efficiency of text messages on the response of participants. Materials and Methods: The study was approved by Research Ethics Committee board (University of Mosul, College of Dentistry, REC reference No. POP/R.10/1/21). The Participants were (88) dental students, aged between 18 to 25 years (44 males and 44 females). Students with mild to moderate gingivitis were randomly divided into four groups, 22Participants for each. In Group A, participants were advised kin gingival mouthwash, Group B participants used Wisdom daily gum health mouthwash, Group C participants were given LACALUT aktiv, and KIN B5Gums was given to Group D. The subjects were advised to use 10ml of mouthwash for 30seconds, twice a day, not immediately after tooth brushing (at least5 minutes after tooth brushing), for 14days. Half of the students in all groups (44students) were motivated on regular intervals by personal text messages, to use mouthwash on regular basis. The parameter was recorded for Plaque index (TQHPI) at day 0 and14.  Results: The reduction in dental plaque is highly significant on day 14(T1) compared to baseline values (T0). There are highly significant differences among the four types of mouthwashes used on the reduction of dental plaque. Mouthwash in Group C and D were significantly more effective than Group A and B. Mouthwash in Group A was significantly more effective than mouthwash in Group B. Group C mouthwash did not differ significantly from Group D nor Group A mouthwash in plaque build-up reduction. Conclusions: The four mouthwashes used has good efficacy in reducing dental plaque and there were differences in efficiency between them. KIN B5Gums and LACALUT aktiv mouthwashes were the most effective. Wisdom daily gum mouthwash was the least effective.

Tensile Bond Strength of Self-adhesive Flowable Composite as Pit and Fissure Sealant Bonded to the Enamel Surface in Comparison with Fissure Sealants (in vitro study)

ibrahim Basheer Badran; Saher Sami

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 135-145
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127668.1045

Aims: The objectives of this study to compare the tensile bond strength (TBS) of self-adhesive Flowable composite with conventional fissure sealants. Materials and Methods : an experimental study was carried out using forty non-carious upper first premolars that were collected of orthodontic extracted teeth. The crowns separated from the roots and  the buccal surface were cleaned and polished to obtain a clean enamel surface. The samples were randomly divided into 4 main groups according to the types of resin material (n:10 for each group). Group I: testing TBS for Vertise Flow, Group II: testing  TBS for Prevent, Group III: testing TBS for Angie, Group IV: testing TBS for Conseal. A translucent plastic tube was fixed  after acid etching application on enamel surface for 15 seconds followed by water rinsed and air dryness, the tube filled incrementally with flowable resin  and fissure  sealant then ready small post screws with twisted orthodontic wire gauge 0.012 inch which placed inside the tube until the serrations of the screws were embedded in the last increment and light-cured. The Samples were stored in the distilled water at room temperature for 24 hours. Tensile bond strength was measured using a universal testing machine (Electronic Elastic Strength Tester GT-C04-2, GESTER, CHINA).The values were statistically analyzed using  one way ANOVA and Duncan tests. Results : A significant difference in the tensile bond strength were observed among all groups (p<0.05). Vertise Flow showed higher tensile bond strength value than fissure sealants followed by Prevent , Angie and Conseal. Conclusions: The tensile bond strength of Vertise Flow better than the fissure sealant due to the presence bond (Optibond) with etchant properties.

Comparison of Tensile Bond Strength Between Fissure Sealants Placed After Rubber Cup Polishing and Air Polishing of Enamel Surface (An in vitro study)

ibrahim Basheer Badran; Saher Sami

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 124-134
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.128036.1048

Aims: The purpose of this study is to compare the tensile bond strength between fissure sealants placed after rubber cup  pumice polishing and air polishing of the enamel surface. Materials and Methods: An experimental study was carried out using 40 non-carious upper first premolars extracted for an orthodontic reason, the crowns were separated from the roots, the teeth were randomly divided into 2 main groups consisting of 20 crowns depending on the sealant material used (Prevent or Angie), the teeth were subdivided into two subgroups of 10 teeth depending upon whether rubber cup with pumice slurry polishing or air polishing. Group Ia: Prevent Rubber cup (PRC). Group Ib : Prevent Air polisher (PAP), Group IIa: Angie Rubber cup (ARC). Group IIb: Angie Air polisher (AAP). Each tooth in this study was etched with a 37% semi-gel phosphoric acid for 15 seconds on the buccal surface, rinsed thoroughly for 20 seconds, and dried with the air stream to get an uniformly white, chalky-similar appearance. A translucent plastic tube was fixed on an etched enamel surface and filled incrementally with a fissure sealant then ready small post screws with twisted orthodontic wire gauge 0.012 inches which placed inside the tube until the serrations of screws were embedded in the last increment and light-cured. Samples were kept in the distilled water at room temperature for 24 hours. Tensile bond strength was measured by using the universal testing machine (GESTER, GT-C04-2, CHINA) and the values were statistically analyzed using Independent sample t-test. Results: A non-significant difference in tensile bond strength was detected between two methods used in the groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: The air polishing method is easy and useful but, there were no significant differences  on the tensile bond strength of material  in comparison with a rubber cup and pumice.

Assessment and Evaluation of Hydrochloric Acid Microabrasion on Enamel and its effect on Microleakage of Anterior Restorations

Raya jasm Al-Naimi; Asaad Mohammed Abd-AlQader; Aisha Akram A Qasim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.128449.1054

Aims: was to evaluate the effect of microabrasion on teeth, to determine the effect of using 2 types of composite resins and influence of storage time on microleakage of composite restorations after microabrasion before making a restoration. Materials and Methods: Fourty premolar teeth extracted were used, the teeth were microabrased and composite restorations were made at certain times after microabrasion according to the different groups of the study, a standard cavity was prepared on the two surfaces of the teeth that were restored with either a microhybrid or nanoceramic composite restoration, the teeth were subjected to thermocycling, and sectioned buccolingually longitudinally . Marginal leakage was evaluated using a dye penetration method. Results: Least microleakage scores were observed when the teeth were restored with out microabrasion, microleakage increased after microabrasion with no signicant difference for the occlusal site for both materials, while a significant difference was seen in favor of Tetric N ceram at the cervical sites. No difference in microleakage scores were observed regardless of the time of restoration after microabrasion, there was no significant difference in microleakage scores depending on the type of the material.
Conclusion: given the limitations of this study, there was an increase in levels of micro-leakage after microabrasion of teeth, regardless of the time of application of the restoration, microleakage was higher in gingival margins in all the groups, and no significant difference in microleakage scores depending on the type of material

Evaluation of the Effect of Casein Phosphopeptide–Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Mousse versus Natural Raw Fresh Milk on Enamel Hardness After a pH Challenge

Safa Ahmed Al-Ani; Raya jasm Al-Naimi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 14-24
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127142.1032

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CPP−ACP, raw fresh buffalo milk and cow milk on the microhardness of artificial initial caries lesions.Materials and Methods: 100 sound maxillary first premolars were collected and randomly divided into four groups, the teeth in all groups were subjected to pH cycling  procedure then treated with: Group1: n(25) deionized water, group2: n(25) CPP−ACP tooth mousse, group3: n(25) fresh  raw cow milk, group4: n(25)fresh raw buffalo milk. Enamel surface was assessed by Vickers microhardness test device at a baseline and after demineralization and after remineralization. Results: In all groups, there were high statistically significant reduction of surface microhardness after demineralization. There were high statistically significant increase in surface microhardness in all groups except deionized water after remineralization, the highest remineralization effect was found in CPP−ACP tooth mousse group followed by  the milk groups that showed encouraging results with  fresh raw buffalo milk  having superior results then fresh raw cow milk.Conclusions: CPP−ACP tooth mousse, raw fresh buffalo milk and cow milk were effective remineralizing agents which were reflected by increasing the surface microhardness of artificial initial caries lesion, but with different abilities, CPP−ACP tooth mousse was the best followed by buffalo milk then cow milk.  
 

The Effect of Silver Diamine Fluoride and Fluoride Varnish on Roughness of Primary Teeth Enamel (An In Vitro Study)

Sura Anwer Abdil-nafaa; Aisha Akram Qasim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 296-307
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127479.1040

Aims: The study aimed to evaluate and compare the effect of fluoride varnish and silver diamine fluoride solution on surface roughness of enamel of primary teeth in vitro study. Materials and methods: A total of (150) primary anterior teeth were used. Enamel blocks were prepared and divided into three groups: Fluoride varnish group n(50), silver diamine fluoride groupn(50), and the control  group of deionized water n(50). PH cycle completed at one day and repeated for 10 days. Specimens were kept in demineralizing solution for 3 hours and remineralizing solution for 20 hours. All specimens were washed in deionized water between solutions and placed in artificial saliva for 30 minutes at the end of the demineralization and remineralization process.  Surface roughness was measured before and after PH cycle. Results: There was no significant difference between groups before PH cycle while at the end of PH cycle, groups showed highly significant difference at p ≤ 0.01. Also, silver diamine fluoride had the lowest mean value for surface roughness followed by varnish group while the maximum increase in surface roughness belonged to the control group of deionized water. Conclusions: Silver diamine fluoride solution was a significantly  better than fluoride varnish in preserving surface characteristics of the enamel of primary dentition.

The Effect of Silver Diamine Fluoride and Fluoride Varnish on Microhardness of Primary Teeth Enamel (An In Vitro Study)

Sura Anwer Abdil-nafaa; Aisha Akram Qasim

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 283-295
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127447.1039

Aims: This study aims to compare and evaluate the effect of two remineralizing agents:  fluoride varnish and silver diamine fluoride  solution on the surface microhardness of enamel of primary teeth. Materials and methods: A total of (150) primary anterior teeth were used in the study. Enamel blocks were prepared and divided into three groups: Fluoride varnish n(50), silver diamine fluoride n(50) and the control  group of deionized water n(50), then introduced into PH cycle. Microhardness of enamel blocks was measured using Vickers microhardness tester machine (OTTO Wolpert−WERKE GMBH) before and after the PH cycle. Results: There were highly statistically significant differences among study groups after  PH cycle and there were a decreasing in surface microhardness  in  all groups due to the demineralization, but  the least reduction in surface microhardness  belonged to silver diamine group followed by fluoride varnish group. Conclusions: Silver diamine fluoride was significantly better than fluoride varnish in preserving enamel's hardness and resistant to demineralization.

Evaluation of the Effect of Casein Phosphopeptide–Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Mousse versus Natural Raw Fresh Milk on Enamel Surface Roughness After a pH Challenge

Safa Ahmed Al-Ani; Raya jasm Al-Naimi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 183-194
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.127159.1033

Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of CPP−ACP, raw, fresh buffalo milk and cow milk on surface roughness of artificial initial caries lesions. Materials and Methods: 100 sound maxillary first premolar extracted for the purpose of orthodontic treatment had been collected and randomly divided into four groups, in all groups the teeth subjected to pH cycle procedure then treated with: Group1: n(25) deionized water, group2: n(25) CPP−ACP tooth mousse, group3: n(25) raw cow milk, group4: n(25) raw buffalo milk. Enamel surface was assessed by a profilometer  device at a baseline and after demineralization and after remineralization. Results: In all groups, there was a high statistically significant increase in surface roughness after demineralization. And there was a high statistically significant decrease in surface roughness in all groups except deionized water after remineralization, the highest remineralization effect was found in CPP−ACP tooth mousse group followed by buffalo milk and then cow milk.Conclusions: Within the limits of the current study, it was concluded that CPP−ACP tooth mousse, raw fresh buffalo milk and cow milk were effective remineralizing agents which was reflected by decreasing surface roughness of artificial initial caries lesion, but with different potentials, CPP−ACP tooth mousse was the best followed by fresh raw buffalo milk which showed superior results in reducing surface roughness in comparison with fresh raw cow milk.

Choice Between Composite and Amalgam Restorations According to Dentists and Patients Perception

Hanan Mahmood; Asaad Mohammed Abd-alqader; Raya jasm Al-Naimi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 1-17
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.126468.1015

Aims : The aim of the current study was to evaluate dentists and patients choices of type of restorative materials applied in fillings and their knowledge about the mercury content in amalgam restorations. Methods: a cross sectional descriptive study based on two types of questionnaire, one for the dentists(119) and the other specific for the patients (500) were distributed to determine the knowledge and awareness, preference of amalgam and composite restorations. Results: showed that the of awareness of the dentists about the amalgam controversy came from different sources, half of the dentists sample stated amalgam restorations were safe, were as 21% stated it unsafe. Placement of the selected restoration(either type) was influenced by different factors, recall appointments of patients complaining from several complaint was mostly from composite. For patients 67.6 % didn’t have any knowledge about harmful effect of mercury release from amalgam with the majority of the patients stating that they preferred composite or a tooth colored restoration. Conclusion: with in the limitations of this study awareness of safety of dental amalgam among the dentists was low, with a large agreement that postoperative complications were mainly due to composite restorations. For the patients the majority did not know anything about issues related to the mercury content of the amalgam and majority of them favored the placement of composite restoration similar to the color of their teeth.

Developing white spot lesion (WSL) in patients with Fixed orthodontic appliance in Erbil city of Iraq

Zana Qadr Omer; Seerwan Ahmed; muhamad saleh

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 52-59
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2020.126381.1011

AIMS: of this cross sectional  study is to specify the occurrence of white spot lesion (WSLs) in patients with orthodontic attachment  in Erbil, Iraq. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 20 subjects (7 male – 13 female) their age ranged between 12-34 years old. During fixed orthodontic treatment each tooth in four quadrants was examined by naked eye to detect the occurrence of WSLs from the 1 month to 6 month of treatment duration. RESULTS: The prevalence of WSL according to age, gender, and duration of the orthodontic treatment. The mean age of male were 19.43 (S.D= 6.37) and the mean age of female were 19.00 (S.D= 7.37) ; but statistically calculated  non- significant (P-value >0.05). In the first visit the mostly affected teeth are upper right canine, upper left canine, and upper left lateral incisor, In second visit the most affected teeth are upper left canine, upper left lateral incisor, and lower right canine. In the third visit the mostly affected teeth are upper left canine, upper left lateral incisor, and lower right canine, In the fourth visit the most affected teeth are upper left canine and upper left lateral incisor. The frequency of WSLs increased with each visit of orthodontic treatment, the maximum occurrence of WSLs was found in the sixth visit (21.25%) followed by fifth visit (21%), fourth visit (19.25%), third visit (16.25%), second visit (13.75%), and finally first visit (7.25%). The mean of all visit equal to 16.45%. . CONCLUSION: 21.25% of patients  in developing WSLs during orthodontic treatments  were more attend in the upper  than lower arch; they occurred most often  on the upper left canine and upper left lateral incisor. There was statistically no significant male and female  difference, females had a 65% of developing WSLs than males 35% (P-value <0.05).Key words: Coenzyme Q10; Wound healing; Wound contraction ratio.

Maxillary Arch Dimensional Changes in the Extraction and Non Extraction Orthodontic Treatment

Nada M Al–Sayagh

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2008, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 26-37
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2008.9047

Aims:To investigate whether extraction status and gender had any significant influence on the maxillaryarch dimensions. Materials and Methods: A sample of 40 orthodontic patients (20 extraction and20 non extraction) were included in this study. Males and females were evenly represented in bothgroups. All patients were treated with fixed edgewise appliances. Dental casts were taken before andafter final orthodontic treatment, fifteen maxillary arch parameters were evaluated at pre – and post –treatment stage and included; dental arch width at the canine, 1st premolar, 2nd premolar, 1st molar (atmesiobuccal and distobuccal cusp tips), arch depth at canine and 1st molar, arch lengths (incisal caninelength, canine molar length and incisal molar length ), and arch perimeter. A paired sample t– test wasused to evaluate the treatment changes in the extraction and non extraction groups and also to comparebetween males and females before treatment and after treatment. Results: Generally, in both genders,most pretreatment arch dimensions were not significantly different between extraction and non extractiongroups, while after treatment the extraction treatment resulted in the reduction in the arch perimeters,arch depth, and arch length. Where as the non extraction group showed a significant increase inmost maxillary arch dimensions. In addition both the extraction and non extraction treatment did notcause narrowing of the dental arch at the canine region. The direction of post treatment changes weresimilar in male and female subjects. However, the magnitude of the post treatment changes in someparameters differed significantly between females and males particularly in the non extraction group.Conclusions: the extraction and non extraction groups showed similar trend in some maxillary dimensionsand different in other dimensions, thus it was concluded that the kind of treatment may affect themaxillary arch dimensions. In addition the non extraction group had a larger number of significantgender differences between females and males than the extraction group

Oral health status and treatment needs of Iraqi and Yemeni dental students (A comparative study)

Faraed D Salman; Aisha A Qasim; Khawla M Saleh

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 46-51
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2005.45510

The aim of this study is to compare oral health status
(dental caries, periodontal disease and treatment needs) of Iraqi
and Yemeni dental students.
The sample included 100 Iraqi dental students and 90
Yemeni dental students of fourth grade, age ranged between
22–23 years old of both sexes. The study revealed that there
was a significant difference in the DMFT between Iraqi and
Yemeni dental students for the total sample at p < 0.05 level,
with significant difference between Iraqi and Yemeni dental
students for both sexes at p < 0.01 level.
The results also revealed that there was no significant difference
in the type of treatment required for the total sample
between females of Iraqi and Yemeni dental students, but
with significant difference in the treatment need between males
of Iraqi and Yemeni dental students. Highest percentage
of treatment need for Iraqi and Yemeni students were for 1
surface restoration.
The highest CPITN code percentage for Iraqi students
was for code 2 (calculus) followed by code 1 with a significant
difference between Iraqi males and females students at
p CPITN code percentage was for code 1 followed by code 2.
There was a significant difference in the total sample between
Iraqi and Yemeni dental students at p require scaling while Yemenis require oral health instruction.

Clinical evaluation of bonded brackets for three composite bonding systems

Hussain A Obaidi

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 52-56
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2005.45512

Bonding the teeth with orthodontic brackets via orthodontic
adhesive is essential stage in orthodontic treatment. But,
still the failure bracket due to orthodontic or functional forces
could be the predominant problem through the orthodontic
treatment, in addition to the enamel fracture; in cases the bracket
failed at the enamel–composite interface completely or
partially (scores 0, 1, 2) as suggested by Artun and Bergland.
This study is a clinically attempt to evaluate the failure–
bracket number and the bracket failure sites, for three orthodontic
composite systems, which were two paste (Concise);
nomix (Right ON) and light cure (Transbond). These adhesives
were used in bonding a stainless steel brackets to the teeth
of adhesive system.
The number of the failed brackets through 18 months of
treatment were recorded and the site of the failed brackets
were observed by magnifying lens (10×) and recorded according
to the Artun and Bergland index.
The results showed that there were no significant differences
of failed brackets at p < 0.05 and 0.01 levels among
these three composite systems, but the Concise adhesive had
the least failure–brackets.
The failure sites of the failed brackets for the three bonding
systems were occurred at scores 2 and 3, while the Concise
system had the highest percentage of score 3 site (80%)
(composite bracket interface).

Effectiveness of educational program on fixed orthodontic appliance treatment on patient’s oral hygiene

Afrah Kh Al–Hamdany; Nada M Al–Sayagh; Ali R Al–Khatib

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal, 2005, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 37-45
DOI: 10.33899/rden.2005.45509

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether
educated dental patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment
showing better oral hygiene than dental patients who are
not educated.
The sample is comprised of 16 orthodontic patients (3
males and 13 females), 11–22 years old chosen randomly among
patients at Department of Pedodontics, Orthodontics and
Preventive Dentistry of College of Dentistry at Mosul University.
The sample is divided equally into 2 groups; the first group
was educated concerning fixed orthodontic treatment in
relation to oral hygiene and given education and instruction to
keep good oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment. The
second group is not educated. Swabs were taken from supra–
gingival plaque of facial surface of upper right and lower left
central incisors, and upper left and lower right first molar teeth;
one before orthodontic treatment and another (4–6 weeks)
later and subjected to bacteriological investigation. Qualitative
data about oral microorganisms were collected and subjected
to statistical analysis.
The results indicated that during treatment records for
both educated and non–educated groups show significant difference
for certain types of microorganisms and at different
locations with the educated group scores the least in comparison
with non–educated group